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Bible Encyclopedias

1911 Encyclopedia Britannica

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland-2

The official title, since the ist of January 1801, of the political unity composed of England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland. "Great Britain" was employed as a formal designation from the time of the union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland in 1707. Although the name (which apparently had its origin in Britannia Major, the name given to the island to distinguish it from Britannia Minor or Brittany) had, in earlier times, been often used both by English and by foreign writers, especially for rhetorical and poetical purposes, it was not till after the accession of James I. that it became a recognized part of the royal style. Its adoption was due to the king himself, who was anxious to give expression to the fact that he was sovereign of the undivided island, and not only of England or Scotland. As early as 1559 the Scottish congregation had formally proposed 1 See also Britain; British Empire; England; Ireland; Scotland; Wales; &C.

Year.

Revenue.

Expenditure.

Proportion

of per head.

per head.

s. d.

1861

70,283,674

72,792,059

2 8 io

1871

69,945,220

69,548,539

2 4 5

1881

81,872,354

80,938,990

2 7 I

1891

89,489,112

87,732,855

2 6 2

1901

130,384,684

183,592,264

3 2 10

1902

142,997,999

195,522,213

3 12 II

1903

151, 551, 698

184,483, 708 .

3 I I 6

1904

141,545,597

146,961,136

3 6 2

1905

143,370,404

141,956,497

3 6 4

1906

143,977,575

140,51 1 ,955

3 5 I I

1907

156,537,690

151,812,094

3 6 5

1908

151,578,295

152,292,395

3 5 0

1909

131,696,456

157,944,611

2 18 5

2 See Peerage. 3 See Representation and Parliament.

In separate articles throughout this Encyclopaedia the main subjects of interest in connexion with British institutions are fully dealt with; and it is only necessary here to give such details as are needed to supplement those given under the subjectheading. See Agriculture; Navy (also Ship and Ship-BUILDING); Education; English Finance; English History; Civil Ser Vice; National Debt; Police; Poor Law; &C. A separate section, however, is devoted to the army, the constitution of which in 1910 is described; the history is given under Army.

National Debt (q.v.).-The table on the preceding page shows the position of the national debt at quinquennial intervals during 1891-1910.

Area

A

sq. m.

Population.

1891.

1901.

England and Wales. .

58,324

29,002,525

32,527,843

Scotland

29,796

4, 02 5, 6 47

4,472,103

Ireland

32,531

4,704,750

4,458,775

Islands in the British seas .

302

147,842

150,370

Year.

England and

Wales.

Scotland.

Ireland.

United

Kingdom.

(a)

(b)

(a)

(b)

(a)

(b)

(a)

(b)

1896

2 4 2 ,7 6 4

1 5 . 7

30,270

14-2

23,055

10-2

296,089

15.0

1901

259,400

15 -9

31,387

14.0

22,564

10'2

3 1 3,35 1

15

1

1906

26 9,734

1 5' 6

33, 12 3

14.0

22 ,557

10 '3

3 2 5,4 1 4

14'9

1909

260,2J9

14.6

30,092

12 . 3

22,769

10'4

313,120

13.9

Year.

English and Welsh.

Scottish.

Irish.

Total.

1895

112,538

18,294

54,349

185,181

1898

90,679

15,570

34,395

140,644

1900

102,448

20,472

45,905

168,825

1904

175,733

37,445

58,285

271,435

1905

170,408

41,510

50,159

262,077

1906

219,765

53,162

52,210

325,137

Area and Population.-The United Kingdom has an area of 120,651 sq. m., and at the census of 1891 had a population of 37,732,922 and in 1901 of 41,458,721. If the islands in British seas are included, the area is increased to 120,953 sq. m., and the population to 41,609,091. The main divisions are as follows: Vital Statistics.-The following table institutes a comparison between the birth-rates per thousand of the population in the United Kingdom and certain other countries, at intervals (so far as possible) of five years, adding the figures for other years in specific years when there was a marked fluctuation: The number of marriages (a) and the proportion of persons married per thousand of the population ( b ) are thus shown: Emigration.-The following table shows the number of passengers, distinguishing English and Welsh, Scottish and Irish, who left the United Kingdom for extra-European countries in 1895, 1900 and 1905, and the total for 1909, and in certain other years in which the numbers show marked fluctuations: In 1909 the total number to British dominions was 163,594 and the total number to other extra-European countries was 125,167.

