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Pro 10– 12. 16. Second Section. The Proverbs of Solomon.— For the character and date see Introduction. The general plan of this Commentary requires that the paragraph and not the verse be taken as the unit of exegesis. But in this part of Pr., and, indeed, almost throughout the rest of the book, there are no paragraphs and very little indication of unity of purpose underlying the collection of aphorisms. Hence, as the scale of the Commentary precludes verse by verse annotation, the notes will be devoted chiefly to the elucidation of difficulties and obscurities, giving the renderings to be preferred, and the most probable emendations where emendation appears necessary.
Proverbs 12. Here we have a number of proverbs handling the favourite subject of retribution ( Proverbs 12:2 f., Proverbs 12:7; Proverbs 12:14; Proverbs 12:21; Proverbs 12:28). Several deal with speech ( Proverbs 12:6; Proverbs 12:13, Proverbs 12:16-19, Proverbs 12:22 f.). Other subjects treated of are the virtuous woman, humanity to animals, and the sluggard. No new feature appears.
Proverbs 12:8 . of a perverse heart: Toy happily translates “ a wrong-headed man.”
Proverbs 12:9 is interesting as pointing to the growth of social distinctions among the Hebrews. The picture of later Jewish life that we gather from the Rabbinical literature shows an aristocracy of intellect rather than of wealth.— honoureth himself: the Heb. implies rather “ plays the great man.”
Proverbs 12:10 . Reflected in D ( cf. Deuteronomy 5:14; Deuteronomy 25:4).
Proverbs 12:12 . Very difficult. The RV renders the Heb. as well as it can be rendered, but yields no satisfactory meaning. The LXX, slightly changing the word for “ net” and transferring it to the end of the verse, gives the only satisfactory solution: “ the wicked desire evil things, but the roots of the pious are firm.”
Proverbs 12:16 . concealeth shame: the idea conveyed in the context is that the prudent man takes no notice of an insult; Toy “ ignores an affront.”
Proverbs 12:25 . Heaviness: read “ anxiety” ( cf. mg.) .
Proverbs 12:26 a is untranslateable. RV is not admissible. The LXX is perhaps best: “ the righteous takes thought for his neighbour.” Many read “ the righteous searches out his pasture.”
Proverbs 12:27 offers no clear antithesis, and the text is corrupt.
Proverbs 12:27 a appears to be a hunting metaphor, but the word translated “ roast” (so the Rabbis) is quite unknown. Modern scholars derive from Arabic, and render “ rouse” or “ start.”
Proverbs 12:27 b. Read “ there is valuable wealth for the diligent man.”
Proverbs 12:28 b. MT cannot be translated. EV contains about as many mistakes as could be packed into so short a sentence. The LXX shows that the second clause contains, not a synthesis as it is now, but an antithesis. The original probably read “ but the way of the wicked (leads) to death.”
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Peake, Arthur. "Commentary on Proverbs 12". "Peake's Commentary on the Bible ". https://studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 21 / Ordinary 26