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1911 Encyclopedia Britannica

Learned Societies

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Under Academies will be found a general account of the principal bodies of which that word forms part of the titles, usually denoting some kind of state support or patronage. But that account excludes a number of important scientific, archaeological, and literary societies, chiefly founded and carried on by private collective effort. Most of the institutions hereinafter mentioned are still flourishing. Fine art societies are not included.

In their modern form learned and literary societies have their origin in the Italian academies of the Renaissance: private scientific societies arose chiefly during the 19th century, being due to the necessity of increased organization of knowledge and the desire among scholars for a common ground to meet, compare results, and collect facts for future generalization. These bodies rapidly tend to increase in number and to become more and more specialized, and it has been necessary to systematize and co-ordinate their scattered work. Many efforts have been made from time to time to tabulate and analyse the literature published in their proceedings, as, for instance, in the Repertorium of Reuss (1801-1821) and the Catalogue of Scientific Papers of the Royal Society (1867-1902) for physics and natural science, with its subject indexes and the indexes of Walther (1845) and Koner (1852-1856) for German historical societies. A more recent example may be found in G. L. Gomme's Index of Archaeological Papers (1907). A further development of the work done by societies was made in 1822, when, chiefly owing to Humboldt, the Gesellschaft deutscher Naturforscher and Arzte first met at Leipzig. This inauguration of the system of national congresses was followed in 1831 by the British Association for the Advancement of Science, which has served as the model for similar societies in France, America, Italy, Australia and South Africa. The merit of introducing the idea of migratory congresses into France is due to the distinguished archaeologist, M. Arcisse de Caumont '(1802-1873), who established the Association Normande, which from 1845 held a reunion in one or other of the towns of the province for the discussion of matters relating to history, archaeology, science and agriculture, with local exhibitions. From the same initiation came the Congres Archeologique de France (1834), which was organized by the Societe Fran4aise pour la Conservation des Monuments Historiques, the Congres Scientifique, which held its first meeting at Caen in 1833 (directed by the Institut des Provinces ), and the Congres des Societes Savantes des Departements, which for many years after 1850 held its annual sittings at Paris. The idea received the sanction of the French government in 1861, when a Congres des Societes Savantes was first convoked at the Sorbonne by the minister of public instruction, who had in 1846 produced an Annuaire des Societes Savantes. In Italy Charles Bonaparte, prince of Canino, started an association with like objects, which held its first meeting at Pisa in 1839. Russia has had an itinerant gathering of naturalists since 1867. International meetings are a natural growth from national congresses. Two remarkable examples of these cosmopolitan societies are the Congres International d'Archeologie et d'Anthropologie Prehistoriques, founded at Spezzia in 1865, and the Congres International des Orientalistes (1873).

I. Science Generally United Kingdom. -First in antiquity and dignity among English societies comes the Royal Society of London, which dates from 1660. In 1683 William Molyneux, the author of The Case of Ireland Stated, exerted himself to form a society in Dublin after the pattern of that of London. In consequence of his efforts and labours the Dublin Philosophical Society was established in January 1684, with Sir William Petty as first president. The members subsequently acquired a botanic garden, a laboratory and a museum, and placed themselves in communication with the Royal Society of London. Their meetings after 1686 were few and irregular, and came to an end at the commencement of hostilities between James II. and William III. The society was reorganized in 1693 at Trinity College, Dublin, where meetings took place during several years. On 25th June 1731, chiefly owing to the exertions of Dr S. M. Madden, the Dublin Society for Improving Husbandry, Manufactures, and other Useful Arts came into existence. In January 1737 they commenced to publish the Dublin Society's Weekly Observations, and in 1746 the society was placed on the civil establishment, with an allowance of £500 a year from the government. A charter of incorporation was granted in 1750, and seven years later the Royal Dublin Society for the first time owned a house of its own, and in the following year began the drawing school, which subsequently did so much for Irish art. Between 1761 and 1767 government grants to the amount of £42,000 for promoting national agriculture and manufactures were distributed by the society, which claims to be the oldest scientific body in the United Kingdom after the Royal Society of London. It has published Transactions (1799, &c.); and its Proceedings (1764-1775; 1848, &c.) and Journal (1856-1876, &c.) are still issued. The Dublin Univ. Phil. Soc. issues Proceedings. For the Royal Irish Academy, see Academies.

The Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh was instituted in 1771, and incorporated in 1788; it is exclusively devoted to natural history and the physical sciences. With it have been merged many other societies, .such as the Chirurgo-Medical in 1796, the American Physical in 1796, the Hibernian Medical in 1799, the Chemical in 1803, the Natural History in 1812 (which brought in Brougham and Mackintosh) and the Didactic in 1813. It issues Transactions and Proceedings (1858, &c.). From the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh (1731) was developed the Royal Society of Edinburgh, whose charter is dated 29th March 1783. It was to comprise a physical and a literary class; among the members of the latter were Robertson, Hume, Burke and Reid, and among those of the former Hutton, Black, Playfair, Dugald Stewart and Watt. The literary division has been much less productive than the other. A second charter was obtained in 1811. The society has published Transactions (4to, 1788, &c.) and Proceedings (8vo, 1832, &c.). The Royal Scottish Soc. of Arts (1821) publishes Transactions. The Linnean Society for the promotion of zoology and botany was founded in 1788 by Dr (afterwards Sir) J. E. Smith, in order to supplement the work of the Royal Society, and obtained a royal charter in 1802. The herbarium and collections of Linnaeus, with the founder's additions, were purchased after his death. It removed from Sir Joseph Banks's old house in Soho Square to Burlington House (London) in 1857, and assumed the apartments it now occupies in 1873. It has published Proceedings (1849, &c.). The Journal (8vo, 1856, &c.) and the Transactions (4to, 1791, &c.) are divided into zoological and botanical sections. The Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Commerce, and Manufactures took its origin in 1753 from an academy established in the Strand by the landscape painter William Shipley. Attention was paid to the application of science to practical purposes, a subject passed over by the Royal Society. Exhibitions of pictures by native artists were held, and the first exhibitions of the Royal Academy took place in its rooms. A fresh start in a new career was made by the Society of Arts (since 1909 known as the Royal Society of Arts ) in 1847, when it obtained a charter and the presidency of the Prince Consort. The International Exhibition of 1851 sprang from the smaller exhibitions previously held in its rooms. The East Indian section dates from 1869, the foreign and colonial and the chemical sections from 1874. Its organs have been Transactions (1783-1849) and the Journal (1853, &c.). Sir Joseph Banks, Count Rumford and other fellows of the Royal Society started the Royal Institution in 1799, when a site was purchased in Albemarle Street for " an establishment in London for diffusing the knowledge of useful mechanical improvements," to " teach the application of science to the useful purposes of life." The institution was incorporated in the following year. One of the most important epochs in the history of chemistry must be dated from the establishment of the laboratory where Davy and Faraday pursued their investigations. Belonging to the institution are foundations for professorships in natural philosophy, chemistry and physiology. Courses of lectures on special subjects are given as well as discourses (once a week) of a more general and literary character. Its Journal has been issued since 1802. The London Institution was established on a similar basis in 1805 and incorporated in 1807. The building in Finsbury Circus was erected in 1819. The British Association for the Advancement of Science was instituted at York on 27th September 1831, an imitation of the itinerant scientific parliament held in Germany since 1822 (already referred to), and arose from a proposal by Sir D. Brewster. A meeting is held annually at some place in the British empire chosen at a previous meeting. The object of the association is to promote science, to direct general attention to scientific matters, and to facilitate intercourse between scientific workers. Abstracts of the proceedings and reports of committees are published in the annual Report (1833, &c.). The Historical Society of Science (1841) printed a couple of volumes; and the Ray Society (1844), instituted for the printing of original and

scarce old works in zoology and botany, still flourishes. The Royal Colonial Institute was founded in 1868 and incorporated in 1882. It provides a place of meeting for gentlemen connected with the colonies and British India, undertakes investigations into subjects relating to the British empire, has established a museum and library, and gives lectures in its new building in Northumberland Avenue (London). It has published Proceedings since 1870. The Victoria Institute, or Philosophical Society of Great Britain, was founded in 1865 to form a connecting bond between men of science and others engaged in investigating important questions of philosophy and science, more especially those bearing upon the truths revealed in Holy Scripture. Its organ is the Journal (1867, &c.). The Royal Asiatic Society and the East India Association (1866) publish Journals. The African Society meets at the Imperial Institute and publishes a Journal. The Selborne Soc. (1885) promotes nature study and issues a Mag. The foundation in 1821 of the Society for the Encouragement of the Useful Arts in Scotland, now usually known as the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, for the promotion of the useful arts and such branches of science as bear upon them, was due to Sir D. Brewster, Sir J. Mackintosh and others; it was incorporated in 1841, and has published Transactions since that year.