1881.

1886.

1891.

1896.

1901.

1905,

1906.

Russia in Europe

Hungary

Austria

Germany

Japan. .. ... .

Holland

Denmark .

Switzerland

UNITED KINGDOM ... .

47.8

42'9

37.5

37.0

25.6

35.o

32.2

29.8

32.5

(1882,

(1882,

5 0.4)

38.9)

4 6.5

45.6

38.1

37.0

27.3

34.6

32.4

27.8

31.5

(1889,

(1890,

3 0.2)

29.2)

48.8

42'3

38.3

37.0

26.7

. 33'7

31.0

28.2

30.4

(1892,

29.6)

49'7

40.5

38.0

36'3

30.0

32.7

30.5

28.1

29.0

47'9

37.8

36'6

35.7

32.7

32'3

29.7

29.1

28

o

-

-

33'7

33.0

30.6

-

-

27.4

-

-

36.0

-

-

-

30.4

28.5

26.8

England

Scotland

Ireland

33'9

33'7

24.5

32.8

32'9

23.2

(1890,

(1890,

(1890,

30.2)

30.4)

22.3)

31.4

31.2

23

I

(18 94,

(1892,

2 9.9)

22.5)

29.6

3 0

4

23.7

28.5

29'5

22'7

-

-

-

27.1

27.9

23.6

Norway

Sweden

Belgium .

France

30.6

29.1

31

8

24.9

31.2

29.8

29.9

23'9

30.9

28.3

30.0

22.6

30.2

27.2

29.0

22.5

29.6

27.0

29.4

22.0

-

-

-

-

26.5

25.7

25.7

20.6

Occupations.-The following table shows the occupations of the people (excluding children under ten years of age) as The number of births in the United Kingdom in 1909 was 1,146,118, giving a rate per thousand of 25 5. * Not including Finland.

1881.

1886.

1891.

1896.

1901.

1905, 1906.

Denmark.. .

18.3

18.1

20.0

15.7

15.8

- 13.5

Norway. .

17.0

16.2

17.5

15.1

14.9

- 13.7

Sweden.. .

17.7

16.6

16.8

15.6

16. 1

- 14.4

Holland.. .

21.5

21.8

20.7

17'2

17.2

- 14.8

UNITED KINGDOM.

18.7

19.2

20.0

16.9

17. 1

- 15.6

England.. .

18.9

19.5

20.2

17.1

16.9

- 15'4

Scotland.. .

19.3

18.9

20.7

16.6

17.9

- 16.0

Ireland.. .

17.5

17.8

18.4

16.7

17.8

- 17.0

Belgium. .

21 2

21.3

21.2

17.5

17.2

- 16.4

Switzerland. .

22.4

20.7

20

6

17.8

18

o

17.9 -

Germany.. .

25.5

26.2

23.4

20

8

20.7

19.8 -

France. .. .

22.0

22.5

22.9

20.0

20. 1

- 19.9

Japan. .. .

18.7

24.4

21.0

21.4

20.4

22.0 -

Hungary. .

34'4

3 1.7

33.1

28.9

25-4

- 24'8

Austria.. .

30.5

29'5

28

I

26.3

24.0

25.0 -

Russia in Europe*.

33.2

31.2

34'6

32.8

32

1

- -

The death-rate is similarly treated: * Not including Finland.

The deaths in the United Kingdom in 1909 numbered 667,765, the rate per thousand being 14.8.

