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The Nuttall Encyclopedia
The finest island of the Indian Archipelago, lying between Sumatra and Bali, with the Indian Ocean on the S. and the Java Sea separating it from Borneo on the N., lies E. and W., traversed by a mountain chain with a rich alluvial plain on the N.; there are many volcanoes; the climate is hot, and on the coast unhealthy; the mountains are densely wooded, and the teak forests are valuable; the plain is fertile; coffee, tea, sugar, indigo, and tobacco are grown and exported; all kinds of manufactured goods, wine, spirits, and provisions are imported; the natives are Malays, more civilised than on neighbouring islands; there are 240,000 Chinese, many Europeans and Arabs; the island is nearly as large as England, and belongs to Holland; the chief towns are Batavia and Samarang, both on the N.
Wood, James, ed. Entry for 'Java'. The Nuttall Encyclopedia. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/nut/j/java.html. Frederick Warne & Co Ltd. London. 1900.