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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #2310 - θεμέλιος
- laid down as a foundation, the foundation (of a building, wall, city)
- metaph. the foundations, beginnings, first principals
- of institution or system of truth
I of or for the foundation, λίθοι Ar. Av. 1137; οἰκόπεδα D.S. 5.66: abs., θεμέλιος (sc. λίθος), ὁ, foundation-stone, Arist. Ph. 237b13, Metaph. 1013a5: metaph., τῆς τέχνης θ. Macho ap. Ath. 8.346a; θ. ἀγνοίας Ph. 1.266; οἱ θ. ἐκ παντοίων λίθων ὑπόκεινται the foundations, Th. 1.93; τοὺς θ. ἐκ τῶν λίθων οἰκοδομεῖσθαι Arist. PA 668a19: metaph., προλιπεῖντοὺς προγονικοὺς θ. SIG 888.70(Scaptopara, iii A.D.): also neut. θεμέλιον Arist. APo. 95b37 (s.v.l.), PPetr. 3p.121 (iii B.C.), al.: pl., τὰ θ. Arist. Ph. 200a4, PCair.Zen. 176.71 (iii B.C.),al., Paus. 8.32.1: metaph., τὰ ὑποβληθέντα θ., of the foundations of the world, Epicur. Ephesians 2 p.38U.: gender indeterminate, μὴ ὑποκειμένων.. θ. X. Eq. 1.2; ἐκ τῶν θ. from the foundations, Th. 3.68 (also sg., ἐνέπρησαν [οἰκίαν] ἐκ θεμελίου BGU 909.17 (iv A.D.)): metaph., ἐκθ. ἐσφαλμένοι Plb. 5.93.2, etc.; ἄρδην καὶ ἐκ θ. ἀπόλλυσθαι Hdn. 8.3.2; also ἀνεκτίσθη τὸ τεῖχος ἐκ θεμελείων (sic) Supp.Epigr. 2.480(Kuban, iv A.D.).
II θεμέλια, τά, buildingsites, Ptol. Tetr. 174, cf. Vett.Val. 82.24,al.
III Subst., the fourth τόπος,= ἀντιμεσουράνημα, Herm.Trism. in Cat.Cod.Astr. 8(3).101, cf. 8(4).241.
θεμέλιος, θεμέλιον (θέμα (i. e. thing laid down)), laid down as a foundation, belonging to a foundation (Diodorus 5, 66; θεμέλιοι λίθοι, Aristophanes av. 1137); generally as a substantive, ὁ θεμέλιος (namely, λίθος) (1 Corinthians 3:11; 2 Timothy 2:19; Revelation 21:19), and τό θεμέλιον (rarely so in Greek writings, as (Aristotle, phys. auscult. 2, 9, p. 200a, 4); Pausanias, 8, 32, 1; (others)), the foundation (of a building, wall, city): properly, Luke 6:49; τιθέναι θεμέλιον, Luke 6:48; Luke 14:29; plural οἱ θεμέλιοι (chiefly so in Greek writings), Hebrews 11:10; Revelation 21:14, 19; neuter τό θεμέλια, Acts 16:26 (and often in the Sept.); metaphorically, the foundations, beginnings, first principles, of an institution or system of truth: 1 Corinthians 3:10, 12; the rudiments, first principles, of Christian life and knowledge, Hebrews 6:1 (μετανοίας genitive of apposition (Winer's Grammar, 531 (494))); a course of instruction begun by a teacher, Romans 15:20; Christ is called the θεμέλιος, i. e. faith in him, which is like a foundation laid in the soul on which is built up the fuller and richer knowledge of saving truth, 1 Corinthians 3:11; τῶν ἀποστόλων (genitive of apposition, on account of what follows: ὄντος ... Χριστοῦ (others say genitive of origin, see ἐποικοδομέω; cf. Winer's Grammar, § 30, 1; Meyer or Ellicott at the passage)), of the apostles as preachers of salvation, upon which foundation the Christian church has been built, Ephesians 2:20; a solid and stable spiritual possession, on which resting as on a foundation they may strive to lay hold on eternal life, 1 Timothy 6:19; the church is apparently called θεμέλιος as the foundation of the 'city of God,' 2 Timothy 2:19, cf. 2 Timothy 2:20 and 1 Timothy 3:15. (the Sept. several times also for אַרְמון, a palace, Isaiah 25:2; Jeremiah 6:5; Amos 1:4, etc.)
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θεμέλιος , -ον
(< τίθημι ),
of or for a foundation; as subst., ὁ θ . (sc. λίθος ), a foundation stone, foundation: Luke 6:48-49; Luke 14:29 (but v. Deiss., BS, 123); pl., οἰ θ . (cl.), Hebrews 11:10 Revelation 21:14; Revelation 21:19; neut., τὸ θ . (Arist., Phys., vi, 6, 10, LXX and later writers), Acts 16:26; metaph., Romans 15:20, 1 Corinthians 3:10-12 Ephesians 2:20, 1 Timothy 6:19, 2 Timothy 2:19, Hebrews 6:1.†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
The neut. τὸ θεμέλιον can be seen in P Petr II. 14(3).2 (as completed Introd. p. 30—iii/B.C.) εἰς ? τὸ θεμέλιον ψύξαι, ";for drying the foundation,"; ib. III. 46(4).4 τοῖς τὸ θεμ ̣ε ̣λ ̣ιον ὀρύξασι ε ̄, ";to those who dug the foundation, 5 (drachmae),"; and the plur., as in Acts 16:26 (cf. Proverbs 8:29), in P Strass I. 9.8 (c. A.D. 307 or 352) πηχισμ ̣οῖς καὶ θεμελίοις καὶ τίχεσιν, and P Lond ?121.519 (iii/A.D.) (= I. p. 101) καὶ ἐκεινήθη τῆς γῆς τὰ δ ̄ θεμείλια. In P Magd 27.4 (B.C. 218) βιάζεταί με πλίνθον προσ [ά ]γων καὶ θεμέλιον σκάπτων ὥστε οἰκοδομεῖν, the gender is indeterminable, as in a number of the NT passages. So Chrest. II. 68.11 (A.D. 14) οὓς καὶ ἀνοικοδόμησα ἐπὶ τῶι [ἀρχ ]α [ί ]ωι θεμελίωι, P Lond 991.10 (vi/A.D.) (=III. p. 258) ἀπὸ θεμελίου ἕως ἀέρως, Michel 1185.3 (ii/B.C.) ἐκ θεμελίω. For the LXX usage, see Thackeray Gr. i. p. 154 f., and cf. Moeris p. 185; θεμέλιον καὶ θεμέλια, οὐδετέρως, Ἀττικῶς.
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