England and Wales.

Scotland.

Ireland.

Professional .

804,427

101,061

131,035

Domestic .

1,994,197

201,230

219,418

Commercial .

1,858,454

245,715

97,889

Agricultural

1,152,495

237,311

876,062

Industrial. .

7,534,994

1,197,495

639,413

Percentage to total area

Great Britain.

Ireland.

of area-

1890.

1909.

1890.

1909.

Cultivated

57.7

56.6

73.1

70.3

Under grain crops. .

14

I

12.4

7'3

6

i

Under green crops.. .

5'8

5.4

5'8

5'0

Under grasses and other crops .

8.5

7'9

5'9

11-2

In permanent pasture.. .

28.2

3 0.2

53.4

43'1

Description of Minerals.

1900.

1909.

Value, 1909.

Tons.

Tons.

Coal. .. .. .

225,181,300

263,774,312

106,274,900

Iron ore. .. .

14,025,208

1 4,979,979

3,689,777

Clay and shale.. .

14,049,694

14,067,810

1,718,056

Sandstone. .. .

5,019,874

4,600,084

1,339,106

Slate.

585,859

402,184

1,007,013

Limestone (not chalk) .

11 ,9 0 5,477

11,811,122

1,226,967

Igneous rocks. .

4,634,301

6,283,297

1,235,046

Oil shale... .

2,282,221

2,967,057

815,937

Tin ore (dressed)

6,800

8,289

617,376

Salt

1,861,347

1,822,744

548,896

distinguished in five great orders, according to the census of 1901: Agriculture.-The following table illustrates broadly the difference in the position of agriculture in Great Britain and in Ireland: Minerals and Mining.-The mineral production of the United Kingdom reached a total value in 1890 of £100,802,657 and in 1909 of £119,394,486, with a maximum during that period of £160,605,154 in 1900 and a minimum of £ 73,024,066 in 1893. These figures include pig-iron produced from foreign ores. About 73% represents the value of the coal output. The figures for the more important minerals are as follows: Gold ore, manganese ore and uranium ore are produced in small quantities, and the list of minerals worked in the United Kingdom also includes chalk, lead, alum, phosphate of lime, chert and flint, gravel and sand, zinc ore, gypsum, arsenic, copper, barytes, wolfram and strontium sulphate.

Description of

Metal.

1900.

1909.

-

Quantity.

Quantity.

Value (average

market price).

Iron.. .

4,666,942 tons

4,802,163 tons

15,559,253

Tin. .

4,268 „

5,199 ,,

695,546

Lead. .. .

24,364 ,,

22,463 ,,

298,945

Zinc.. .

9,066 „

3,818 „

87,146

Copper.. .

765 ,,

435 ,,

27,162

Gold.. .

14,004 oZ.

1,210' OZ.

4,400

Silver.. .

190,850 „

142,146 „

14,030

Metals were obtained from the ores as follows: The total number of persons employed in and about all the mines of the United Kingdom in 1901 was 839,178, and in 1909 I,126,372.

Coal Mines, &c.

Metalliferous

Mines (a).

Quarries (b).

England. .

606,206

19,561

60,725

Wales. .

137,124

7,333

17,277

Scotland .

114,294

974

12,187

Ireland. .

749

733

4,464

The workers were thus distributed between the three kingdoms and the principality in 1905: The total figures given above include (a) 550 and (b ) 166 workers in the Isle of Man; and the figures quoted for production include that of the isle.

1900.

1909.

England.

Tons.

Tons.

Cumberland

2,022327

2,309,370

Derby

15,243,031

16,869,347

Durham

34,800,719

41,240,612

Gloucester

1,578,386

1,486,526

Lancashire

24,842,208

23,705,387

Leicester

2,106,343

2,661,606

Monmouth

9,818,829

13,204,357

Northumberland

11,514,521

14,013,135

Nottingham

8,626,177

11,106,702

Somerset

1,046, 792

1,140,818

Stafford

14,222,743

13,517,101

Warwick. .. ... .