The leading provincial societies of Great Britain of a general character are as follows:-Aberdeen, Nat. Hist. Soc. (1863), Trans.; Phil. Soc. (1840). Alloa, Soc. of Nat. Hist. and Arch. (1863), Proc. (1865, &c.). Banff, Banffshire Field Club and Sc. Soc. (1880), Proc. Bath, Nat. Hist. and Antiq. Field Club (1866), Proc. (1867, &c.); Roy. Lit. and Sc. Inst. (1825), Proc.; Bath Lit. and Phil. Assn. Bedford, Bedfordshire Nat. Hist. Soc. (1875), Trans. Belfast, Nat. Hist. and Phil. Soc. (1821), Proc. (1852, &c.), museum; Naturalists' Field Club (1863), Proc. (1875, &c.). Berwickshire Naturalists' Club (1831), Proc. (1834, &c.). Birkenhead, Lit. and Sc. Soc. (1857). Birmingham, Nat. Hist. and Phil. Soc. (1858), Trans.; Birmingham and Midland Institute Sc. Soc. (1870), Trans. of archaeological section (1871, &c.); Phil. Soc. (1876) has a fund for promotion of original research, Proc.; Midland Union of Nat. Hist. Societies (1877), Midland Naturalist. Bolton, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1871). Bradford, Phil. Soc. (1865); Bradford Scientific Assn. (1875), Journal. Brighton, Brighton and Hove Nat. Hist. and Phil. Soc. (1855), Proc. Bristol, Naturalists' Soc. (1862), Proc. (1866, &c.). Burnley, Lit. and Sc. Club (1873), Trans. Burton-on-Trent, Nat. Hist. and Arch. Soc. (1876), Trans. Cambridge, Phil. Soc. (1819; incorporated 1832), for the promotion of philosophy and natural science, owns museum and library, Proc. (1843, &c.), Trans. (1821, &c.). Cardiff, Naturalists' Soc. (1867), Trans. Chester, Soc. of Nat. Sc., Lit. and Arts (1871). Cork, Royal Inst. (1807), library; Cuvierian and Arch. Soc. (1836). Cornwall Royal Inst., at Truro (1818), devoted to natural philosophy, natural history, and antiquities, Journal (1864, &c.); Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Soc., at Falmouth (1833; founded by the daughters of R. W. Fox and others), for the encouragement of science and the fine and industrial arts, Trans. (1835, &c.). Cumberland Assoc. for the Advancement of Lit. and Sc. (1876), provided a means of union for the local societies of Cumberland and Westmoreland, Trans. Derbyshire Arch. and Nat. Hist. Soc. (1878), Journal. Derry Nat. Hist. and Phil. Soc. (1870). Devonshire Assoc. for the Advancement of Sc. (1862). Dorset Nat. Hist. and Antiq. Field Club (1875), Proc. Dumfriesshire;and Galloway Sc., Nat. Hist. and Antiq. Soc. (1876), Trans. Dundee, Naturalists' Soc. (1873). Eastbourne, Nat. Hist. Soc. (1867), Proc. (1869, &c.). East of Scotland Union of Naturalists' Societies (1884), Trans. Ebbw Vale, Lit. and Sc. Inst. (1850). Elgin, Elgin and Morayshire Lit. and Sc. Assoc. (1836). Essex Field Club (1880), museums at Stratford and Chingford. Exeter, Naturalists' Club and Arch. Assoc. (1862). Glasgow, Roy. Phil. Soc. (1802), Proc. (1844, &c.); Nat. Hist. Soc. (1851), Proc. (1868, &c.); Soc. of Field Naturalists (1872), Trans. (1872, &c.); Andersgnian Naturalists' Soc. Gloucester, Lit. and Sc. Assoc. (1838). Greenock, Phil. Soc. (1861). Halifax, Phil. and Lit. Soc. (1830), museum and library. Hereford, Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club, Hereford Pomona and Trans. (1866, &c.). Hertfordshire Nat. Hist. Soc. and F eld Club, formed in 1879 from the Watford Nat. Hist. Soc. (1875), Trans. High Wycombe, Nat. Hist. Soc. (1865), Magazine (1866, &c.). Hull, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1822), Trans. (1824, &c.). Inverness, Sc. Soc.' and Field Club (1875). Isle of Wight Phil. and Sc. Soc. (1850). Kent (East) Nat. Hist. Soc. at Canterbury (1858), Trans. Leeds, Phil. and Lit. Soc. (1820); Naturalists' Club (1870), Trans. Leicester, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1835), Trans. Lewes, Lewes and East Sussex Nat. Hist. Soc. (1864). Liverpool, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1812; united with Nat. Hist. Soc. in 1844), Proc. (1845, &c.); Philomathic Soc. (1825), Trans.; Polytechnic Soc. (1838), Journal (1838, &c.); Naturalists' Field Club (1860). Manchester, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1781), two sections, one physical and mathematical, the other for microscopy and natural history-the original statements respecting the atomic theory were given by Dalton in the Memoirs (1789, &c.), also Proc.; Field Naturalists' and Arch. Soc. (1860), Proc.; Scientific Students' Assoc. (1861). Montrose, Nat. Hist. and Antiq. Soc. (1836), museum. Newbury, District Field Club (1870), Trans. (1871, &c.). Newcastleon-Tyne, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1793), library; Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle Nat. Hist. Soc. (1829), a museum (opened in 1884), Trans. Norfolk, Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Soc. (1869), Trans. (1870, &c.). Nottingham, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1864); Natural-

