Millions miss a meal or two each day.
Help us change that! Click to donate today!
Exodus 2:1 to Exodus 4:31 . Preparation and Call of Moses.
Exodus 2:1-10 E. His Birth and Upbringing.— If the text can be trusted, we are informed that “ a man of the house of Levi took (to wife) the (only) daughter of Levi” ( cf. Exodus 6:20, Numbers 26:59 P), who would thus be, according to the genealogy of P, his aunt, or the sister of his father Kohath. Possibly, however, the text has been abridged, and ran, as LXX with some variations suggests, “ took one of the daughters of Levi to wife and made her his own” (lit. had her). It is implied in Exodus 2:2 that Moses was the firstborn. But in Exodus 2:4; Exodus 2:8 he has a grown-up sister. Moreover, in Exodus 15:20 Miriam is called pointedly “ the sister of Aaron,” and in Numbers 12 complains with him against Moses. This would all be explained if E had related the birth of Aaron and Miriam from Jochebed, and of Moses from a second wife having another name, and if the editor had by abridgment removed the discrepancy with P. Another suggestion has been that Moses was in the oldest tradition of unknown parentage, and Aaron and Miriam unrelated to him. Maternal love and pride would sufficiently explain the three months’ concealment. In Hebrews 11:23, where LXX ( cf. Syro-Hexaplar) is followed in ascribing the action to both parents, a deeper motive is found in an intuition of faith in the child’ s future, based on his comeliness ( cf. Acts 7:20). The “ ark” ( Exodus 2:3) or chest, in which the child was laid was made of papyrus ( mg.) strips, cut from the pith of the tall reed-like plant which then grew along the lower Nile, though now only found higher up the river. Cf. Isaiah 18:2 for light boats or canoes made of this material. The ark was made watertight with asphalt (“ slime” ), which was imported into Egypt from the Dead Sea (pp. 32f., Genesis 14:10) for embalming and other purposes, and with pitch. It was then placed in the reedy growth by the river’ s brink. It is not clear whether suph, which furnished the Heb. name for the Red Sea ( Yam Suph) denoted any specific plant. The Nile banks in the S. half of the delta are now bare, but so late as 1841. were thickly fringed with reeds. That the Divinely-called hero or heroine must overcome all obstacles in the path of destiny was a widespread faith in antiquity, as shown by the stories of Semi-ramis, Perseus, Cyrus, and Romulus. What Driver calls “ the singularly similar story of Sargon, king of Accad (3800 B.C.), is worth quoting. “ My lowly mother conceived me, in secret she brought me forth. She set me in a basket of rushes, with bitumen she closed my door; she cast me into the river, which rose not over me. The river bore me up; unto Akki, the irrigator, it carried me Akki, the irrigator, as his own son . . . reared me” (Rogers, Cuneiform Parallels, 1912, p. 136). In spite of E’ s fondness for naming, the princess has no name in the text. Later traditions supply the lack with Tharmuth, Thermuthis, Bathja, and Merris. The last, given by Eusebius, recalls Meri, the name of one of the 59 daughters of Rameses II, her mother being a Kheta princess. Of this the first two may be variant forms. While the princess bathed, perhaps from a bath-house, her ladies-in-waiting guarded her privacy from the bank. From the water she saw the chest, and sent the female slave who was in attendance on her in the water to fetch it. Josephus suppresses the circumstance of the bathing. Compassion for the little foundling, whose exposure proved his Hebrew parentage, led the princess to evade her father’ s edict. The sister intervened at the psychological moment with her offer to find “ a woman giving suck,” and the child’ s mother is bidden to suckle “ it under the guise of a wet-nurse or foster-mother. An Egyptian woman would hardly have undertaken the task. So he “ grew,” i.e. ( cf. Genesis 21:8) till he was weaned, which would be at three or four years, and “ became a son to her.” On this slender statement tradition built largely, Josephus and Philo much amplifying the modest inference of Stephen that he was “ instructed in all the wisdom of the Egyptians” ( Acts 7:22). Driver points out that if, according to Erman, a good Egyptian education “ comprised such things as moral duties and good manners, reading, writing, composition, and arithmetic,” it also included such undesirable items as “ mythology, astrology, magic, and superstitious practices in medicine.” It is safer to say that the most certain historical inference from Exodus 1:15 to Exodus 2:10 is that Moses had an Egyptian name (meaning “ born.” cf. Thutmosis, “ Thoth is born,” Ra-mses, etc.). If he had been invented he would have had a Heb. name. The derivation ( Exodus 2:10) is a purely popular play on the sound of the word in Heb.
Exodus 2:6 . Render, “ And she (the princess) opened it and saw him.” “ The child” is an ungrammatical gloss not found in LXX. The next words, “ and, behold, a boy weeping,” may be derived from J, the sound of the child weeping being in his narrative the clue.
