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Bible Commentaries
Jeremiah 20

Utley's You Can Understand the BibleUtley Commentary

Introduction

Jeremiah 20:0

PARAGRAPH DIVISIONS OF MODERN TRANSLATIONS

(The parentheses represent poetic literary units)

NASBNKJVNRSVTEVNJB
(Jeremiah 19:1-6)(Jeremiah 19:1-6)
Pashhur Persecutes JeremiahThe Word of God to PashhurJeremiah's Conflict With Pashhur the Priest
Jeremiah 20:1-6Jeremiah 20:1-6Jeremiah 20:1-6Jeremiah 20:1-6Jeremiah 20:1-6
Jeremiah's ComplaintJeremiah's Unpopular MinistrySelections From the 'Confessions' of JeremiahJeremiah's Complaints to the LORDJeremiah's Fifth and Sixth Personal Laments
Jeremiah 20:7-13(vv. Jeremiah 20:7-13)Jeremiah 20:7-10(vv. Jeremiah 20:7-10)Jeremiah 20:7-13(vv. Jeremiah 20:7-13)Jeremiah 20:7(vv. Jeremiah 20:7)Jeremiah 20:7-12(vv. Jeremiah 20:7-12)
Jeremiah 20:8-13(vv. Jeremiah 20:8-13)
Jeremiah 20:11-12(vv. Jeremiah 20:11-12)
Jeremiah 20:13Jeremiah 20:13(vv. Jeremiah 20:13)
Jeremiah 20:14-18(vv. Jeremiah 20:14-18)Jeremiah 20:14-18(vv. Jeremiah 20:14-18)Jeremiah 20:14-18(vv. Jeremiah 20:14-18)Jeremiah 20:14-18(vv. Jeremiah 20:14-18)Jeremiah 20:14-18(vv. Jeremiah 20:14-18)

READING CYCLE THREE (see “Guide to Good Bible Reading”)

FOLLOWING THE ORIGINAL AUTHOR'S INTENT AT PARAGRAPH LEVEL

This is a study guide commentary, which means that you are responsible for your own interpretation of the Bible. Each of us must walk in the light we have. You, the Bible, and the Holy Spirit are priority in interpretation. You must not relinquish this to a commentator.

Read the chapter in one sitting. Identify the subjects (reading cycle #3). Compare your subject divisions with the five translations above. Paragraphing is not inspired, but it is the key to following the original author's intent, which is the heart of interpretation. Every paragraph has one and only one subject.

1. First paragraph

2. Second paragraph

3. Third paragraph

4. Etc.

Verses 1-6

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: Jeremiah 20:1-6 1When Pashhur the priest, the son of Immer, who was chief officer in the house of the LORD, heard Jeremiah prophesying these things, 2Pashhur had Jeremiah the prophet beaten and put him in the stocks that were at the upper Benjamin Gate, which was by the house of the LORD. 3On the next day, when Pashhur released Jeremiah from the stocks, Jeremiah said to him, “Pashhur is not the name the LORD has called you, but rather Magor-missabib. 4For thus says the LORD, 'Behold, I am going to make you a terror to yourself and to all your friends; and while your eyes look on, they will fall by the sword of their enemies. So I will give over all Judah to the hand of the king of Babylon, and he will carry them away as exiles to Babylon and will slay them with the sword. 5I will also give over all the wealth of this city, all its produce and all its costly things; even all the treasures of the kings of Judah I will give over to the hand of their enemies, and they will plunder them, take them away and bring them to Babylon. 6And you, Pashhur, and all who live in your house will go into captivity; and you will enter Babylon, and there you will die and there you will be buried, you and all your friends to whom you have falsely prophesied.'“

Jeremiah 20:1 “Pashhur” There are several people in the OT with this name.