ists' Soc. (1852), Trans. Orkney Antiq. and Nat. Hist. Soc. (1837), museum. Oxford, Ashmolean Nat. Hist. Soc. (1828), Proc. Paisley, Phil. Institution (1808), free library and - museum; Mr Coats presented his observatory in 1882. Penzance, Nat. Hist. and Antiq. Soc. (1839), museum, Proc. (1845, &c.). Perth, Lit. and Antiq. Soc. (1784); Perthshire Soc. of Nat. Sc. (1867), Proc. (1869, &c.), the Scottish Naturalist (1870, &c.). Peterhead, Buchan Field Club (1887), Trans. Plymouth, Plymouth Inst. and Devon and Cornwall Nat. Hist. Soc. (1812), museum, art gallery and library. Preston Sc. Soc., affiliated with British Assn. Richmond, Richmond and North Riding Naturalists' Field Club (1863), Trans. Ripon, Naturalists' Club and Sc. Assoc. (1882). Rochdale Lit. and Sc. Soc., Trans. Scarborough, Phil. and Arch. Soc. (1831), museum and library. Severn Valley Naturalists' Field Club, at Bridgenorth (1863). Sheffield, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1822); Museums Assoc. (1889), Proc. and Journ. Shetland Lit. and Sc. Soc. at Lerwick (1861). Shropshire and North Wales Nat. Hist. and Antiq. Soc. (1835), at Shrewsbury. Somersetshire Arch. and Nat. Hist. Soc., at Taunton (1849), Proc. (1851, &c.). Southampton, Hartley Institution (founded under bequest of H. R. Hartley in 1859, incorporated 1862), for the promotion of scientific, antiquarian and Oriental studies and the fine arts, owns a museum and library. Staffordshire (North) Field Club and Arch. Soc. (founded as a natural history society in 1865; enlarged 1877), meets at Stone, Trans. Stirling, Nat. Hist. and Arch. Soc. (1878), Trans. Stockport, Soc. of Naturalists (1884), Trans. Suffolk Inst. of Arch. and Nat. Hist., at Bury St Edmunds (1848), Proc. (1848, &c.), The East Anglian (1859, &c.). Swansea, Royal Institution of South Wales (founded 1835 incorporated 1883), with a museum and library, promotes natural history and applied science, literature and fine arts, local history and antiquities. Tamworth, Nat. Hist., Geolog. and Antiq. Soc. (1871). Teign Naturalists' Field Club (1858). Torquay, Nat. Hist. Soc. (1844), museum and library. Tweedside and Kelso Physical and Antiq. Soc. (1834). Warrington, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (founded in 1870 upon the Micr. Soc.). Warwickshire Nat. Hist. and Arch. Soc. (1836);, Warwickshire Field Club (1854). Whitby, Lit. and Phil. Soc. (1822). Whitehaven Sc. Assn., Journal. Wiltshire Arch. and Nat. Hist. Soc., at Devizes (1853), Wiltshire Magazine (1853, &c.). Windsor, Windsor and Eton Sc. Soc., Trans. Witney, Nat. Hist. and Lit. Soc. (1858). Yorkshire Phil. Soc. (1822), the museum in the grounds of St Mary's Abbey, York, contains a remarkable collection of Roman remains; Naturalists' Union of the natural history and scientific societies of the county (founded in 1861 as the West Riding Consolidated Naturalists' Soc., reorganized in 1876), publishes the Naturalist (1876, &c.), Trans. Australia and New Zealand: Adelaide, Phil. Soc., Trans. (1865, &c.); South Australian Inst. (1836), library; Roy. Soc. of S. Australia (1855), Trans. Proc., Reports. Auckland, Auckland Inst. Brisbane, Queensland Phil. Soc. (1860), now the Roy. Soc. of Queensland (1884), Proc. Christchurch, Phil. Inst. Hobart Town, Roy. Soc. of Tasmania, Papers and Proc. (1843, &c.). Melbourne, Roy. Soc. of Victoria, Trans. and Proc. (1854, &c.); Nat. Hist. Soc.; Zool. and Acclim. Soc., Proc. (1872, &c.). Sydney, Roy. Soc. of N.S. Wales (1821), Proc. (1867, &c.); Linnean Soc. of N.S. Wales (1874), Proc. (1875, &c.); Phil. Soc., Trans. (1862, &c.); Australasian Assoc. for Advancement of Sc., Reports of Annual Meetings (held at different place each year) (1888, &c.). Wellington, New Zealand Inst., Trans. and Proc. (1868, &c.).

Canada: Halifax, Nova Scotia Inst. of Sc., Proc. and Trans. (1862, &c.). Montreal, Nat. Hist. Soc. of Montreal (1827), Canadian Rec.of Sc.. Ottawa, Roy. Soc. of Canada, Trans. (3 ser.) (1882, &c.); Lit. and Sc. Soc. (1870), Trans. (1897, &c.). St John, Nat. Hist. Soc. of N. Bruns. (1862), Bulletins (26 vols.). Toronto, Canadian Inst. (1849), Trans. and Proc. (1852, &c.); Roy. Canadian Acad. of Arts (1880). Winnipeg, Hist. and Sc. Soc. South Africa: Cape Town, South Afr. Phil. Soc., Trans. (1878,. &c.).

West Indies: Kingston, Roy. Soc. of Arts of Jamaica, Trans. (1854, &c.); Port of Spain, Sc. Assoc. of Trinidad, Proc. (1866, &c.).

India, &c.: Calcutta, Asiatic Soc. of Bengal (1784), Journal (1832, &c.; 1865, &c.), Bibl. Indica (1848, &c.), Mem. (1905, &c.). Singapore, Roy. Asiatic Soc. (Straits Br.), Journal (1880, &c.). Shanghai, Roy. Asiatic Soc. (N. China Br.), Journal (1857, &c.). Cairo, Inst. Egyptien (1859). Mauritius, Roy. Soc. of Arts and Sc.,. Proc. (1846, &c.) and Trans. (1848, &c.).

United States.-The Smithsonian Institution, the most important scientific body in America, is dealt with in a separate article. The first scientific society in the United States originated from a Proposal for Promoting Useful Knowledge among the British Plantations, issued by Dr Franklin in 1743. In the following year the American Philosophical Society was founded at Philadelphia, with Thomas Hopkinson as president and Franklin as secretary. With it was united on 2nd January 1769 another Philadelphia society, The Junto (1758), the records of which have been preserved. The American Philosophical Society is still in vigorous life, and is an exclusively scientific body and the oldest organized society in the United States for the pursuit of philosophical investigation in its broadest sense. It publishes Transactions (4to, 1771, &c.) and Proceedings (8vo, 1838, &c.). Second in point of date comes the American Academy of Arts and Sciences of Boston, incorporated in 1780 with the object of furthering the study of the antiquities and natural history of the country. Its Memoirs (4to, 1785, &c.) and Proceedings (8vo, 1846, &c.) are still published. The Connecticut` Academy of Arts and Sciences was incorporated at New Haven in 1799. At first only devoted to matters connected with the state of Connecticut, it now embraces the whole field of the sciences and useful. arts. It has issued Memoirs (1810-1876), and now publishes Transactions (1866, &c.). One of the leading societies in the United States,, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, founded in 1812 and' incorporated in 1817, possesses an excellent library; the natural. history museum is especially rich in conchology. It issues a Journal" (1817, &c.) and Proceedings (1843, &c.). The American Entomological Society is merged with it. The Franklin Institute of the same city,. incorporated in 1825, possesses a library, gives lectures and issues a Journal (1826, &c.). The Boston Society of Natural History was. founded upon the Linnean Society (1814) in 1830 and incorporated' in 1831. It possesses a library and a cabinet of specimens. It has published the Boston Journal of Natural History (8vo, 1837-1863), Memoirs (4to, 1866, &c.) and Proceedings (1841, &c.). The Lyceum of Natural History, New York, was incorporated in 1818 and has published Annals from 1823 (1824, &c.) and Proceedings (1870, &c.). In 1875 the name was changed to New York Academy of Sciences. A number of American naturalists and geologists, having held meetings in various cities between 1840 and 1847, resolved themselves at their Boston congress in the latter year into the American Association for the Advancement of Science, which was incorporated in 1874. Its object is " by periodical and migratory meetings to promote intercourse between American scientists." It has published Proceedings (1849, &c.). The National Academy of Sciences was incorporated at Washington in 1863 with a view to making the knowledge of specialists available for the service of government. There are two classes of members, those in mathematics and physics and those in natural history. It has issued Annuals (Cambridge, 1865, &c.) and Reports, as well as Memoirs (1866, &c.). The Academies of Sciences at San Francisco (1853), St Louis (1856, incorporated 1857), and Chicago (1857, incorporated 1865) deserve special mention.