Exodus 2:11-22 J. Moses’ s Flight to Midian.— Here is interposed an incident from J, who uses the same word “ grow” (contrast Exodus 2:10) of Moses reaching man’ s estate, interpreted in Acts 7:23 as 40 years of age ( cf. 42 years in Jubilees). The “ Egyptian” slain by Moses may have been some bully of a gangmaster ( cf. Exodus 3:7). The well-intentioned but unjustifiable assumption of the authority to punish committed Moses to the career of a patriot ( cf. Hebrews 11:24-26). But the incident was distorted by rumour, and not only aroused the king’ s anger, but set his own countrymen against him. Midian, whither he fled, is on some maps placed in the S.E. of the Sinai peninsula on the W. of the Gulf of Akaba. But the evidence of Ptolemy and the Arabic geographers, confirmed by Burton, locates it on the E. Its people, regarded in Genesis 25:1-6 J ( cf. 1 Chronicles 2:46 f., 1 Chronicles 4:17) as distant blood-relations of Israel, had, at the time when this story took shape, apparently not yet come to be regarded as the bitterest of national foes (as in Numbers 31, perhaps based on Numbers 25:6 f.). The later view has led to “ the troops of Midian” being taken as symbolising the enemies of the soul. “ The priest of Midian” is introduced without explanation or apology; and in Exodus 2:18 he becomes the counsellor of Moses. It is possible that a real religious connexion existed between the Kenites (to whom the family of Jethro belonged, see Judges 4:11) and early Israel ( cf. Exodus 2:18 *).— Burckhardt found that the pasturing of flocks was still “ the exclusive duty of the unmarried girls” ( cf. Rachel in Genesis 29:9). M’ Neile renders Exodus 2:19 b , “ and he actually drew water for us,” pointing out that “ Moses and Jacob drew water for women, while a slave ( Genesis 24:19 f.) allowed a woman to draw for him.” The tradition that Moses married a Midianitish woman would hardly have been preserved unless it had been widespread, for in Numbers 25:6 ff. (P) such an act is regarded as worthy of death. Zip-porah means “ bird,” and is the feminine of Zippor, the name of the father of Balak. In Judges 7:25 the Midianitish chiefs are named Oreb (raven) and Zeeb (wolf). It has been suggested that this points to a primitive totemistic belief, betrayed when obsolete by the ancient names ( Genesis 29:31-33 *). A family or clan is by this system linked as having the same totem animal.
Exodus 2:18 . Reuel: the name, meaning “ God’ s friend,” which, if original here, would have been given in Exodus 2:16, is oddly inserted by the editor from Numbers 10:29 *. Possibly, like some Sabæ an kings and priests, he had two names. The LXX has Jethro twice in Exodus 2:16 . The AV “ Raguel” reproduces the same Heb. differently, following LXX.
Exodus 2:22 . a sojourner in a strange land. Driver notes that “ strange” is no longer in English an equivalent of “ foreign,” and gives instances. The word “ sojourner” implies a popular play upon the first syllable of the word Gershom. In Judges 18:30 the priests of Dan claim descent from Moses through Gershom.
Exodus 2:23 to Exodus 3:15 . The Call of Moses ( first account) . Exodus 2:23 a, J, Exodus 2:23 b – Exodus 2:25 P, Exodus 3:1 E, Exodus 3:2-4 a, J, Exodus 3:4 b, E, Exodus 3:5 J, Exodus 3:6 E, Exodus 3:7-9 a J, Exodus 3:9 b – Exodus 3:14 E, Exodus 3:15 Rje.
Exodus 2:23 a J. many will refer to the 67 years’ reign of Rameses II, unless it is a gloss by a scribe (Old Latin omits) or editor (so Baentsch) to suit P’ s view of Moses as 80 years old (77). In J ( Exodus 4:20; Exodus 4:25) Gershom is still an infant at the return. It is likely that Exodus 4:19 f., Exodus 4:24-26, should follow here but have been displaced by the compiler. The death of the king is clearly mentioned as removing the obstacle to Moses’ s return. But after the solemn call a merely negative reason seems inadequate. If this view be correct, the appearance at the bush will have been placed by J ( Exodus 3:2) on the way back to Egypt or in Goshen itself.
Exodus 2:23 b – Exodus 2:25 . The sequel in P of Exodus 1:14. God’ s “ remembering” and His “ covenant” are favourite ideas with this writer, and have passed into the devotional language of the Church. In Gen. all the sources agree in linking the patriarchs by bonds of purpose and promise with a God who was their faithful and watchful friend.
Exodus 2:25 . The last words are strictly “ and God knew,” and are usually taken in an intensified sense of interested and sympathetic knowing, as frequently ( cf. Exodus 3:7 below). But the omission of the object is strange, and has led some to correct the text. The LXX “ and made Himself known unto them” only requires a slight alteration of the vowel points (p. 35), and gives a good sense.
