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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #3428 - μοιχαλίς
- an adulteress
- as the intimate alliance of God with the people of Israel was likened to a marriage, those who relapse into idolatry are said to commit adultery or play the harlot
- fig. equiv. to faithless to God, unclean, apostate
(also acc. μοιχαλίν LXX Hosea 3:1), ἡ,
I = cross μοιχάς, Romans 7:3, Hld. 8.9, Cat.Cod.Astr. 8(1).264, etc.; in religious sense, unfaithful to God, Ephesians 4:4 : so as Adj., adulterous, γενεά Matthew 12:39, etc.
II = cross μοιχεία, 2 Peter 2:14.
μοιχαλίς, μοιχαλίδος, ἡ (μοιχός), a word unknown to the earlier writers but found in Plutarch, Heliodorus, others; see Lob. ad Phryn., p. 452; (Winers Grammar, 24); the Sept. for נֹאֶפֶת (Ezekiel 16:38; Ezekiel 23:45) and מְנָאֶפֶת (Hosea 3:1; Proverbs 24:55
b. As the intimate alliance of God with the people of Israel was likened to a marriage, those who relapse into idolatry are said to commit adultery or play the harlot (Ezekiel 16:15ff; 23:43ff, etc.); hence, μοιχαλίς is figuratively equivalent to faithless to God, unclean, apostate: James 4:4 (where cf. Alford); as an adjective (cf. Matthiae, § 429, 4), γενεά ... μοιχαλίς: Matthew 12:39; Matthew 16:4; Mark 8:38. (Cf. Clement of Alexandria, strom. vi. c. 16 § 146, p. 292, 5 edition Sylb.)
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νικάω is found in a legal sense of winning one’s case, as in Romans 3:4, in P Hal I. 1.58 (mid. iii/B.C.) ἐὰν δέ τιν (l. τις) . . . γρ [αψ ]άμενος δίκην ψευδομαρ [τ ]υρίου νικήσηι κτλ., and in relation to games in PSI IV. 364 (B.C. 251–0) γίνωσκε Διονύσιον τὸν ἀδελφὸν νενικηκότα τὸν ἐν Ἱερᾶι νήσωι ἀγῶνα τῶν Πτολεμαιείων, and P Oxy XIV. 1759.4 (letter to an athlete—ii/A.D.) πρὸ [τ ]ῶν ὅλων εὔχομαί σε ὑγιαίνειν [κ ]αὶ νικᾶν πάντοτε. It is very common as an epithet of the Emperors, e.g. P Amh II. 140.11 (A.D. 349) τῶ ]ν πάντα νικών [των ] δεσποτῶν ἡμῶν Ἀγούστων, ";of our all-victorious masters the Augusti"; (Edd.). A good parallel to Romans 12:21 is afforded by Test. xii. patr. Benj. iv. 3 οὗτος τὸ ἀγαθὸν ποιῶν νικᾷ τὸ κακόν.
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