Among the remaining societies of a general scientific character are- Albany Inst. (1829), Trans. (1830-1893), Proc. (1873-1882). Ann Arbor, Mich. Ac. of Sc. (1894). Baltimore, Maryland Acad. of Sc., Trans. (1901). Boston, Col. Soc. of Mass. (1892), Trans. Brooklyn Inst. of Arts and Sc. Buffalo, Soc. of Nat. Sc. (1861), Bull. Cincinnati, Soc. of Nat. Hist. (1870), Journal (1878, &c.); Cin. Museum Assoc. (1881). Cleveland, Acad. of Nat. Sc. (1852), Annals and Proc.; The Cleveland Society [Archaeol. Inst. of America] (1895). Columbus, Ohio State Acad. of Sc. (1891), Publ. Des Moines, Iowa Inst. of Sc. and Arts, Trans. Hartford, Sc. Soc. (1896); formerly Hartford Soc. of Nat. Sc. (1885), Bull. (1902, &c.). Indianapolis, Indiana Acad. of Sc. (1885), Proc. (1891, &c.). Ithaca, Amer. Phil. Assoc. (1902). Lincoln, Nebraska Acad. of Sc. (1891), Publ. Los Angeles, South California Acad. of Sc. (1891), Bull. Madison, Wisconsin Acad. of Sc. Arts and Letters, Trans. (1870, &c.). Milwaukee, Wisconsin Nat. Hist. Soc. (1857), Bull.;Minneapolis, Minnesota Acad. of Sc., Bull. (1873, &c.). Minneapolis Acad. of Fine Arts (1883), Bull. (1905). New Orleans, Athenee Louicianais (1876), Comptes Rendus. New York, Amer. Inst. of the City of New York (1829), Journal (1834), Trans. (1841, &c.); Amer. Inst. for Sc. Research (1904), Proc. and Journal. Portland (Maine), Soc. of Nat. Hist. (1850), Proc. (1862, &c.). Poughkeepsie, Vassar, Brothers' Inst. (1874), Proc. 1874, &c., 1876, &c.). Rochester Acad. of Nat. Sc. (1881) Trans. Salem (Mass.), Essex County Nat. Hist. Soc. (1833; now merged in the Essex Institute ) published the American Naturalist (1867-1868), afterwards issued by the Peabody Acad. of Science, as well as Proc. (1856, &c.) and Bulletin (1869, &c.). San Francisco, Tech. Soc. of the Pacific Coast (1884), Trans. in Journal of the Assoc. of Engineering Societies. Santa Barbara Society of Natural History (1876), Bull. (1887). Sioux City, Acad. of Sc. and Letters (1887), Proc. (1903, &c.). Topeka, Kansas Acad. of Science (1868), Trans. Washington, Phil. Soc. of Washington (1871), Bull. (1874, &c.). Wilkes-Barre, Wyoming Hist. and Geol. Soc. (1858), Proc. and Coll. France. -The Institut de France (see Academies), which includes five separate academies, stands at the head of all French societies. The Societe Philotechnique, founded in 1795 and recognized as of public usefulness by a decree of nth May 1861, had for its object the encouragement and study of literature, science and the fine arts; literary organ was an Annuaire (1840, &c.). The Societe d'Encouragement pour l'Industrie Nationale was founded in 1801 for the amelioration of all branches of French industry, and was recognized by the state in 1824; Bulletin. The Academie Nationale, Agricole, Manufacturiere, Commerciale was founded by the due de Montmorency In 1830, and offers prizes and medals, and brings

out a Bulletin (1830, &c.). The Association Franciice pour l'Avancement des Sciences (1872), founded on the model of the British Association, holds migratory meetings and publishes Cornptes rendus. With it has been amalgamated the Association Scientifique de France, founded by Le Verrier in 1864.

