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International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
slan´dẽr (substantive, דּבּה , dibbāh , "slander"; διάβολος , diábolos , "slanderer"; verb רגל , rāghal , "to slink about" as a talebearer, לשׁן , lāshan , "to use the tongue," "to slander"; διαβάλλω , diabállō , "to calumniate," "to slander"; and other words): Slander (etymologically a doublet of "scandal," from OFr. esclandre , Latin scandalum , "stumblingblock") is an accusation maliciously uttered, with the purpose or effect of damaging the reputation of another. As a rule it is a false charge (compare Matthew 5:11 ); but it may be a truth circulated insidiously and with a hostile purpose (e.g. Daniel 3:8 , "brought accusation against," where Septuagint has diaballō , "slander"; Luke 16:1 , the same Greek word). Warnings, condemnations and complaints in reference to this sin are very frequent, both in the Old Testament and New Testament. Mischievous "tale-bearing" or "whispering" is condemned (Leviticus 19:16; Ezekiel 22:9 ). There are repeated warnings against evil-speaking (as in Psalm 34:13; Proverbs 15:28; Ephesians 4:31; Colossians 3:8; James 4:11; 1 Peter 3:10 ), which is the cause of so much strife between man and man (Proverbs 16:27-30 ), and which recoils on the speaker himself to his destruction (Psalm 101:5; Psalm 140:11 ). Especially is false witness, which is "slander carried into a court of justice," to be condemned and punished (Exodus 20:16; Deuteronomy 19:16-21; compare Proverbs 12:17; Proverbs 14:5 , Proverbs 14:25; Proverbs 19:5; Proverbs 21:28; Proverbs 24:28 ). Special cases of slander more than usually mean are when a wife's chastity is falsely impeached by her husband (Deuteronomy 22:13-19 ), and when one slanders a servant to his master (Proverbs 30:10 ). Even a land may be slandered as well as persons (Numbers 14:36 ). Slanderers and backbiters are mentioned in some of Paul's darkest catalogues of evildoers (Romans 1:29 , Romans 1:30; 2 Corinthians 12:20; 2 Timothy 3:3 ). To refrain from slander is an important qualification for citizenship in theocracy (Psalm 15:1 , Psalm 15:3; Psalm 24:3 , Psalm 24:4 ) and for a place in the Christian church (1 Timothy 3:11; Titus 2:3 ). Jesus Himself was the victim of slanders (Matthew 11:19 ) and of false testimony (Matthew 27:63 ). The apostles, too, came in for a full share of it (e.g. Acts 24:5 f; Acts 28:22; 2 Corinthians 6:8 ). In the case of Paul, even his central doctrine of justification was "slanderously reported" as if it encouraged immorality (Romans 3:8 ). The devil (= "the calumniator") is represented as the great accuser of God's people (Revelation 12:10 ), the slanderer par excellence (compare Job 1:9-11; Zechariah 3:1 ). See also CRIMES; PUNISHMENTS .
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Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. Entry for 'Slander'. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/isb/s/slander.html. 1915.