1. In this text a priest whose task was to maintain order in the temple (cf. Jeremiah 29:26)

2. Another priest in Jeremiah's day, but with a different father, Jeremiah 21:1; Jeremiah 38:1; Nehemiah 11:12.

3. Another person in Jeremiah 38:1 (two Pashhurs in this verse).

4. Head of a post-exilic family, Ezra 2:38; Ezra 10:22; Nehemiah 7:41; Nehemiah 10:3; Nehemiah 11:12.

KB 980 quotes two authors who speculate that Pashhur is an Egyptian name (cf. JPSOA marginal note), “son of Horus.” If so, this is a strange name for a priest of YHWH (possibly part of a pro-Egyptian faction). Most scholars simply say the meaning is unknown.

Jeremiah renames him “terror on every side,” cf. Jeremiah 20:3-6.

“heard Jeremiah prophesying these things” This goes back to Jeremiah 18:0 or 19, or both.

Jeremiah 20:2 Although YHWH promised to protect Jeremiah (cf. Jeremiah 1:18-19), it did not mean he would not emotionally and physically suffer!

“beaten” Probably in the fashion of Deuteronomy 25:2-3. Jeremiah would have been labeled “a wicked man” (i.e., false prophet, cf. Deuteronomy 13:1-5).

“stocks” This word (BDB 246) refers to wooden bars with holes in them for the hands, feet, and neck. These holes were spread widely apart to increase pain and discomfort. The pain was both physical and mental! In 2 Chronicles 16:10 a false prophet was put in them (or it). Jeremiah was being treated as a “false prophet.” This is what bothered him so badly!

The JPSOA translates this word as “cell” and sees it as a small room of confinement. The LXX also has “dungeon,” but “stocks” in a footnote.

Jeremiah 20:4-6 These verses describe the terror (BDB 159 II).

1. his friends will die by the invaders' (i.e., Babylon), sword, while you watch

2. Judah's remaining population will be exiled to Babylon

3. all the wealth of Jerusalem (including the temple) will be carried to Babylon

4. Pashhur and his family will be exiled and die in Babylon

Jeremiah 20:4 “hand” See Special Topic: Hand.

Jeremiah 20:6 “you have falsely prophesied” Exactly how this priestly temple official “prophesied” is uncertain. But he would bear the curse of Deuteronomy 13:1-5 for it! The false prophecy was related to the stability of the temple and Jerusalem (possibly quoting Isaiah's message to Hezekiah, i.e., Isaiah 36-39). It was a message of hope and faith, but at this point in time, it was not YHWH's message (cf. Jeremiah 14:14-16)!

Verses 7-13

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: Jeremiah 20:7-13 7O LORD, You have deceived me and I was deceived; You have overcome me and prevailed. I have become a laughingstock all day long; Everyone mocks me. 8For each time I speak, I cry aloud; I proclaim violence and destruction, Because for me the word of the LORD has resulted In reproach and derision all day long. 9But if I say, “I will not remember Him Or speak anymore in His name,” Then in my heart it becomes like a burning fire Shut up in my bones; And I am weary of holding it in, And I cannot endure it. 10For I have heard the whispering of many, “Terror on every side! Denounce him; yes, let us denounce him!” All my trusted friends, Watching for my fall, say: “Perhaps he will be deceived, so that we may prevail against him And take our revenge on him.” 11But the LORD is with me like a dread champion; Therefore my persecutors will stumble and not prevail. They will be utterly ashamed, because they have failed, With an everlasting disgrace that will not be forgotten. 12Yet, O LORD of hosts, You who test the righteous, Who see the mind and the heart; Let me see Your vengeance on them; For to You I have set forth my cause. 13Sing to the LORD, praise the LORD! For He has delivered the soul of the needy one From the hand of evildoers.