The departmental societies are very numerous and active. The chief are the following: Abbeville, Soc. d'Emulation (1797), Mein. (1833, &c.). Agen, Soc. d'Agr., Sc. et Arts (1784), Recueil (,800, &c.). Aix, Acad. des Sc., &c. (1829), based on Soc. des Amis de la Sc. (1765), Mem. (1819, &c.). Alais, Soc. Sc. et Litt. (1868), Bull. (1868, &c.). Amiens, Acad., based on Soc. Litt. (1750), Mem. (1835, &c.); Soc. Linneenne (1838), Mem. (1866, &c.). Angers, Soc. Acad. de Maine-et-Loire (1857), Mem. (1857, &c.); Soc. d'Agr., &c. (1799), Mem. (1831, &c.); Soc. Linn. de M.-et-L. (1852), Annales (1853, &c.). Angouleme, Soc. d'Agr., &c., de la Charente (1803), Annales (1819, &c.). Annecy, Soc. Florimontane (1851), Annales (1851, &c.) and Rev. Savoisienne (1851). Apt, Soc. Litt., Sc. et Art. (1863), Annales (1865, &c.). Arras, Acad. (1737), Mem. (1818, &c.) and other publications. Autun, Soc. Eduenne (1836), Mem. (1872, &c.) and other publications. Auxerre, Soc. des Sc. (1847), Bull. (1847, &c.). Avignon, Acad. de Vaucluse (formerly the Lycee d'Agr., &c., ,80,), Mem. (1804), Documents and Cartulaires. Bar-le-Duc, Soc. des Lettres, &c. (1870), Mem. (1871, &c.). Bayeux, Soc. des Sc., ( 1841), ' Mem. (1842, &c.). Beauvais, Soc. Acad. (1847), ( 1847, &c.), Comptes Rendus (1882, &c.). Belfort, Soc. d'Emulation (1872), Bull. (1872). Besancon, Acad. des Sc., &c. (1752; suppressed in 1793; re-established 1805), Proc. -verb. (1754, &c.), Mem. (1838, &c.); Soc. d'Emulation (1840), Mem. (1841, &c.). Beziers, Soc. Arch., Sc., &c. (1834), Bull. (1836, &c.). Blois, Soc. des Sc. et Lettres de Loiret-Cher (1832), Mem. (1833, &c.). Bordeaux, Acad. (1712; suppressed 1793; re-established 1816), Actes (1839, &c.); Soc. Linn. (1818), Bull. (1826-1829) and Actes (1830, &c.); Soc. des Sc. (1850), Mem. (1855, &c.). Boulogne, Soc. Acad. (1864), Mem. (1864, &c.). Bourg, Soc. d E mulation 1755), Journal (1817-1868) and Annales (1868, &c.). Bourges, Soc. Hist., &c., du Cher (1849), Mem. (1857, &c.). Brive la Gaillarde, Soc. Sc., Hist. et Archeol. (1878), Bull. (1879, &c.). Caen, Acad. (1652), Rec. (1731-1816), Mem. (1825); Soc. Linn. (1823), Mem. (1824, &c.), and Bull. (1855, &c.); Assoc. Normande (1831), Annuaire (1835, &c.). Cahors, Soc. des Etudes Litt., Sc. etArtistiques (1872), Bull. (1873, &c.). Cambrai, Soc. d'Emulation (1804), Mem. (1808, &c.). Cannes, Soc. des Sc. (1868), Mem. (1869, &c.). Carcassonne, Soc. d'Etudes, &c. (1889), Bull. (1890, &c.). Chambery, Acad. (1819), Mem. (1825, &c.). Chateaudun, Soc. Dunoise (1864), Bull. (1864, &c.). Cherbourg, Soc. Acad. (1755), Mem. (1833, &c.); Soc. Nat. (1851), Mem. (1852, &c.). ClermontFerrand, Acad. (1747), Annales (1828, &c.) and Bull. (1881, &c.). Dijon, Acad. (1725; suppressed 1793; re-established 1800), Mem. (1769, &c.). Douai, Soc. d'Agr., &c., du Nord (1799), Mem. (1826, &c.). Draguinan, Soc. d'Etudes Sc. (1855), Bull. 0856, &c.). Dunkirk, Soc. Dunkerquoise (1851), Mem. (1853, &c.). Epinal, Soc. d'Emulation (1825), Journal (1825-1827), Seances (1828-1830), Annales (1828, &c.). Evreux, Soc. Libre d'Agr., &c. (1798), Recueil. Gap, Soc. d'Etudes (1881), Bull. (1882, &c.). Grenoble, Acad. Delphinale (1789), based on Soc. Litt. (1772), Bull. (1836, &c.). Havre, Soc. d'Etudes Diverses (1833), Recueil 1834, &c.). Laon, Soc. Acad. (1850), Bull. (1852, &c.). La Roche, Soc. d'Emulation (1854), Annuaire (1855, &c.). La Rochelle, Acad. (1732; suppressed 1791; reconstituted in 1803 as Lycee Rochelais and in 1853 under its former name), Annales (1854, &c.). Le Havre, Soc. des Sc. et Arts (1868), Bull. (1868, &c.). Le Mans, Soc. d'Agr., &c., de la Sarthe (founded in 1761; reorganized on several occasions, and finally in 1839), Bull. (1833, &c.). Le Puy, Soc. d'Agr., Sc., &c. (1819), Annales (1826, &c.) and Bull. (1836, &c.). Lille, Soc. des Sc., &c. (founded 1802 as Soc. d'Amateurs), Mem. (1802, &c.); Soc. d'Etudes, Bull. (1899). Limoges, Soc. d'Agr., Sc., &c., de la Haute-Vienne (1759), Bull. (1822, &c.). Lons-le-Saunier, Soc. d'Emulation (1817), Mem. (1818, &c.). Lyons, Acad. (1724), Mem. (1854, &c.); Soc. d'Agr., Hist. Nat., &c. (1761), Comptes rend. (1806, &c.) and Mem. (1838, &c.); Soc. Linn. (1822), Annales (1836, &c.). Macon, Acad. (1805), Comptes rend. (1806-1847) and Annales (1851, &c.). Marseilles, Acad. (1726; in 1766 called Soc. des Sciences; suppressed in 1793; reorganized. in 1799, and finally in 1802), Recueil (1727-1786) and Mem. (1803, &c.). Meaux, Soc. Libre d'Agr., Sc., &c. (1798; reorganized in 1820), Publ. (1833, &c.). Mende, Soc. d'Agr., &c., de la Lozere (1819), Mem. (1827, &c.) and Bull. (1850, &c.). Montauban, Aced. (1730), Recueil (1742-1750 and 1869, &c.). Montbeliard, Soc. d'Em. (1850), Mem. (1852, &c.). Montpellier, Acad. (founded in 1706 as Soc. Royale; suppressed in 1793; finally reorganized in 1346), Mem. (1847, &c.); Soc. d'Horticult., &c., de l'Herault (1860), Annales (1860, &c.). Moulins, Soc. d'Em. (1846), Bull. (1846, &c.). Nancy, Acad. de Stanislas (1750), Mem. (1754, &c.); Soc. des Sc. (1873), founded on Soc. des Sc. Nat. de Strasbourg (1828;, Mem. (1830, &c.) and Bull. (1866, &c.); Soc. d'archeol., &c. (1848) Mem. (1849, &c.), Journal (1852, &c.). Nantes, Soc. Acad. de la Loire-Inf. (1848), founded in 1798 as Institut Departmental, A'hnales (1830, &c.). Nevers, Soc. Nivernaise (1851), Bull. (1851, &c.). Nice, Soc. pies Lettres, &c. (,861), Annales (1865, &c.). Nimes, Acad. (1682„ Mem. (1305); Soc. d'Etude des Sc. Nat. (1871), Bull. (1873, &c.). Niort, Soc. de Statist. Sc., &c., des Deux-Sevres(1836), Mem. (1836, &c.) and Buh. (1852, &c.). Orleans, Acad. de SainteCroix ,1863), Led. et Mem. (1865, &c.); Soc. d'Agr., Sc., &c. (1809), Bull. (1810-1813), Ann. (1818-1837), and Mem. (1837, &c.). Pau, Soc. des Sc., Lettres, &c. (1841), Bull. (1841, &c.). Perigueux, Soc. d'Agr., Sc., &c., de le Dordogne (1820), Annales (1840, &c.). Perpignan, Soc. Agr., &c. et Litt. (1833), Bull. (1834, &c.). Poitiers, Soc. d'Agr., Belles-Lettres, &c. (1789), Bull. (1818, &c.). Privas, Soc. des Sc. Nat. et Hist. (1861), Bull. (1861, &c.). Reims, Acad. Nat. (1841), Seances (1844, &c.). Rochefort, Soc. de Geog. Lettres, Sc. et Arts (1878), Bull. (1879, &c.). Rodez, Soc. des Lettres; Sc., &c., de l'Aveyron (1836), Mem. (1838, &c.) and Proces-Verb. (1864, &c.). Rouen, Acad. (1744), Precis Analyt. (1744, &c.); Soc. Libre d'Emulation, &c. (1790), Bull. (1 797, &c.); Soc. des Amis des Sc. Nat. (1864), Bull. (1865, &c.). Saint-Brieuc, Soc. d'Em., Bull. et Mem. (1861, &c.). Saint-Die, Soc. Philomatique (1875), Bull. (1876, &c.). Saint-Etienne, Soc. d'Agr., &c., de la Loire (1822), Annales (1857). Saint-Lo, Soc. d'Agr., &c. (1833), Mem., &c. (1837, &c.). Saint-Quentin, Soc. Acad. (1825), Mem. (1830, &c.). Semur, Soc. des Sc. Hist. et Nat. (1842), Bull, (1864, &c.). Soissons, Soc. Arch., Hist. et Sc. (1846), Mem. (1847, &c.). Tarbes, Soc. Acad. des Hautes-Pyrenees (1853), Bull. (1854, &c.). Toulon, Soc. Acad. du Var (1811), Mem. (1832, &c.). Toulouse, Acad. (founded in 1640; known to 1704 as Soc. des Lanternistes and by other names to 1807, when present title was acquired), Hist. et Mem. (1782-1790) and Mem. (1827, &c.); Soc. d'Hist. Nat. (1866),. Bull. (1867, &c.); Soc. des Sc., (1872), Bull. (1872, &c.). Tours, Soc. d'Agr., &c., d'Indre-et-Loire (founded in 1761 as Soc. Roy. d'Agr.), Recueil (1763 and 1803-1810) and Annales (1821, &c.). Troyes, Soc. Acad., based on Soc. Acad. de l'Aube (1798), Mem. (1801, &c.). Valenciennes, Soc. d'Agr., Sc. et Arts (1831), Mem. (1833, &c.; 1865, &c.) and Revue Agricole (1849, &c.). Vannes, Soc. Polymathique du Morbihan (1826), Proc.-verb. (1827, &c.) and Bull. (1857, &c.). Vendome, Soc. Arch., Sc. et Litt. (1862), Bull. (1862, &c.). Verdun, Soc. Philomath. (1822), Mem. (1840). Versailles, Soc. d'Agr. et des Arts (1798), Mem. (1799-1864) and Bull. (1866, &c.); Soc. des Sc. Nat. et Med. (1832), Mem. (1835, &c.); Soc. des Sc. morales, &c. (1798), Mem. (1847-1897), Revue (1899, &c.). Vesoul. Soc. d'Agr., &c., de la Haute-Saone (1801; reorganized in 1819 and 1832), Recueil Agronom. (1836, &c.), Mem. (1859, &c.), and Bull. (1869, &c.). Vitry-le-Francois, Soc. des Sc. et Arts (1861), Bull. (1867, &c.). Constantine (Algeria), Soc. Archeol. (1852), Annuaire et Recueil (18 53, &c.).