2,957,490

4,447,978

York `Vales.. .

28,247,249

35,896,623

Carmarthen

1,333,880

1,950,429

Denbigh. .. ... .

2,447,092

2,556,612

Glamorgan

27,686,758

34,461,631

The production of coal in Great Britain, though marked by, fluctuation, has, on the whole, largely increased, and in 1901 the output was 42% greater than that of 1881. The maximum quantity extracted in any one year between 1890 and 1910 was 267,830,962 tons in 1907, and the minimum 164,325,795 in 1893. The maximum estimated value, however, was £121,6 52,596 for the 225,181,300 tons raised in 1900; the value in 1907 being £120,527,378.

In the chief coal-producing counties of England and Wales the quantity raised in 1900 and in 1909 will be found in the table at the foot of preceding column.

Thus it appears that of the coal raised in England the county of Durham contributes about 22%, Yorkshire 17%, Lancashire 16%, Stafford and Derbyshire each about 9%, and Northumberland 7%; while of the coal raised in Wales 85% is contributed by the county of Glamorgan; and that the coal production of England and Wales together constitutes, in quantity and value, 85% of the whole production of the United Kingdom.

Year.

Tons.

Year.

Tons.

1890

30,442,839

1900

46,098,228

18 93

29,031,955

1905

49,359,272

1895

33, 1 0 1 ,45 2

1909

65,694,267

The export of coal greatly increased on the whole during the period 1890-1909. The following table shows this; the figures for 1893 are given as the lowest during the period. The tonnage of coke and patent fuel is included in the totals: The chief receiving countries are, in order, Germany, France, Italy, Sweden, Spain, Russian Empire, Denmark, Egypt, Holland, Argentina, Norway and Brazil.

The annual output of iron ore in the United Kingdom has on the whole decreased since 1882. In that year it reached a maximum of 18,031,957 tons; it then fell off to 13,098,341 tons in 1887, rose in the two years following to nearly 15,000,000, fell to little over 11,000,000 in 1892-1893, rose fairly steadily to 14,461,330 in 1899, stood in 1900 at 14,028,208 tons of a value of £4224,400, and then showed a further fall and rise, until in 1905 the tonnage was 14,590,703, and the value £ 3,482,184.

1900.

1909.

Tons.

Tons.

England. ... .

13,072,118

14,176,658

Cumberland 1. ...

1,103,430

1,246,228

Lancashire 1. .. ...

630,361

312,367

Leicester

750,708

514,896

Lincoln. .. .. .

1,924,898

2,037,363

Northampton

1,622,539

2,875,659

Stafford 2

1,084,797

902,565

York. .. .. .

5,550,677

6,234,589

Wales

7,418

38,043

Scotland 2. .. ..

849,031

697,276

Ireland. .. ... .

99,641

68,002

The iron ore raised in the various countries, and in the most productive counties, is here shown: The number of furnaces in blast (fractions showing the proportion of the year furnaces were in blast) was: in England 298162, Wales 19,; Scotland 852, total 403 i '. The total number of existing furnaces in 1900 was: in England 456, Wales 42, Scotland 106; total 604; so that 33% of the number stood unused. In 1905 furnaces in blast numbered: England 244, Wales 13, Scotland 87A z; total 345A z; and those existing: in England 412, Wales 31, Scotland tor; total 544; and the percentage unused was thus 36.

In 1888 the imports of iron ore amounted to 3,562,071 tons, in 1898 to 5,468,396 tons, in 1899 to 7,054,578 tons, in 1900 to 6,297,953 tons, in 1901 to 5,548,888 tons and in 1909 to 6,361,571 tons, of which the bulk was imported from Spain. The amount of pig-iron obtained found its minimum, during the period 1890-1910, of 6,976,990 tons in 1893, and its maximum of 10,183,860 in 1906, and in 1905 the quantity produced from foreign ores (4,847,899 tons) for the first time exceeded that produced from British ores (4,760,187).

