the Week of Proper 4 / Ordinary 9
Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #1067 - γέεννα
- Hell is the place of the future punishment call "Gehenna" or "Gehenna of fire". This was originally the valley of Hinnom, south of Jerusalem, where the filth and dead animals of the city were cast out and burned; a fit symbol of the wicked and their future destruction.
γέεννα, ης, ἡ,
Hebr. gé-hinnóm, the valley of Hinnom, which represented the place of future punishment, Matthew 5:22, al.
γηννα (others would accent γηννα, deriving it through the Chaldee. In Mark 9:45 Rec.st γηνα), γηνης (Buttmann, 17 (15)), ἡ, (from הִנֹּם גֵּי, Nehemiah 11:30; more fully בֶּן־הִנֹּם גֵּיא, Joshua 15:8; Joshua 18:16; 2 Chronicles 28:3; Jeremiah 7:32; בְּנֵי־הִנֹּם גֵּי, 2 Kings 23:10 Kethibh; Chaldean גְּהִנָם, the valley of the son of lamentation, or of the sons of lamentation, the valley of lamentation, הִנֹּם being used for נִהֹם lamentation; see Hiller, Onomasticum; cf. Hitzig (and Graf) on Jeremiah 7:31; (Böttcher, De Inferis, i., p. 82ff); accusative to the common opinion הִנֹּם is the name of a man), Gehenna, the name of a valley on the south and east of Jerusalem (yet apparently beginning on the Winer's Grammar, cf. Joshua 15:8; Pressel in Herzog, under the word), which was so called from the cries of the little children who were thrown into the fiery arms of Moloch (which see), i. e. of an idol having the form of a bull. The Jews so abhorred the place after these horrible sacrifices had been abolished by king Josiah (2 Kings 23:10), that they cast into it not only all manner of refuse, but even the dead bodies of animals and of unburied criminals who had been executed. And since fires were always needed to consume the dead bodies, that the air might not become tainted by the putrefaction, it came to pass that the place was called γηννα τοῦ πυρός (this common explanation of the descriptive genitive τοῦ πυρός is found in Rabbi David Kimchi (fl. circa
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(γέενα , Mark 9:45, Rec.), -ης , ἡ ,
(perh. through Aram. גֵּיהִנָּם , from Heb. H1516 H2011, Nehemiah 11:30; H2011־ H1121 H1516, Joshua 18:16; H1516־ H1121 H2011, 2 Kings 23:10; valley of (the son, sons of) lamentation);
[in LXX the nearest approach to γ . is γαίεννα , Joshua 18:16 (Γαὶ Ὁννόμ , A), elsewhere φάραγξ Ὁνόμ (Joshua 15:8, a1.), v. Swete on Mark 9:43;]
Gehenna, a valley W. and S. of Jerusalem, which as the site of fire-worship from the time of Ahaz, was desecrated by Josiah and became a dumping-place for the offal of the city. Later, the name was used as a symbol of the place of future punishment, as in NT: Matthew 5:29-30; Matthew 10:28, Mark 9:43-47, Luke 12:5, James 3:6; γ . τ . πυρός , Matthew 5:22; Matthew 18:19, prob. with ref. to fires of Moloch (DB, ii, 119b); υἱὸς γεέννης , Matthew 23:15; κρίσις γεέννης , Matthew 23:33.†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
This Hellenized form, derived from the Heb. גֵּיהִנֹּם by dropping the m, is one of those ";specific Jewish ideas"; (Thumb Hellen. p. 118) which naturally we cannot illustrate from our sources. We may cite Orac. Sib. I. 103 εἰς γέεναν μαλεροῦ λάβρου πυρὸς ἀκαμάτοιο : the spelling here demanded by the metre is found in Mark 9:47 D, ib. .45 E al.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
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Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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