Germany And Austria-Hungary.-Agram, Jugo-slavenska Akademija or South Sla y. Acad. (1866), various publications; Croatian Nat. Hist. Soc. (1885). Altenburg, Naturforsch. Ges. d. Osterlandes (1817), Mittheil. Augsburg, Naturforsch. Ver. (1846), Ber. (1848, &c.). Bamberg, Naturforsch. Ges. (1834), Ber. (1852, &c.). Berlin, Ges. naturf. Freunde (1773), Sitzungsber. (1860,&e.); Deutsch-asiatischeGes. (1902), Zeitschrift. Blankenburg, Naturwiss. Ver. des Harzes (1831), Ber. (1841, &c.). Bonn, Naturh.-Verein (1843), Verhandl. (1844, &c.); Gorres Ges. (1876), Hist. Jahrbiich. (1879, &c.); Niederrhein. Ges. (1818, reorganized, 1839). Bremen, Naturwiss. Ver. (1864), Abhandl. (1868, &c.). Breslau, Schles. Ges. f. vaterl. Kultur (1803), Jahresber. (1804, &c.). Bromberg, Deutsche Ges. f. Kunst u. Wiss. (1902) with 7 sections, Jahresber. (1902, &c.). Briinn, K. k. Mdihr.-Schles. Ges., Mittheil (1821, &c.). Budapest, K. Magyar Termeszettudomdnyi Tdrsulat or Roy. Hung. Soc. of Nat. Sciences (1841), many publications, monthly proceedings of zoological, chemical and botanical sections. Cassel, Ver. f. Naturkunde, Jahresber. (1837, &c.). Colmar, Soc. d'Hist. Nat. (1859), Bull. (1860, &c.). Cracow, Towarzystwo Naukowe, afterwards Akademija Umiejetnosci or Acad. of Science (1815), with several sections each publishing proceedings; the Acad. issues a Bulletin (1873, &c.). Danzig, Naturforsch. Ges., Versuche (1745-1757) and Schriften (1820, &c.); Bot.-zoolog. Ver. (1878). Donaueschingen, Ver. f. Gesch. u. Naturgesch. (1801), Schriften. Dresden, Naturwiss. Ges. Isis (1833), Sitzungsber. (1861, &c.); Ges. f. Natur-u. Heilkunde (1818), Jahresber. (1848, &c.); Ges. f. Botanik u. Zoologie, Nunquam Otiosus (1870, &c.). Diirkheim, Pollichio, Naturwiss. Ver., Jahresber. (1843, &c.). Elberfeld, Naturwiss. Ver., Jahresber. (1851, &c.). Emden, Naturforsch. Ges. (1814), Jahresber. (1837, &c.). Erfurt, Kgl. Pr. Akad. gemeinniitz. Wiss., Acta (1757, &c.), Abhandl. (1860, &c.). Frankfort, Seckenbergische naturforsch. Ges. (1817), Museum (1834-1845) and Abhandl. (1854, &c.). Freiburg (in Baden), Naturforsch. Ges. (1821), Ber. (1858, &c.). Fulda, Ver. f. Naturkunde (1865), Ber. (1870, &c.). Giessen, Oberhess. Ges. f. Naturund Heilkunde (1833), Ber. (1847, &c.). Gorlitz, Oberlausitzer Ges. d. Wiss. (1779), Magazin (1822)

Naturforsch. Ges. (1811), Abhandl. (1827, &c.). Gorz, Soc. Imp. Reale, Mem. Gottingen, K. Ges. d. Wissensch. (1751, 1893), Gott. gelehrte Anzeigen, Abhandl. (1845, &c.) and Nachr. (1845, &c.). Gratz, Naturwiss. Ver. Mittheil. (1863, &c.). Greifswald, Naturwiss. Ver. von Neu-Vorpommern, Mittheil. (1869, &c.). Halle, Naturf. Ges. (1779), Abhandl. (1853, &c.); Naturwiss. Ver. (1848), Zeitschrift (1853, &c.). Hamburg, Naturwiss. Ver. (1837), Abhandl. (1846, &c.). Hanau, Wetterauische Ges. (1808), Jahresber. (1852, &c.). Heidelberg, Naturhist.-med. Ver., Verhandl. (1857, &c.); Akad. der Wiss. Stiftung H. Lanz (1909). Hermannstadt, Siebenbiirgisch. med. Ver. f. Naturwiss., Verhandl. (1849, &c.). Innsbruck, Ferdinandeum, Beitrdge (1825-1834) and Neue Zeitschrift (1835, &c.). Jena, K. Leopold.-Carol. Akad. Athenaeum (1875, &c.); K. Leopold.-Carol. D. Akad. d. Naturf., Leopoldina (1859, &c.); Med.-naturwiss. Ges. Jen., Zeitschr. (1864, &c.). Karlsruhe, Naturwiss. Ver. (1863), Verhandl. (1864, &c.). Klausenburg,_Siebenburg. Museum, Annalen. Leipzig, Ges. Deut. Naturforscher u. Arzte (1822), Tageblatt (1836, &c.), Verhandl.; K. Srichs. Ges. d. Wiss. (1846), Ber. (1846, &c.) and Abhandl. (1850, &c.); Deutsche morgenland. Ges. (1845), Zeitschrift (1847, &c.), Abhandl. (1857, &c.). Lemberg, Ges. v. Galizien, Ber. Luneburg, Naturwiss. Ver., Jahresber. (1852, &c.). Magdeburg, Naturwiss. Ver., Abhandl. (1869, &c.). Mainz, Rhein. naturforsch. Ges. (1834). Mannheim, Ver. f. Naturk., Jahresber. (1834, &c.). Marburg, Ges. z. BefOrderung der gesamtem Naturwiss., founded in 1816 as Kurhessische Akademie, Schriften (1823, &c.) and Sitzungsber. (1866, &c.). Meissen, Ver. f. Erdk., Isis (1845). Metz, Acad., based on Soc. des Lettres, &c. (1819), Mem. (1828, &c.); Soc. d'Hist. Nat., Mem. (1843) and Bull. (1844, &c.). Munich, Miinchener Orient. Ges. (1901), Beitrage. Nuremberg, Naturhist. Ges. (1801), Abhandl. (1852, &c.), Mittheilungen; Naturhist. Ges. (1801), Mittheil. and Abhandl. Posen, Deutsche Ges. f. Kunst. u. Wiss. (1901). Prague, K. Bohm. Ges. (1770, 1784) consists of two classes, receives a state subsidy, Abhandl. (1785, &c.) and Sitzungsber. (1859, &c.); Naturhist. Ver. Lotos, Lotos (1851, &c.); Ges. zur Forderung deutscher Wiss., Kunst. u. Lit. in Batmen (1891), state subsidy and many private bequests, Mittheil. and other publications. Pressburg, Ver. f. Naturk., Verhandl. (1856, &c.). Ratisbon, Zoolog.-mineralog. Ver. (1846, since 1883 called Naturwiss. Ver.), Abhandl. (1849, &c.). Reichenbach (Voigtland, Saxony), Ver. f. Naturk. (1859), Mittheil. Rostock, Verein f. Freunde der Naturgeschichte (1847), Archiv. Roveredo, I.R. Accad. (1750), Atti (1826, &c.). Strassburg, Soc. des Sc. Agr. et Arts (1802), Mem. (1811, &c.) and Bull. (1843, &c.); Wissenschaftl. Ges. (1906), Schriften (1906, &c.). Stuttgart, Ver. f. vaterl. Naturk. (1845), Jahresber. (1850, &c.). Thorn, Copernicus Ver. (1854). Trieste, Soc. Adriatica, Boll. Ulm, Ver. f. Mathem. u. Naturwiss. (1865), Verhandl. Vienna, K. k. Zoolog.-bot. Ges., Verhandl. (1851, &c.); Verein z. Verb. Naturwiss. Kentnisse, Schriften (1862, &c.). Wiesbaden, Nassauischer Ver. f. Naturk. (1829), Jahrbi cher (1844, &c.). Zweibriicken, Naturhist. Ver. (1863), Jahresber. (1864, &c.).

Switzerland.-Basel, Naturforsch. Ges. (1817), Ber. (1835, &c.) and Verhandl. (1835, &c.). Bern, Soc. Helvetique des Sciences Nat. (1815), Actes (1816, &c.), Comptes rendus (1879), Memoires (1829, &c.). Chur, Naturforsch. Ges., Jahresber. (1856, &c.). Geneva, Soc.. de Phys. et d'Hist. Nat., Mem. (1821, &c.); Societe des Arts (Athenee),. founded by H. B. de Saussure in 1776; Institut National genevois (1853), Mem. and Bull. Lausanne, Soc. Vaudoise des Sc. Nat., Bull.. (1842, &c.). Neuchatel, Soc. des Sc. Nat., Hem. (1835, &c.) and Bull.. (1844, &c.). St Gall, Naturwiss. Ges., Ber. (1860, &c.). Solothurn, Naturhist. Kantonal-Ges., Jahresber. (1825, &c.). Zurich, Naturforsch. Ges. (1746), Abhandl. (1761-1856), Mittheil. (1846, &c.), and Vierteljahrsschr. (1856, &c.); Allg. Schweizer Ges. f. d. Naturwiss., Verhandl., Anzeiger, and Denkschr. (1829, &c.).