The quantity of lead ore produced within the United Kingdom has decreased. It is now less than one-half of the output of about 1877, and the value has decreased more than proportionately. In the period1890-1908the maxi- Lead. mum annual production of metallic lead from British ore was 33,590 tons in 1890, valued at £449,8 2 6; the production fluctuated somewhat, but generally fell, to the minimum of 17,704 tons in 1902 (value £198,875). The most productive counties are Flint, Durham and Derby; the ore obtained in the Isle of Man is increased in value by the silver it contains.

These counties supply the richest ore in the United Kingdom.

In these cases the greater proportion of ore is from mines also producing coal.

The annual output of tin ore, which in 1878 amounted to 1 5, 0 45 tons, valued at £530,737, fell to 12,898 tons in 1881, though the value in that year rose to £697,444.

During the years1882-1892the average output was over 14,000 tons, and its average value about £770,000, but in 1893 a decline began in the output (not however accompanied closely by a decline in the value), slightly relieved about 1905.

Year.

Tin Ore.

Value.

Tons.

1893

13,689

637,053

1900

6,800

523,604

1905

7,201

574,183

1909

5,193

617,376

Tin ore is obtained almost exclusively in Cornwall.

Like others of the less important mining industries, copper mining in the United Kingdom has declined. In 1881 the. output of ore amounted to 52,556 tons, in 1891 to 9158 tons, in 18 93 to 557 6 tons, in 1905 to 7153 tons, valued at £32,696 and yielding 716 tons of metal by smelting. The total tonnage of ore included 5757 tons from England (chiefly from Cornwall) and 1146 from Ireland (Wicklow, &c.). Copper precipitate is taken from water pumped up from old copper mines on Parys Mountain in Anglesey.

Zinc ore is obtained chiefly from mines in Cumberland, Wales and the Isle of Man. In 1881 the output reached 35,527 tons, valued at £110,043; in 1891 the output was only Zinc. 22,216 tons, but its value was £113,445. In 1897 the quantity was 19,278 tons, and the value £69,134; but in 1898 the price had risen so that the output of 23,552 tons was worth £117,784. In 1900 the output of 24,675 tons was worth £97,606; and in 1905 that of 23,909 tons was worth £139,806.

During the period1890-1905gold mines were worked continuously in Merionethshire. Notices of the discovery of gold elsewhere (as in the Forest of Dean, Argyllshire and Ireland) have appeared from time to time.

Year.

Ore.

Gold.

Value.

Tons.

Oz.

18 9 0

575

206

675

1891

14,117

4,008

13,700

18 93

4,489

2,309

8,691

1895

13,266

6,600

18,520

18 9 8

703

395

1,229

1900

20,802

14,004

52,147

1902

29,953

4,181

14,570

1904

23,203

19,655

73,925

1905

15,981

5,797

21,222

1908

-

915

3,311

The principal fluctuations in production were as follows: It should be noted also that from imported cupreous iron pyrites, copper, gold and silver are extracted at some fifteen metal extraction works in Great Britain. From 386,858 tons of burnt ore in 1900 there were obtained 13,925 tons of copper, 1 777 oz. of gold and 3 0 9,4 86 oz. of silver; and in 1905 the figures were: ore, 402,863 tons; copper, 14,502 tons; gold, 1850 oz.; silver, 322,291 oz.

Year.

Imported.

Exported.

