the Week of Proper 21 / Ordinary 26
Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #3366 - μηδέ
- and not, but not, nor, not
1. neg. Particle (cf. οὐδέ): as Conj., and not ( also, but not), nor, connecting two whole clauses, used with the same constructions as μή, μή τι σὺ ταῦτα.. διείρεο μηδὲ μετάλλα Il. 1.550, etc.: without a neg. preceding, 4.302, etc.; τεκνοῦσθαι, μηδ' ἄπαιδα θνῄσκειν A. Ag. 754 (lyr.), cf. Eu. 714, Supp. 409; ὕδατος, μελίσσης, μηδὲ προσφέρειν μέθυ S. OC 481, cf. Th. 7.77.
2. in μηδέ.. μηδέ.. the first μ. may belong to μηδέ A, e.g. Il. 4.303 sq., or to μηδέ B, e.g. Pl. R. 391c; μήτε.. μηδέ Pi. I. 2.45, Pl. Prt. 327d; but μήτε cannot follow μηδέ: — for μηδέ after οὐδέ, v. οὐ A. 11.3. as Adv., joined with a single word or phrase, not even, not either, Il. 21.375, Od. 4.710, etc.; repeated emphatically, μηδ' ὅντινα γαστέρι μήτηρ κοῦρον ἐόντα φέροι μηδ' ὃς φύγοι let not the babe unborn — no let not even it escape, Il. 6.58; τὸ μήποτ' αὖθις μηδ' ἀναστῆναι A. Ag. 569: — for μηδέ τι v. μήτις.
μηδέ (μή, which see, and δέ) (from Homer down), a negative disjunctive conjunction; (cf. Winers Grammar, § 55, 6; Buttmann, § 149, 13);
1. used in continuing a negation or prohibition, but not, and not, neither; preceded by μή — either so that the two negatives have one verb in common: preceded by μή with a participle, Matthew 22:23; Mark 12:24; by μή with a present subjunctive, 1 Corinthians 5:8 (here L marginal reading present indicative); 1 John 3:18; by μή with imperative, Matthew 6:25; Luke 10:4; Luke 12:22; Luke 14:12; 1 John 2:15; by μή with an aorist subjunctive 2 person plural, Matthew 10:9f; by εἰς τό μή, 2 Thessalonians 2:2 L T Tr WH; — or so that μηδέ has its own verb: preceded by ὅς ἐάν (ἄν) μή, Matthew 10:14; Mark 6:11; by ἵνα μή, John 4:15; by ὅπως μή, Luke 16:26; with a participle after μή with a participle, Luke 12:47; 2 Corinthians 4:2; with an imperative after μή with imperative, John 14:27; Romans 6:12; Hebrews 12:5; μηδενί ἐπιτίθει, followed by μηδέ with imperative 1 Timothy 5:22; with 2 person of the aorist subjunctive after μή with 2 person of the aorist subjunctive, Matthew 7:6; Matthew 23:9; Luke 17:23; Colossians 2:21; 1 Peter 3:14; after μηδέ with an aorist subjunctive Mark 8:26 (T reads μή for the first μηδέ, T WH Tr marginal reading omit the second clause); after μηδένα with an aorist subjunctive, Luke 3:14 (Tdf. repeats μηδένα); μηδέ ... μηδέ with 1 person plural present subjunctive, 1 Corinthians 10:8f (see below); παραγγέλλω followed by μή with inf ... μηδέ with an infinitive, Acts 4:18; 1 Timothy 1:4; 1 Timothy 6:17; καλόν τό μή ... μηδέ with an infinitive Romans 14:21; with the genitive absolute after μήπω with the genitive absolute, Romans 9:11; with imperative after εἰς τό μή, 1 Corinthians 10:7; μηδέ is repeated several times in a negative exhortation after εἰς τό μή in 1 Corinthians 10:7-10.
2. not even (Latinne ... quidem): with an infinitive after ἔγραψα, 1 Corinthians 5:11; after ὥστε, Mark 2:2; Mark 3:20 (where R G T badly μήτε (cf. Winers Grammar, 489f (456); Buttmann, pp. 367, 369)); with a present imperative, Ephesians 5:3; 2 Thessalonians 3:10.
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negative particle, related to οὐδέ as μή to οὐ ,
1. as conic., continuing a negation or prohibition, but not, and not, nor: preceded by μή , Matthew 6:25; Matthew 22:29, Mark 12:24, Luke 14:12, al.; ἵνα μή , John 4:15; ὅπως μή , Luke 16:26; μηδέ . . . μηδέ , neither . . . nor, Matthew 10:10, 1 Corinthians 10:8-9.