Italy.-Congresso degli Scienziati Italiani, Atti (1844-1845) Riunione degli Sc. Ital., Atti (1839-1847; 1873, &c.). Bologna,. Accad. delle Sc. dell' Istit. di Bologna (1714), Rendic. (1833, &c.), and Mem. (1850, &c.). Brescia, Accad., afterwards Ateneo, Comment. (1808, &c.). Catania, Accad. Gioenia di Sc. Nat., Atti (1825, &c.). Florence, R. ilMuseo di Fis. e Stor. Nat., Annali (1808, &c.); Soc.. Asiatica Italiana (1886), Giornale. Lucca, R. Accad. Lucchese (1584),. Atti (1821, &c.). Messina, R. Accad. Peloritana. Milan, Accad. Fis. Med. Statist., Diario ed Atti (1846, &c.); R. Istit. Lombardo, Mem.. (1819, &c.), Giornale (1840, &c.), Atti (1860, &c.), and Rendic. (1864, &c.); Soc. Ital. delle Sc. Nat., Atti (1860, &c.) and Mem. (1865, &c.). Modena, R. Accad. di Sc., &c., Mem. (1833, &c.); Soc. Ital. delle Sc., Mem. (1782, &c.). Naples, R. Istit. d'Incoragg. alle Sc. Nat. (1806), Atti (1811, &c.); Soc. Reale di Napoli (1808), consists of three sectional academies. Padua, R. Accad. di Sc., Lett., ed Arti (1779), Saggi (1786, &c.) and Revista (1851, &c.). Palermo, R. Accad. di. Scienze (1722). Rome, Soc. Ital. per it Progresso delle Scienze (1907). Venice, R. Istit. Veneto di Sc. (1838), Atti (1841, &c.) and Mem. (1843, &c.); Ateneo Veneto, two sections, literature and science.. Verona, Accad. d'Agricoltura, Scienze, Lettere, Arti e Commercio (1768), Atti and Memorie. Belgium.-Brussels, Soc. Roy. des Sc. Nat. et Med. (1822), Journ. de Med. (1842-1895) and Annales (1892, &c.); Soc. Roy. Linn. (1835), Bull. (1872, &c.); Soc. scientifique de Bruxelles (1875), Revue (1877, &c.), Annales (1877, &c.). Ghent, K. Vlaamische Acad. (1886). Liege, Soc. Roy. des Sc. (1835), Mem. (1843, &c.). Mons, Soc. Prov. des Sc., &c., du Hainaut (1833), Mem. (1839, &c.).

Holland.-Amsterdam, K. Nederlandsch Instituut, Proc.-verb. (1808, &c.), Verhandel. (1812, &c.), Tijdschrift (1847); Genootschap ter Beford. der Natuur-, &c., Kunde, Maanblad (1807, &c.) and Werken (1870, &c.); Hollandsche Maatschappij, Werken (1810, &c.); Maatschappij ter Befordering van het Natuurkundig onderzoek der Nederl. Kolonien (1890), branches in Batavia and Paramaribo, Notulen, Bulletins, &c. Arnheim, Natuurkundig Genootschap, Tijdschrift (1844, &c.). Bois-le-Duc, Provinc. Genootschap, Handelingen (1837, &c.). Groningen, Natuurk. Genootschap, Versl. (1862, &c.). Haarlem,. Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetensch. (1752), Verhandel. (1754, &c.). The Hague, K. Zoolog.-Botanisch Genootschap, Versl. (1864, &c.). Luxembourg, Soc. des Sc. Nat., Publ. (1853, &c.). Middelburg, Zeeuwsch Genootschap der Wetensch., Verhandel. (1769, &c.) and Archief (1856, &c.). Utrecht, Provinc. Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetensch. (1773), Verhandel. (1781, &c.) and Aanteekeningen (1845, &c.) promotes the study of medicine, natural history, law and literature. Batavia, Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetensch. (1778), Verhandel. (1781, &c.), Tijdschrift (1853, &c.), and Notulen (1862, &c.); Natuurk. Vereeniging in Nederl. India

(1850), Tijdschrift (1851-1865) and Verhandel. (1856, &c.).

Denmark.-Copenhagen, K. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, based on Kjobenhavnske Selskab (1743-1813), Skrifter (1781, &c.) and Afhandlinger (1824, &c.); Naturhist. Forening, Meddelelser (1849, &c.). Reykjavik, Islenzka Ndttiirufraedisfelag (1889), annual reports. SwEDEN.-Gottenburg, K. Vetenskaps och Vitterhets Samheille, Handlingar (1778, &c.). Stockholm, K. Svenska Vetenskaps Akademi, Handlingar (1740, &c.) and Arberrittelser (1820, &c.). Upsala, K. Vetenskaps Societeten (1710), Acta (1720, &c.).

NoRwAY.-Christiania, Physiographiske Forening, Mag. for NaturVidensk. (1832, &c.); Videnskabs-Selskabet (1857), Forhandl. (1859, &c.), Skrifter (1894, &c.). Throndhjem, K. Norske Vidensk.-Selskab, Skrifter (1817, &c.).

Spain.-Barcelona, R. Acad. de Buenas Letras, the oldest Spanish society, Mem. and Boletin; R. Acad. de Ciencias y Artes (1763). Madrid, R. Acad. de Cien. Exactas, Fis., y Nat. (1847), Mem. (1850, &c.); Soc. Expan. de Hist. Nat., Anales (1872, &c.). San Fernando, R. Acad., Mem. Portugal.-Coimbra, Instituto de Coimbra (1852). Lisbon, Soc. Portugueza de Sciencias Naturais (1907), Bulletin (1907, &c.). Russia.-Siezd Russkikh Yestestvoispytately (Meeting of Russ. Naturalists), first meeting at ` St Petersburg 1867-1868, Trudy or Trans. (4to, 1868, &c.). Dorpat, Naturforsch. Ges. (1853), Sitzungsber. (1853, &c.) Archiv (1854, &c.) and Trudy (1884, &c.); Gelehrte Estnische Ges., Verhandl. (1840, &c.), Schriften (1863-1869) and Sitzungsber. (1861, &c.). Ekaterinburg, Soc. of Naturalists (1870), Zapiski. Helsingfors, Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica (1821), Acta (1875, &c.); Finska Vetenskaps-Soc. (1838), three sections. Kaminietz, Naturforsch. Ges. Kazan, Soc. of Naturalists at University, Protokoly (1870, &c.) and Trudy (1872, &c.). Kharkoff, Soc. of Scientists at Univ., Trudy (1870, &c.) and Protokoly (1870, &c.). Kieff, Soc. of Naturalists, Zapiski. Lemberg, Polish Soc. for the Advancement of Science (1901). Moscow, Imp. Soc. of the Friends of Nat. Hist., Anthrop., &c. (1863), Izviestiya or Bull. (1865, &c.); Soc. Imp. des Naturalistes (1805), Mem. (4to, 1806) and Bull. (8vo, 1829, &c.). Odessa, Soc. of Naturalists of New Russia, Zapiski (1872, &c.) and Protokoly (1874, &c.). Riga, Naturforsch.-Ver. (1845), Corr.-Blatt (1846, &c.) and Arbeiten (1865, &c.). St Petersburg, Imp. Soc. of Naturalists (1868), Trudy (1870, &c.). Saratov, Soc. of Naturalists (1895), Trudy (1899, &c.). Warsaw, Soc. of Friends of Sc., Roczniki (1802-1828); Warsaw Naturalists' Soc. (1889).

Rumania.- Bucharest, Acad. Rometnei (1866), Annalile (1867, &c.); Soc. de .,,Stiinte (1891); Soc. Politechnica (1881). Jassy, Soc. Stiintifica si Literard (1889).