Retained.

lb

lb

lb

1890

1,793,495,200

214,641,840

1,578,853,360

1893

1,416,780,064

224,621,488

1,192,158,576

18 95

1,757,042,672

203,284,592

1,553,758,080

1898

2,128,548,352

203,072,464

1,925,475,888

1900

1,760,206,672

215,747,168

1,544,459,504

1905

2,203,595,520

283,177,888

1,920,417,632

1907

2,386,901,104

330,352,064

2,056,549,040

1909

2,188,761,456

268,633,456

1,920,128,000

Textile Industries.-The most important of the textile industries of Great Britain is cotton manufacture. The quantities Cotton. of raw cotton imported, exported and retained for Cot consumption for various years during the period1890-1910were as follows: During the same period the minimum and maximum amount of raw cotton (in lb) imported into the United Kingdom from the principal countries whence it is exported was as follows: United States of America (1893), 1, 0 55, 8 55,3 60; (1898), 1,805,353,424; Egypt (1890), 181,266,176; (1907), 4 2 3, 0 5 2 ,44 8; British possessions in the East Indies (1898), 27,349,728; (1890), 2 3 8 ,74 6 ,7 0 4; (1909), 75,621,168;75,621,168; Brazil (1899), 5,4 6 4,59 2; (1906), 54,362,000; Peru (1891), 6, 1 75,344; (1909), 2 4,4 1 3,§4 8.8. In 1905 there were imported 7,941,920 lb from Chile (only 195,328 in 1909); 6,033,104 lb from Canada (this also fluctuates greatly; 1,801,072 in 1909); 1,241,408 lb from British West Africa (4,985,232 in 1909); 1,126,720 lb from the British West Indies and Guiana (3,022,208 in 1908).

According to the census returns of 1901 there were 546,065 persons employed in cotton factories, 199,920 male and 346,145 female. Of the total number of workpeople, 529,131 were employed in England and Wales, 14,805 in Scotland and 212 in Ireland. In 1907 the total had risen to 576,820 (217,742 males and 359,078 females).

Year.

Imports.

Exports of

imported Wool.

Retained.

lb

lb

lb

1890

633,028,131

340,712,303

292,315,828

18 95

775,379,063

404,935,226

370,443,837

1898

699,555,048

283,317,748

416,237,300

1900

558,950,528

196,207,261

362,743,267

1905

620,350,885

277,864,215

342,486,670

1907

764,286,625

313,519,282

450,767,343

1909

808,710,087

390,695,182

418,014,905

The extent of the woollen and worsted manufactures of the United Kingdom is indicated by the following table showing the imports and exports of wool and the quantity retained for use in various years (1890-19ò5):--- During the same period the minimum and maximum amount of wool (in lb) imported into the United Kingdom was as follows: Australia (1904), 220,483,961; (1895), 417,163,078; New Zealand (1890), 95, 6 3 2 ,59 8; (1909), 1 7 6 ,457, 1 5 0; British possessions in South Africa (1900), 32,219,369; (1909), 115,896,598; South America (1890), 11,173,692; (1908), 78,938,157; British possessions in the East Indies (1901), 24,069,571; (1909), 56,238,633; France (1890), 10, 8 73,7 88; (1902), 27,770,790; Turkish Empire (1908), 5,705,671; (1897), 25,727,462.

In the woollen and worsted industries 239,954 persons were employed according to the census of 1901, of whom 99,425 were males and 140,529 females. Of the total number 209,700 were employed in England and Wales, 24,906 in Scotland and 5348 in Ireland.

England

United Kingdom.

and

Scotland.

Ireland.

Total.

Males.

Females.

Wales.

Flax

4,493

2 3,57 o

71,464

29,226

70,301

99,527

Hemp, jute,

&c. .

2,750

39,200

639

11,618

30,971

42,589

Silk

34,847

2,424

209

11,058

26,422

37,480

1-Iosiery

4 8 ,374

11,957

611

15,067

45, 8 75

60,942

The numbers of persons employed in the other principal textile industries in 1901 was as follows: Commerce.-British commerce received an enormous development after the first quarter of the 19th century. In 1826 the aggregate value of the imports into and exports from the United Kingdom amounted to no more than £88,758,678; while the total rose to £110,559,538 in 1836 and to £205,625,831 in 1846. In 1856 the aggregate of imports and exports had risen to £311,764,507, in 1866 to £534,195,956 and in 1876 to £ 6 3 1 ,931,3 0 5. Thus the commercial transactions of the United Kingdom with foreign states and British colonies increased more than sevenfold in the course of fifty years.

