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Forbear [στεγοντες] . Lit. no longer forbearing. See on 1 Corinthians 9:12; LXX, Sir. 8 17. For Class. parall. Soph. O. 100 15; Elec. 1118; Eurip. Hippol. 844; Ion 1412. He means that his longing for some personal communication from the Thessalonians became intolerable.
To be left - alone [καταλειφθηναι - μονοι] . Implying, as we sent (ver. 2) and I sent (ver. 5), the previous presence of Timothy with him at Athens.
Our brother. Comp. 2 Corinthians 1:1; Colossians 1:1; Philippians 1:1; Romans 16:23; 1 Corinthians 1:1; 1 Corinthians 16:12.
Minister [διακονον] . See on Matthew 20:26; Mark 9:35. Not in the official sense of deacon which occurs only in the Pastorals. Diakonov minister and diakonia ministry or service are common expressions of service to Christ or to men. Paul habitually uses them in this way. See Acts 1:25; Acts 6:4. Diakonoi is used of ministers of Satan, 2 Corinthians 11:15, and diakonov of the civil magistrate, Romans 13:4. See Introduction to the Pastoral Epistles. 23 Fellow laborer. Omit from text. 24 To establish [στηριξαι] . See on Luke 22:32; Introd. to Catholic Epistles, Vol. 1, p. 625; 1 Peter 5:10; 2 Peter 1:12.
Moved [σαινεσθαι] . N. T. o o LXX In Class., as early as Homer, of dogs; to wag the tail, fawn (Hom. Obadiah 1:10 Obadiah 1:217; Obadiah 1:16 Obadiah 1:6). Hence of persons, to fawn or cringe. The word is apparently used here in the original sense, to be shaken. 25 We are appointed [κειμεθα] . As Luke 2:34 (see note); Philippians 1:17. Comp. Acts 14:22, in which occur four of the words used here. For the thought, see Matthew 5:10; Matthew 10:17; Matthew 16:24; 1 Peter 2:21 ff.; 1 Peter 4:12; 2 Timothy 3:12.
The tempter [ο πειραζων] . Only here and Matthew 4:3. LXX See on Matthew 6:13.
In vain [εις κενον] . The phrase only in Paul. See 2 Corinthians 6:1; Galatians 2:2; Philippians 2:16. The force of the preposition is fairly represented by to in the phrase to no purpose. LXX has eijv kenon, eijv to kenon, and eijv kena.
Now [αρτι] . See on John 13:33. Const. with we were comforted (ver. 7), not with came.
Good remembrance [μνειαν αγαθην] . Better kindly remembrance. Comp. Romans 5:7 (see note); Romans 7:12; Titus 2:6; 1 Peter 2:18. See on ch. 1 Thessalonians 1:3.
Affliction [αναγκη] . Rev. distress. The derivation from agxein to press tightly, to choke (Lightfoot, Ellicott) is doubtful. In the sense of urgency, distress, seldom in Class. See 1 Corinthians 7:26; 2 Corinthians 6:4; 2 Corinthians 12:10; Luke 21:23.
Stand fast [στηκετε] . The sense of firm standing is derived from the context, and does not inhere in the word. In Mark 3:31; Mark 11:25, it means simply to stand. Comp. Philippians 4:1. It does not occur earlier than N. T.
Exceedingly [υπερεκπερισσου] . Comp. Ephesians 3:20. Paul is fond of compounds with uJper above. Of the 28 N. T. words compounded with uJper, 22 are found in Paul, and 20 of them only there.
Perfect [καταρτισαι] . Primarily, to adjust, fit together; so mend, Matthew 4:21. Of the creation of the world, Hebrews 11:3. See on Matthew 21:16; Luke 6:40; 1 Peter 5:10; Romans 9:22.
Direct [κατευθυναι] . Lit. make straight. Only in Paul and Luke. See on Luke 1:79, and comp. 2 Thessalonians 3:5. Frequent in LXX
With all his saints [μετα παντων των αγιων αυτου] . Saints is often explained as angels; but the meaning is the holy and glorified people of God. OiJ agioi is uniformly used of these in N. T. and never of angels unless joined with aggeloi. See Luke 9:26; Mark 8:38; Acts 10:22. It is doubtful if oiJ agioi is used of angels in LXX Zechariah 14:5, which is confidently cited as an instance, is quoted at the conclusion of the Didache (xvi. 7), clearly with the sense of glorified believers. %Agioi aggeloi appears Tob. 11 14; 12 15; Job 5:1. Angels has no connection with anything in this Epistle, but glorified believers is closely connected with the matter which was troubling the Thessalonians. See ch. 1 Thessalonians 4:13. This does not exclude the attendance of angels on the Lord 's coming (see Mark 8:38; Luke 9:26), but when Paul speaks of such attendance, as 2 Thessalonians 1:7, he says, with the angels [αγγελων] of his power.
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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on 1 Thessalonians 3". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 22 / Ordinary 27