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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #05594 - סָפַד
1) to wail, lament, mourn
1a1) to wail, lament
1a2) wailers (participle)
1b) (Niphal) to be lamented, be bewailed
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Qal Perfect 3 feminine singular וְסָֽפְדָה consecutive Zechariah 12:12,3plural וְסָֽפְדוּ consecutive 1 Kings 14:13; Zechariah 12:10; Imperfect 3 feminine singular וַתִּסְמֹּד 2 Samuel 11:26,2masculine singular תִּסְמֹּד Ezekiel 24:16,1singular cohortative אֶסְמְּדָה Micah 1:8,3masculine plural יִסְמְּדוּ Jeremiah 6:16 +, etc.; Imperative masculine plural סִפְדוּ 2 Samuel 3:31 2t.; feminine plural סְפֹ֫דְנָה Jeremiah 49:3; Infinitive absolute סָפוֺד Zechariah 7:5; construct סְפוֺד Ecclesiastes 3:4, לִסְמֹּד Genesis 23:2; 1 Kings 13:29, לִסְמּוֺד Jeremiah 16:5; Participle active plural סֹפְדִים Isaiah 32:12, ׳סוֺ Ecclesiastes 12:5; — wail, lament (with loud cries, etc., see Micah 1:8, and compare Dr Amos 5:16), especially for dead, with לְ, 1 Samuel 25:1; 1 Samuel 28:3; 1 Kings 14:13,18; Genesis 23:2 (P) Jeremiah 16:6; Jeremiah 22:18 (twice in verse); Jeremiah 34:5, compare וְאַלתֵּֿלֵךְ לִסְמּוֺד וְאַלתָּֿנֹד לָהֶם Jeremiah 16:5; with עַלֿ over 2 Samuel 1:12; 2 Samuel 11:26; 1 Kings 13:30, compare Zechariah 12:10 (see Zechariah 12:12 below); with לִפְנֵי i.e. marching before (bier) 2 Samuel 3:31 (see Dr); with accusative of congnate meaning with verb Genesis 50:10 (J); absolute 1 Kings 13:29; Ezekiel 24:16 compare Ezekiel 24:23; Ecclesiastes 3:4 (opposed to רקד; compare Psalm 30:12), and participle as substantive Ecclesiastes 12:5 wailers; also, with idea of guilt on part of those wailing, Zechariah 12:12 (compare Zechariah 12:10 above); over calamity, judgment, with עַלֿ Micah 1:8, absolute Jeremiah 4:8 (both + הֵילִיל), Jeremiah 49:3 and (with fasting) Zechariah 7:5; Joel 1:13. — ׳עַלשָֿׁדַיִם סֹפְדִים עַלשְֿׂדֵיחֶֿמֶד וגו Isaiah 32:12 is dubious; Thes Ew De Che and others upon the breasts smiting (?) for the fields, etc., but read probably שָׂדִים (וֺֿת, יִַ֯ם) Ges Comm. (q. v.) Buhl Lex 13Skinner and others: over the fields wailing, over the delightful fields, etc.
Niph`al Imperfect 3 masculine plural לֹא יִסָּֽפְדוּ Jeremiah 16:4 they shall not be bewailed, so Jeremiah 25:33.
שְׂפֹדְנָה Jeremiah 49:3 Masora, < modern editions ׳ס see ספד.
שׂפה (√ of following; compare Late Hebrew = Biblical Hebrew; Assyrian šaptu, lip, edge; so Syriac ; Arabic lip, edge).
סָפַד fut. יִסְפֹּד to beat the breast, as a sign of grief; especially for the dead. Const. absol. Ecclesiastes 3:4, 12:5 Zechariah 7:5, 12:12 followed by לְ of the person whose death is lamented, 1 Kings 14:13; Genesis 23:2 עַל 2 Samuel 11:26; Jeremiah 4:8; Zechariah 12:10 לִפְנֵי 2 Samuel 3:31. It is sometimes so used as to be applied to the voice of the mourners [to wail], Micah 1:8, “I will make a wailing (מִסְפֵּד) like the jackals.” Jeremiah 22:18, “they shall not lament him (saying), Alas! my brother;” Jeremiah 34:5. Still I hold the proper signification to be that of beating, like the Gr. σφαδάζω; and this the LXX. express in several places (κόπτεσθαι). Isaiah 32:12, עַל־שָׁדַיִם סֹפְדִים “they smite upon the breasts” (comp. Lat. pectora, ubera plangere), spoken of women; comp. Nahum 2:8. There can be no difficulty in referring the word סֹפְדִים to women, since they are expressly mentioned, though at a considerable distance before (comp. also verse 11, חִרְדוּ שַׁאֲנַנּוֹת; see Heb. Gram. § 144, note 1).
Niphal, to be mourned for, lamented, Jeremiah 16:4, 25:33.
Derived noun, מִסְפֵּד.