Country.

1890.

1895.

1900.

1905.

1909.

I. - BRITISH POSSESSIONS -

£

£

£

£

India and Ceylon Imports

Exports

37,856,598

38,254,769

31,076,761

27,519,909

32,861,217

32,885,147

40540,341

45,796,432

40,995,633

46,617,909

Straits Settlements,Malaysia Imports

6,412,865

5,404,887

8,092,057

7,222,215

8,948,582

and Hong Kong. Exports

5

5,766,059

4,077,436

6,162,526

7,162,908

7,455,726

Africa. Imports

) Exports

11,290,022

10,744,904

12,522,366

13,325,089

9,703,086

16,725,092

14,755,353

21,338,292

13,130.724

20,181,408

Canada and Newfoundland

5 Imports

12,444,489

13,400,570

22,240,325

26,204,205

27,674,340

.

Exports

8,272,743

6,594,903

9,659,238

14,267,967

18,750,970

West Indies, Bermudas,Hon- Imports

2,992,472

2,831,343

2,483,648

2,717,318

2,969,772

duras and Guiana.. Exports

4,262,669

3,230,189

2,954,477

3,324,665

3,777,244

Australia S Imports

A

20,992,185

24,954,779

23,800,820

26,968,977

32,655,709

? Exports

281:374507:473005

15,867,979

23,545,565

19,476,463

27,207,430

New Zealand. 5 Imports

Exports

3,705,428

8,383,058

3,443,688

11,615,881

5,899,292

13,391,222

6,994,806

17,730,556

8,081,422

Other } Imports

t Exports

1,720,583

3,826,012

1,952,431

3,095,184

2,287,537

4,252,072

3,731,132

4,351,367

2,800,939

4,246,362

II. FOREIGN COUNTRIES -

France. S Imports

7 Exports

44,828,148

24,710,803

47,470,583

20,324,998

53,618,656

25,877,453

53,072,900

23,232,663

50,690,785

31,515,320

Germany Imports

Exports

26,073,331

30,516,281

26,992,559

32,736,651

31,181,667

38,542,790

35,799,758

42,742,300

40,115,450

47,168,852

Belgium Imports

B Exports

17,383,776

13,594,966

17,545,169

11,934,653

23,502,603

14,846,307

27,751,288

14,818,923

29,217,560

19,284,791

Holland Imports

) Exports

25,900,924

28,419,944

31,381,023

35,481,059

37,371,702

16,445,992

11,272,258

14,931,090

14516,887

16,303,884

Denmark, Faeroe, Iceland, SImports

7,753,389

9,799,328

13,187,757

15,606,991

19,427,483

Greenland. .. Exports

2,928,006

3,135,122

4724,121

4,609,671

5,705,415

Norway ! Imports

-

3,831,727

5,756,018

5,954,870

6,574,319

Exports

2,532,050

3,910,982

3,712,532

3,835,436

Sweden. ., Imports

S

Exports

-

-

8,784,256

4,036,729

20,635,060

6,495,223

9,827,993

6,016,332

9,245,303

7,114,071

Imports

Austria-Hungary Exports

1,728,337

1,694,318

1,221,783

2,149,552

1,375,245

3,157,716

1,488,604

2,603,223

1,208,499

4,333,269

Rumania Imports

R

)

4,447,159

2,118,505

1,396,639

1689,513

3,395,474

' Exports

2,350,497

944,034

616,287

1,305,658

1,749,996

Greece } Imports

1,962,798

1,241,406

2,227,212

1,328,234

1,613,174

1 Exports

1,235,126

860,193

1,104,196

1,251,642

1,513,744

Italy Imports

3,093,918

3,132,720

3417790

3,324,595

3,634,073

.

