the Week of Proper 20 / Ordinary 25
Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #1556 - ἐκδικέω
- to vindicate one's right, do one justice
- to protect, defend, one person from another
- to avenge a thing
- to punish a person for a thing
1. avenge, punish, φόνον Ctes. Fr. 37; παρακοήν 2 Corinthians 10:6; τινάς PGen. 47.17 (iv A.D.); exact vengeance for, τὰ αἵματα τῶν δούλων LXX 2 Samuel 4:8; τὸ αἷμα τὸ ἀναίτιον SIG 1181.12 (Jewish, circ. ii/i B.C.).
2. decide a case, δίκην, ἀγῶνα, Ph. 2.432, POxy. 1020.6 (ii A. D.).
1. avenge or vindicate a person, by taking up his cause, Apollod. 2.5.11, PAmh. 2.134.10 (ii A.D.), Plu. Comp.Ag.Gracch. 5; ἑαυτούς Romans 12:19, etc.; ἐ. τινὰ ἀπό τινος avenge one on another, Luke 18:3 : c.dat., Sch. Ar. Pl. 627: — Pass., LXX Psalms 37:28 (36). 28.
2. act as ἔκδικος 11.3, AJA 18.325 (Sardes, i B. C.), cf. CIG 2824 (Aphrodisias), BCH 23.182 (Pisidia).
III claim, CIG 3488 (Thyatira), Inscr.Perg. 245; σιτία καὶ ποτά Hierocl. in CA 8p.431M. ἐ. τισί make retribution for them, Aesop. 279b.
ἐκδικέω, ἐκδικῶ; future ἐκδικήσω; 1 aorist ἐξεδίκησα; (ἔκδικος, which see); the Sept. for נָקַם, פָּקַד, שָׁפַט;
a. τινα, to vindicate one's right, do one justice (A. V. avenge): Luke 18 (1 Macc. 6:22); τινα ἀπό τίνος, to protect, defend, one person from another, Luke 18:3; ἑαυτόν, to avenge oneself, Romans 12:19.
b. τί, to avenge a thing (i. e. to punish a person for a thing): τήν παρακοήν, 2 Corinthians 10:6; τό haima] τίνος ἀπό or ἐκ τίνος, to demand in punishment the blood of one from another, i. e. to exact of the murderer the penalty of his crime (A. V. avenge one's blood on or at the hand of): Revelation 6:10; Revelation 19:2; see ἐκ, I. 7. (In Greek authors from (Apollod.), Diodorus down.)
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† ἐκδικέω , -ῶ
(< ἔκδικος ),
1. to vindicate: c. acc pers., Luke 18:3; Luke 18:5.
2. to avenge: c. acc pers., ἑαυτούς , Romans 12:19; c. acc rei, παρακοήν , 2 Corinthians 10:6; αἷμα , Revelation 6:10; Revelation 19:2 (Cremer, 203; for exx. from Papyri in both senses, v. MM, Exp., xii).†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
In P Ryl II. 94.12 (A.D. 14–37) the head and the secretary of a guild of weavers become sureties for five of their number, undertaking to produce them whenever required—ἐκδικοῦντες τὰ διὰ τοῦ ὑπομνήματος Πανινούτιος τοῦ Ἀφροδισίου ἐρι (ουργοῦ ?), ";to answer the claims stated in the petition of Paninoutis son of Aphrodisius, wool-worker"; (Edd.). For the meaning ";vindicate"; cf. P Amh II. 134.10 (early ii/A.D.) where Heliodorus is urged to take action on behalf of Peteus, whom certain πρεσβύτεροι had attempted to carry off—ἐκδικῆσαι αὐτὸν ";to vindicate him,"; and ἐντυχεῖν κατά, ";to draw up a petition against,"; the persons concerned : cf. P Strass I. 41.9 (A.D. 250). In P Qxy VII. 1020.6 (A.D. 198–201) the word is used of a judicial decision—εἰ τὴν ἐκ τῆς ἡλικίας ἔχεις β ̣[οήθιαν,] δ ̣ ἡγούμ [ενος ] τοῦ ἔθνους τὸν ἀγῶνα τῆς ἀφέσωες ἐκδικ [ήσει, ";if you can claim the assistance due to immature age, the praefect of the province shall decide the suit for release"; (Ed.) : so P Lond 245.19 (A.D. 343) (= II. p. 272) αὐτοῦ γάρ ἐστιν τὰ τοια [ῦτ ]α τολμῶντες ἐκδικῖν al. It would appear therefore that the thought of ";avenge"; (AV, RV) is not necessarily primary in Luke 18:3 ff., but rather of ";do right to"; and so ";protect"; the wronged party (cf. ExpT xxv. p. 70 f.). The context, however, suggests the stronger sense in the striking Jewish prayer for vengeance for a murdered girl, Syll 816.11, which Deissmann (LAE p. 434) carries back as far as the end of the second or beginning of the first century B.C., where ";the most high God"; is implored—ἵνα ἐγδικήσῃς τὸ αἷμα τὸ ἀναίτιον ζητήσῃς καὶ τὴν ταχίστην, ";that Thou mayst avenge the innocent blood and require it again right speedily"; : cf. Joel 4:21 (MT Joel 3:21) A ἐκδικήσω τὸ αἷμα αὐτῶν. See also P Oxy VI. 937.7 (iii/A.D.) where a brother writes to his sister regarding some wrong that had been done to him—ἐὰν οὖν ζήσω χρόνο ̣ν καὶ ἔλθω εἰς τὴν πατρίδα μου ἐκδικήσω ἐμαυτόν, ";well, if I live and come to my native land I will have my revenge"; (Edd.) : cf. Romans 12:19.
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Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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