Jeremiah 20:7-13 This is another complaint/lament. Even those called by God experience doubt and fear! He feels that YHWH has

1. deceived him - BDB 834, KB 984, Piel PERFECT and Niphal IMPERFECT (this is an intensified form of a strong VERB often used of seduction; it refers to his call in chapter 1)

2. overcome him - BDB 304, KB 302, Qal PERFECT

3. prevailed against him - BDB 407, KB 410, Qal IMPERFECT

The results (cf. Jeremiah 20:7-8) are that

1. he has become a laughingstock all day long (cf. Jeremiah 48:26, Jeremiah 48:39; Lamentations 3:14)

2. everyone mocks him (cf. Lamentations 3:14)

3. he is reproached

4. he is derided

Verse Jeremiah 20:10 describes the fear he feels as he hears people whispering their curses.

1. he has described his own situation by the very words YHWH used to rename Pashhur (i.e., “terror on every side!”)

2. they denounce him

3. his friends are watching for him to fall

4. they hope to prevail against him

5. they hope to take revenge against him

Since the current canonical structure of Jeremiah is an anthology of his poetic messages, Jeremiah 20:7-13 are obviously placed here because of the “catch-word” Magor-missabib of Jeremiah 20:3 and 10 (cf. Jeremiah 6:25; Jeremiah 46:5; Jeremiah 49:29).

Jeremiah 20:9 Jeremiah tries to express both the pain and joy of being YHWH's spokesperson. Remember this is highly figurative poetry.

1. he tries to forget YHWH

2. he tries not to speak His words anymore

But he cannot! They are like a burning fire shut up in his bones. He cannot hold them back. He must speak (cf. Amos 3:8).

Many of us who feel called to preach/teach/share know these thoughts and feelings.

Jeremiah 20:11 Verse 11 describes YHWH as “a dreaded champion” (BDB 150 and BDB 792, cf. Jeremiah 1:8, Jeremiah 1:19; Jeremiah 15:20). Notice what happens to those who oppose him.

1. they will stumble

2. they will not prevail

3. they will be utterly ashamed

4. they will not succeed

5. they will have an everlasting disgrace

6. they will not be forgotten in their shame

Jeremiah 20:12 Jeremiah describes YHWH.

1. You test the righteous.

2. You see the mind (i.e., kidneys)

3. You let me present my cause to You (cf. Jeremiah 11:20).

Jeremiah 20:13 This verse starts with two IMPERATIVES.

1. sing to the Lord - BDB 1010, KB 1479, Qal IMPERATIVE

2. praise the Lord - BDB 237, KB 248, Piel IMPERATIVE

This adulation is because YHWH has delivered the soul of the needy one from the hand of evil doers.

What a wild swing of emotions is expressed in these verses. From complete discouragement in YHWH in Jeremiah 20:7 to joyous praise in Jeremiah 20:13. This wild swing continues in the next poem (Jeremiah 20:14-18). Jeremiah was a highly emotional person.

Verses 14-18

NASB (UPDATED) TEXT: Jeremiah 20:14-18 14Cursed be the day when I was born; Let the day not be blessed when my mother bore me! 15Cursed be the man who brought the news To my father, saying, “A baby boy has been born to you!” And made him very happy. 16But let that man be like the cities Which the LORD overthrew without relenting, And let him hear an outcry in the morning And a shout of alarm at noon; 17Because he did not kill me before birth, So that my mother would have been my grave, And her womb ever pregnant. 18Why did I ever come forth from the womb To look on trouble and sorrow, So that my days have been spent in shame?

Jeremiah 20:14-18 These verses continue the lament begun in Jeremiah 15:10. Remember these are hyperbolic poetic images! The questions are “Why is he so sad? Is it his personal life or the terrible judgment coming to Judah and Jerusalem?”

Jeremiah 20:16 The first two lines refer to YHWH's destruction of the cities of the plain in Genesis 19:24-28.

Some suggest that “man” be emendated to “day,” but there is no textual or versional evidence.

Bibliographical Information
Utley. Dr. Robert. "Commentary on Jeremiah 20". "Utley's You Can Understand the Bible". https://studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ubc/jeremiah-20.html. 2021.
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