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Bible Commentaries
Acts 4

Vincent's Word StudiesVincent's Studies

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Verse 1

Captain of the temple. It was the duty of the Levites to keep guard at the gates of the temple, in order to prevent the unclean from entering. To them the duties of the temple police were entrusted, under the command of an official known in the New Testament as "the captain of the temple," but in Jewish writings chiefly as "the man of the temple mount." Josephus speaks of him as a person of such consequence as to be sent, along with the high - priest, prisoner to Rome.

Came upon [επεστησαν] . Or stood by them, suddenly. Compare Luke 24:4; Acts 22:20; Acts 23:11. Of dreams or visions, to appear to.

Verse 2

Being grieved [διαπονουμενοι] . Only here and ch. 16 18. The Rev. renders the force of dia by "sore troubled;" vexed through and through. The resurrection. The Sadducees denied both the resurrection and a future state. "In the Gospels the Pharisees are represented as the great opponents of Christ; in the Acts it is the Sadducees who are the most violent opponents of the apostles. The reason of this seems to be, that in the Gospels Jesus Christ came in direct collision with the Pharisees, by unmasking their hypocrisies and endangering their influence among the people; whereas the apostles, in testifying to the resurrection of Christ, opposed the creed of the Sadducees. Perhaps, also, in attacking the apostles, who taught the resurrection of that Jesus whom the Pharisees had persecuted and crucified, the Sadducees aimed an indirect blow at the favorite dogma of their rival sect" (Gloag, " Commentary on Acts ").

Verse 3

In hold [εις τηρησιν] . A somewhat antiquated rendering. Better, as Rev., in ward. See on 1 Peter 1:4.

Verse 4

The number was about five thousand. Translate ejgenhqh as Rev., came to be; indicating the addition to the original number of the many that believed.

Verse 7

What power - what name. Lit., what sort of power; what kind of name.

Have ye done. The ye closes the sentence in the Greek with a contemptuous emphasis : you people.

Verse 12

Salvation [η σωτηρια] . Note the article : the salvation; the Messianic deliverance.

Verse 13

Boldness. See on freely, ch. 2 29.

Perceived [καταλαβομενοι] . The word, meaning originally to seize upon or lay hold of, occurs frequently in the New Testament in different phases of this original sense. Thus, to apprehend or grasp, Ephesians 3:18; Philippians 3:12, Philippians 3:13; Romans 9:30 : of seizure by a demon, Mark 9:18 : of something coming upon or overtaking, John 12:35; 1 Thessalonians 5:4 : of comprehending, grasping mentally, as here, Acts 10:34; Acts 25:25.

Unlearned [αγραμματοι] . Or, very literally, unlettered. With special reference to Rabbinic culture, the absence of which was conspicuous in Peter's address.

Ignorant [ιδιωται] . Originally, one in a private station, as opposed to one in office or in public affairs. Therefore one without professional knowledge, a layman; thence, generally, ignorant, ill - informed; sometimes plebeian, common. In the absence of certainty it is as well to retain the meaning given by the A. V., perhaps with a slight emphasis on the want of professional knowledge. Compare 1 Corinthians 14:16, 1 Corinthians 14:23, 1 Corinthians 14:24; 2 Corinthians 11:6.

Took knowledge [επεγινωσκον] . Or recognized. See on ch. Acts 3:10.

Verse 15

Conferred [συνεβαλον] . See on pondered, Luke 2:19.

Verse 17

It spread [διανεμηθη] . Only here in New Testament. Lit., be distributed. In 2 Timothy 2:17, "their word will eat as canker," is, literally, will have distribution or spreading [νομην εξει] . Bengel, however, goes too far when he represents the members of the council as speaking in the figure of a canker. "They regard the whole as a canker."

Verse 18

To speak [φθεγγεσθαι] . See on 2 Peter 2:16.

Verse 21

Punish [κολασωνται] . Originally, to curtail or dock; to prune as trees : thence to check, keep in bounds, punish.

Verse 24

Lord [δεσποτα] . See on 2 Peter 2:1.

Verse 25

Servant [παιδος] . See on ch. Acts 3:13.

Rage [εφρυαξαν] . Only here in New Testament. Originally, to neigh or snort like a horse. Of men, to give one's self haughty airs, and to act and speak insolently. Philo describes a proud man as "walking on tiptoe, and bridling [φρυαττομενος] , with neck erect like a horse."

Verse 27

Didst anoint [εχρισας] . See on Christ, Matthew 1:1.

Verse 28

Thy hand. Thy disposing power.

Verse 32

Heart and soul. See on Mark 12:30.

Verse 33

Gave [απεδιδουν] . Lit., gave back [απο] ; as something which they were in duty bound to give.

Verse 37

The money [το χρημα] . The sum of money.

Bibliographical Information
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Acts 4". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://studylight.org/commentaries/eng/vnt/acts-4.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.
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