Exports

8,523,209

6,211,337

9444498

9,787,306

13,274,764

Imports

Spain Exports

P

12,508,533

5,702,80

57 4

11,314,518

4,052,806

15,882,346

6,333,857

13,858,631

4,841,774

13,362,959

5,352,017

51mports

Portugal Exports

2,942,194

2,612,638

2,491,926

1,865,973

3,241,367

2,529,305

2,929,634

2,826,257

2,912,994

2,777,201

Russian Empire Imports

) Exports

23,750,868

8,846,054

24,736,919

10,686,333

21,983,952

16,360,475

33,366,234

14,884,050

36,897,746

28,325,844

Turkey Imports

Exports

8,368,8511

7,340,8681

5,630,240

5,566,187

5,657,627

5,372,956

5,491,443

6,979,147

5,085,435

7,789,432

Imports

1,024,993

1,143,382

1,540,526

1,860,313

4,232,716

Japan Exports

4,187,373

4,772,829

9,933,925

9,796,900

8,618,821

Chi } Imports

China

4,830,850 2

3343,865 22

2,359,821

2,340,3a63

3,725,502

? Exports

6,763,221 2

5363,536 2

5,634,313

13,298,828 3

8,558,275

Netherlands - India } Imports

t Exports

1,223,037

1,675,054

874,313

1,988,479

287,454

2,881,601

2,129,479

3,558,562

2,436,518

3,768,264

} Imports

8,368,851

9,524,507

12,585,578

14,976,188

19,872,288

Egypt

. (Exports

3,459,991

3,414,556

6,159,468

8,069,668

8,142,325

U.S.A.

97,283,349

86,548,860

138,789,261

115,573,051

118,269,777

t Exports

46,340,012

44,067,703

37,343,955

47,282,088

59,254,166

Mexico andCentral American Imports

1,863,284

1,443,345

1,144,590

2,138,574

2,595,356

States Exports

s

3,050,051

3,035,097

3,149,652

3,022,074

3,179,577

Brazil 51Imports

Exports

4,350,675

7,795,073

3,614,155

7,643,739

5,946,547

6,156,600

8,109,208

6,916,617

11,271,890

8,809,226

Argentina } Imports

1 Exports

4,129,802

8,530,427

9,084,497

5,480,848

13,080,466

7,438,238

25,034,325

13,383,835

32,528,446

19,202,496

Chile 51mports

3,473,348

3,436,142

4,828,371

6,068,031

6,607,415

Exports

3,365,824

3,454,332

3,535,736

4,782,382

5,054,144

Other countries in Asia Imports

1 Exports

376,969

516,846

344,895

720,350

373,344

684,440

611,096

699,556

1 ,043,280

1,214,041

Africa 51mports

Exports

2,345,843

3,262,462

1,683,319

3,052,023

2,503,823

4,686,727

2,901,281

6,063,114

4,538,518

7,783,508

South America. Imports

Exports

2,080,466

5,674,325

2,437,294

4,489,592

2,355,802

4,088,731

3,897,595

5,129,351

5,657,201

6,137,748

Other countries Imports

3,206,713

3,447,034

3,190,888

6,289,947

4,260,790

5 Exports

6,605,220

3901,551

6,370,943

8,352,264

7,440,065

Total for British possessionsImports

100,279,852

100,405,592

113,074,557

134,530,683

146,908,244

' Exports

94,522,469

76,138,896

102,083,109

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.

Bibliography Information
Chisholm, Hugh, General Editor. Entry for 'United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland-2'. 1911 Encyclopedia Britanica. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/bri/u/united-kingdom-of-great-britain-and-ireland-2.html. 1910.

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