2. As adv., strengthening a negation, not even: Mark 2:2, 1 Corinthians 5:11, al.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
There are many aspects of this important word which lie outside our Immediate purpose, but its use as a technical term in pagan religion to denote a ";secret";or ";secret doctrine";known only to the initiated, which they are not at liberty to disclose, may be briefly illustrated. Thus from the inscrr. we have OGIS 331.54 (Pergamon—mid. ii/B.C.) διεταξάμεθα δὲ ἀκολούθως τούτοις καὶ περὶ θυσιῶγ καὶ πομπῶγ καὶ μυστηρίων τῶν ἐπιτελουμένωμ πρὸ πόλεως αὐτῶι ἐν τοῖς καθήκουσι καιροῖς καὶ τόποις, ib. 528.13 τοῦ μεγάλου καὶ κοινοῦ τῆς Βειθυ [νίας να ]οῦ τῶν μυστηρίων ἱεροφάντ [ην, ib. 540.21 (end i/A.D.) Ἀτταβοκαοὶ οἱ τῶν τῆς θεοῦ [Matris Magnae] μυστηρίων μύστ [αι ἐτεί ]μησαν τὸν [ἑαυτῶν φίλον καὶ εὐεργέτην, and ib. 721.2 (iv/A.D.) ὁ δᾳδοῦχος τῶν ἁγιωτάτων Ἐλευσῖνι μυστηρίων [Νικαγόρας. In the sepulchral epigram Kaibel 588.4 a priest is described as—ἐκτελέσας μυστήρια πάντοτε σεμνῶς, cf. ib. .7 τὰ βίου συνεχῶς μυστήρια σεμνά, where the adv. συνεχῶς is used for an adj. From the papyri we may cite P Leid Wiii. 42 (ii/iii A.D.) ἄρξαι λέγειν τὴν στήλην καὶ τὸ μυστήριον τοῦ θεοῦ : cf.ii. 12 ἄτερ γὰρ τούτων ὁ (θ)εὸς οὐκ ἐπακούσεται, ἄλλως (ἀ)μυστηρίαστον οὐ παραδέξι (=ε)ται, ";nam sine his deus non exaudiet, alioqui (non) initiatum non admittet"; (Ed.). The word seems to refer lo a material object in P Leid V x. 19 (iii/iv A.D.) δότε οὖν πνεῦμα τῷ ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ κατασκευασμένῳ μυστ [ηρ ]ίῳ. In an interesting love-charm from a Berlin papyrus (P Berol 9909), now edited in Aegyptus iv. (1923), pp. 305–8, the unusual formula .50 κεῖται παρὰ σοὶ τὸ θεῖον μυστήριον occurs, apparently with reference to the fact that some of the hair of the beloved was attached to the papyrus, which had been inserted in the mouth of the mummy (whose νεκυδαίμων was invoked to aid the lover). In an incantation to the Great Deity in P Lond 46.110 (iv/A.D.) ( = 1. p. 68) the words occur—ἐγώ εἰμι Μουσῆς (l. Μωϋσῆς) ὁ προφήτης σου ᾧ παρέδωκας τὰ μυστήριά σου τὰ συντελούμενα Ἰστραήλ. See also the magical P Par 574.2477 (iv/A.D.) διέβαλεν γάρ σου τὰ ἱερὰ μυστήρια ἀνθρώποις εἰς γνῶσιν. Another ex. of the word, which we owe to the courtesy of Dr. Victor Martin, is afforded by an unedited Genevan papyrus, unfortunately mutilated at the most interesting point, where the writer assures his readers that if, in priority to extraneous pleasures (ὑπερόρια ἡδέα), they auspiciously perform the mysteries, things will afterwards turn out well for them—εἰ ] γὰρ ἐπ᾽ ἀγαθοῖς πρότερον τῶν ̣ .[. ο ]υσων τὰ μυστήρια τελέ [σουσι ] ὕ [σ ]τερ [ο ]ν αὐτοῖς συμβαίν [ει. . . . : a sort of pagan equivalent of Matthew 6:33.
The Biblical usage of the word follows different lines and is traced with great fulness by J. A. Robinson Ephesians, p. 234 ff., where in particular it is shown hat in its NT sense a mystery is ";not a thing which must be kept secret. On the contrary it is a secret which God wills to make known and has charged His Apostles to declare to those who have ears to hear it"; (p. 240). So far then as this word is concerned we are not prepared to find any ";intimate"; connexion between Paulinism and the mystery-religions : cf. H. A. A. Kennedy St. Paul and the Mystery-Religions (London, 1913), C. Clemen Der Einfluss der Mysterienreligionen auf das ättests Christentum (Giessen, 1913). and for a different view W. Bousset Kyrios Christos, Göttingen, 1913, p. 125 ff., R. Reitzenstein Die hellenistischen Mysterienreligionen, Leipzig, 1910. Important discussions on the word will be found in E. Hatch Essays on Biblical Greek, Oxford, 1889, p. 57 ff., H. von Soden ZNTW xii (1911), p. 188 ff., and T. B. Foster AJ7 xix. (1915), p. 402 ff. : cf. also S. Cheetham’s Hulsean Lectures on The Mysteries Pagan and Christian, London, 1897. For the μυστήριον κοσμικὸν ἐκκλησίας of Didache xi. II, explained by Harnack on lines of Ephesians 5:32, cf. MGr μυστήριον = ";sacrament,"; used of marriage : see G. F. Abbott in The Nineteenth Century, 1908, p. 653 ff., who shows that the modern wedding week in Macedonia fits most closely the Eleusinian Mysteries.
[Supplemental from 1930 edition]
For a magical use of τὸ θεῖον μυστήριον, see A.D. Nock J. Eg. Arch. xi. (1925), p. 158.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
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Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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