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Bible Lexicons

Old & New Testament Greek Lexical DictionaryGreek Lexicon

Strong's #2447 - ἰός

perhaps from eimi (to go) or hiemi (to send)
Parts of Speech
Noun Masculine
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  1. poison (of animals)
    1. poison of asps is under their lips,
    2. spoken of men given to reviling and calumniating and thereby injuring others
  2. rust
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 1121 ‑ בֵּן (bane);  2430 ‑ חֵילָה (khay‑law');  2534 ‑ חֵמָה (khay‑maw', khay‑maw');  6567 ‑ פָּרַשׁ (paw‑rash');  
Frequency Lists
Verse Results
KJV (3)
Romans 1
James 2
NAS (3)
Romans 1
James 2
HCS (3)
Romans 1
James 2
BSB (3)
Romans 1
James 2
ESV (3)
Romans 1
James 2
WEB (3)
Romans 1
James 2
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions


(A) [ ], , pl. ἰοί, heterocl. ἰά Il. 20.68 (Cypr., acc. to AB 1095):

arrow, ἰὸν ἕηκε Il. 1.48; βλήμενος ἢ ἰῷ ἢ ἔγχεϊ 8.514, cf. A. Pers. 461; ἧκεν κομήτην ἰόν S. Tr. 567. (Cf. Skt. í[snull ] 'arrow'.)


(B) [ ], ,

poison, as of serpents, A. Eu. 478, S. Tr. 771, E. Ion 1015, Plu. 2.562c, etc.; venom of a mad dog, Ruf. Fr. 118; ἰὸς ἀμεμφὴς μελισσῶν, of honey with which snakes fed Iamos, Pi. O. 6.47: metaph., of envy, A. Ag. 834. (Cf. Skt. vi[snull ]ám 'poison', Lat. vîrus.)


(C) [ ], ,

rust on iron, or verdigris on copper and bronze, Sapph. 141 (dub.), Thgn. 451, Pl. R. 609a, Ti. 59c, Theoc. 16.17; ἰ. σιδήρου Dsc. 5.80; ἰ. χαλκοῦ Hp. Mul. 1.75, Dsc. 5.79, Gal. 12.218; patina on bronze statues, ὅπως καθαρὸς ἰοῦ ἔσται ὁ ἀνδριάς SIG 284.15 (Chios, iv B.C.), cf. Plu. 2.395b. (Perh. identical with ἰός B.)

Thayer's Expanded Definition

ἰός, ἰοῦ, (on its very uncertain derivation see Kreussler in Passow, under the word; Curtius, § 591; (Vanicek, p. 969));

1. poison (of animals): ἰός ἀσπίδων ὑπό τά χείλη αὐτῶν, the poison of asps is under their lips, spoken of men given to reviling and calumniating and thereby injuring others, Romans 3:13 (from Psalm 139:3 ()); by the same figure, (γλῶσσα) μεστή ἰοῦ θανατηφόρου, James 3:8; (in Greek writings from Pindar down).

2. rust: James 5:3; (Ezekiel 24:6, 11f; Baruch 6:11, 23 (Epistle Jeremiah 12, 24); Theognis, Theocritus, Plato, Theophrastus, Polybius, Lucian, others).

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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All rights rserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

ἰός , -οῦ , ,

[in LXX: Ezekiel 24:6; Ezekiel 24:11-12 (H2457), Psalms 140:3 (H2534), al.;]

1. an arrow.

2. rust (Ez, l.c.): James 5:3 (cf. MM, Exp., xv).

3. poison: fig., Romans 3:13 (Ps. l.c.), James 3:8.†

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

Syll 587.810 (B.C. 329) σίδηρος καταβεβρωμένος ὑπὸ τοῦ ἰοῦ illustrates the special sense of ";rust,"; found in James 5:3 : cf. ib. 139.15 (iii/B.C.) ὅπως δὲ καθαρὸς [ ]οῦ ἔσται ὁ ἀνδρίας. . . ἐπιμελεῖσθαι τοὺς ἀγορανόμους. The more general sense is seen in P Tebt II. 273.16 (ii/iii A.D.) ε ̣ἰοῦ Κυπρί [ου ] (δραχμὴ) α ̄, similarly .37, in medical prescriptions for the eyes.

As against Grimm’s ";very uncert. deriv."; the word is obviously cognate with the Latin virus (Zend viš–, v̯ša–, skr. višam : see Boisacq, p. 379).


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
ιος ιός ἰὸς ιου ιού ἰοῦ ιούς ios iòs iou ioû
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