G Reece. -Athens, ciAoXoyucosobXXoyosHapvaoaos (1865), IIapvaooos and other publications; `H Ev ' AOi) vacs 'ErcoTnyovucO `ETacpeia (1888), since 1899 styled Ecvaia 'Aeao?µeca.

Central And South America.- BOgoth, Soc. de Naturalistas Colombianos, Contribuciones (1860, &c.). Buenos Aires, Soc. Cientifica Argentina (1872), Anales (1876, &c.). Caracas, Soc. de Ciencias, Boletin (1868, &c.). Cordova, Acad. Nation., Bol. (1874, &c.). Guatemala, Instit. Nac.; Academia (1888); Ateneo (1903), 7 sections. Havana, Acad. de Cien. (1861), Anales (1864, &c.). La Paz (Bolivia), Academia Aymara (1901). Mexico, Soc. Mex. de Hist. Nat. (1868), La Naturaleza (1869, &c.); Academia Mejicana (1875), Memorias (1876-1896); Acad. Mex. de Sciencias (1894), Anales. Rio de Janeiro, Palestra Cient., Archives (1858, &c.). Santiago, Soc. de Hist. Nat. Japan.- Tokyo, Asiatic Soc. of Japan (1872), Trans. (1874, &c.); Deutsche Ges. f. Naturu. Volkerkunde Ostasiens (1873), Mitteil. (18 73, &c.). II. Mathematics Many of the general scientific societies (see class i.) have mathematical and other special sections. Among defunct English societies may be mentioned the Mathematical Society, which used to meet in Spitalfields (1717-1845) and possessed a library, and the Cambridge Analytical Society, which published Memoirs (4to, 1813). The London Mathematical Society (1865, incorporated 1894), Proc. (1865, &c.), the Mathematical Assn. (1871), Gazette, and the Edinburgh Mathematical Society (1883), Proc. (1883, &c.), are still flourishing.

United States: American Mathem. Soc. (reorganized 1894), meets at Columbia University, Bull. and Trans. France: Paris, Soc. Mathem. de France (1872), Bull. (1873, &c.). Germany and Austria-Hungary: Berlin, Mathem. Ver. der Univ. (186,), Ber. (1876, &c.); Berliner Mathem. Ges. (1901), Sitzungsber. Budapest, Mathematikai es Phys. Tdrsulat (1891). Cassel, Geometer-Ver. (1878). Dresden, Ver. praktisch. Geometer (1854), Jahresber. (1861, &c.). Essen, Feldmesser-Ver. (1869). Gottingen, Mathemat. Ver. (1868). Hamburg, Mathemat. Ges. (1690), Mittheil. Konigsberg, GeometerVer. (1872). Leipzig, Deutsche Mathem. Vereinigung (1891), founded at Halle, Jahresb. Strassburg, Geometer-Ver. (1881). Stuttgart, Deutscher Geometer-Ver., Zeitschrift (1872, &c.). Holland: Amsterdam, Genootschap der Mathemat. Wetensch. Kunstoeffinengen (1782-1788), Mengelwerken (1793-1816), and Archief (1856, &c.). Spain: Valladolid, R. Acad. de Matematicas (1803, &c.), now dissolved. Russia: Kazan, Phys. and Math. Soc. (1880). Moscow, Mathemat. Soc. (1867). Japan: Mathemat. Soc. of Tokyo, Journal (1878, &c.).

III. Astronomy The first International Astronomical Congress met at Heidelberg in 1863, and the first international conference for photographing the heavens at Paris in 1887. The Royal Astronomical Society was founded in 1820 under the title of Astronomical Society of London, and was incorporated on the 7th of March 1831. It occupies rooms in Burlington House, and has published Memoirs (1882, &c.) and Monthly Notices (1831, &c.). There are also the British Astronom. Soc. in London, and societies at Bristol (1869), Reports; Leeds (1859), Manchester and Liverpool (1881); Toronto, Roy. Astr. Soc. of Canada (1890), Trans. (1890), Proc. (1902), Journal (1907, &c.); Madison, Astronomical and Astrophysical Soc. of America (1899) San Francisco, Astr. Soc. of the Pacific (1889), Publ.; Paris, Soc. Astr. (1887), Bull.; Berlin, Kgl. Astr. Recheninstitut (1897); Leipzig, Astronomische Ges. (1863), Publ. (1865, &c.) and Vierteljahrsschrift (1866, &c.); Turin, Soc. Astr. Ital. (1906), Revista; Brussels, Soc. Belge d'Astr., de Meteorol. et de Physique du Globe (1893), Bull. mens.; Antwerp, Soc. d'Astr. (1905), Gazette; St Petersburg, Russ. Astr. Soc. (1890), Investija (1396, &c.); and Mexico, Soc. Astr. (1902), Boletin (1902, &c.).

IV. Physics The first International Electrical Congress was held at Paris in 1881. The Physical Society of London was founded in 1874 and registered under the Companies Act; it publishes Proceedings (1874, &c.). The London Electrical Society (1836) did useful work in its Transactions (1837-1840, vol. i.) and Proceedings (1841-1843). Sir W. Siemens was one of the originators of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (founded in 1871 and registered in 1883). It owns the Ronalds library of electricity and magnetism and publishes a Journal. In London there are also the Faraday Soc. (1903), Trans. and Proc., and the Optical Soc. United States: Philadelphia, Amer. Electrochem. Soc., Trans. (1902). New York, Nat. Elec. Light Assn. (1885), Proc. (1885); Amer. Phys. Soc. (1899), Bull. (1899) included since 1903 in the Physical Review; Am. Inst. of Electr. Eng. (1884), Trans. and Proc. France: Cambrai, Soc. Magnetique, Archives (1845). Paris, Soc. Franc. de Phys. (recognized as of public utility on the 15th of January 1881), Bull.; Soc. Int. des Electriciens (1883), Bull. Germany: Berlin, Physikalische Ges. (1843), Fortschritte der Physik (1847, &c.); Elektrotechnisch. Ver. (1879), Ztschr. (1880, &c.). Breslau, Physikalischer Ver. Frankfort, Physikalischer Ver. (1824), Jahresber. (1841, &c.), and Wetterkarten daily. Konigsberg, Phys.-okon. Ges. (1790), Schr. (1859, &c.). Italy: Naples, R. Accad. delle Sc. Fis. e Matem., Rendic. (1856, &c.) and Atti (1863). Rome, Soc. degli Spettroscopisti Ital.; Soc. Ital. di Fisica (1897), Il nuovo cimento. Holland: Rotterdam, Bataafsch. Genootschap van Proefondervindelijke wijsbegeerte, Verhandel. (1774, &c.). Russia: St Petersburg, Russ. Physico-Chemical Soc., Journal (1869, &e.).

V. Chemistry Pharmaceutical societies are placed in class xiii. (Medicine, &c.). The Chemical Society of London for the promotion of chemistry and the sciences immediately connected with it was instituted on the 23rd of February 1841; a charter of incorporation was obtained in 1848. It publishes Memoi r s (1843, &c.), and Quarterly Journal (1849, &c.). Chemistry and its connexion with the arts, and agricultural and technical matters, form the subjects of the Institute of Chemistry, founded on the 2nd of September 1877 and incorporated in 1885. It publishes Proc. The Society of Chemical Industry (1881) was incorporated in 1907, and publishes a Journal. The Society of Public Analysts publishes the Analyst (1876, &c.). The oldest of the numerous photographic societies is the Royal Photographic Society of Great Britain (1853), which issues a Journal. The Royal College of Chemistry was founded in July 1845, and had a brief career; it published Reports (1849). The Cavendish Society was instituted in 1846 for the publication and translation of works and papers on chemistry. It came to an end in 1872 after having issued 30 vols.

United States: New York, American Chemical Soc. (1876), Proc. (1876), Journ. (1879) and Abstracts (1907). Washington, Chem.' Soc. (1884), Bull. now the Jour

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Bibliography Information
Chisholm, Hugh, General Editor. Entry for 'Learned Societies'. 1911 Encyclopedia Britanica. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/bri/l/learned-societies.html. 1910.

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