Exodus 3:1-10 . The Revelation at the Bush.— According to E ( Exodus 3:1; Exodus 3:4 b, Exodus 3:6) Moses had “ led the flock to the back of the wilderness,” i.e. the W., since the E. was always regarded as being in front (as the N. is with us), N. and S. being left and right. The flock belonged to “ the priest of Midian,” a term not used elsewhere by E. but which suits the representation of Jethro in Exodus 3:18 (E), and need not be a gloss from Exodus 2:16 J. Thus, accidentally, Moses “ came to the mountain of God,” and learnt that it was such by the voice of God (“ out of the midst of the bush” is probably a gloss from J). By this discovery, it is implied, Horeb became a sacred mountain, i.e. a place where God was peculiarly at home, and, therefore, where man was specially susceptible to Divine influences, even as the mediæ val candidate for knighthood would be most likely to see visions or hear voices during his midnight vigil before the altar. In primitive thought the tie with locality was no doubt crudely conceived, but not a few OT references show that the association of places with God’ s special presence long retained its value, as symbolising and concentrating an aspect of reality to which the abstract doctrine of omnipresence fails to do justice. Moderns, who reckon it unspiritual to call any place sacred, because God is everywhere, may condemn themselves to finding Him nowhere. It has been usual to identify Horeb ( Exodus 3:1) with Sinai, or at most to distinguish the former as covering the district in which the latter was placed, and to locate the whole region in the Sinaitic peninsula, where Christian tradition has loved to find it. Recently, however, it has been sought by Sayce and others to prove that Sinai was not in the peninsula at all, but N.E. of it, near Edom; and by M’ Neile to show that, as in regard to other places, the sources differ, and that while Sinai was rear Kadesh, N. of the head of the gulf of Akaba, Horeb was S.E., on the E. shore of the gulf. Horeb is mentioned only by E (here and in Exodus 17:6, Exodus 33:6) and by D, while J and P refer only to Sinai. Really the evidence is conflicting and obscure, and it matters little which identification is adopted (p. 64).— As E told how Horeb became sacred, so— we must suppose— originally J related here how Sinai also was shown to be holy by the revelation at the bush ( Seneh) . Fire is constantly a symbol of God’ s presence ( cf. Exodus 13:7, “ the pillar of fire,” Exodus 19:18, Exodus 24:17, Ezekiel 1:27; Ezekiel 8:2). In view of the large number of undoubted cases, like that of Joan of Arc, in which visions and voices have been authentically reported by the original subjects of the abnormal experiences, it is reasonable to suppose that it was so in this case, though, in view of the long oral transmission, it would be rash to assert it positively. In any event the story embodies a lofty and suggestive symbolism. The unconsumed bramble bush may signify Israel. burnt by the Divine wrath yet spared destruction ( cf Keble, quoted by M’ Neile); or Moses, the fleshly pole or contact-point for the transmission of the stream of redemptive energy, unclean (like Isaiah), yet not slain by the Divine holiness, which was then conceived under quasi-physical representations. Only once ( Deuteronomy 33:16) is the sacred bush again mentioned in OT ( cf. Mark 12:26).—” The angel of Yahweh” is sometimes distinguished from Yahweh and sometimes (as here, Exodus 3:2) identified with Him ( Genesis 16:7 *). But the phrase always marks some sensible manifestation of the Divine. As the term is missing in Exodus 3:4 and Exodus 3:7 , probably “ the angel of” is here a gloss due to the reverence of a later age. It is never found in P.— The removal of the “ shoes” or sandals ( Exodus 3:5) was a traditional mark of reverence, arising more probably from ancient custom than from fear of soiling the sanctuary, and is maintained by Mohammedans ( Genesis 35:2 *). The place was already holy “ ground,” and did not merely become so through the manifestation. So now worshippers do not wait for service to begin before removing their hats.— Moses is sent by no new God, but by the God of the patriarchs ( Exodus 3:6). Each advance in revelation or redemption is due to the same Being; and the religious experience of to-day is continuous with the experience of yesterday out of which it has been developed. In Mark 12:26 Christ further draws from this verse the inference that God will not allow death to break the conscious fellowship He has established with His creatures.— That Moses “ hid his face” ( Exodus 3:6) was a sign of reverence parallel with the baring of the feet noted in Exodus 3:5 (J). In this source ( cf. Exodus 3:7) there is a fearless use of human terms (“ seen,” “ heard,” “ come down” ) to make God’ s relations with man real and intelligible. Such language is for plain people more effectively true than coldly abstract words.— In Exodus 3:8 we first meet with the phrase, so frequent in J and D, “ a land flowing with milk and honey,” see RV references. “ Honey,” like the present-day Arabic cognate dibs, probably includes the grape-juice syrup, used with food, like jam. The lists of Palestinian peoples (as in Exodus 3:8, cf. Genesis 15:19-21 *, and RV references), are common in JE and D, but have probably often been amplified. The term Canaanite is used ( cf. Genesis 12:6 J) generally of the pre-Israelitic inhabitants of Canaan, but has a narrower sense, of the dwellers on the sea coast and in the Jordan valley. It is a question whether the inclusion of the Hittites among the peoples conquered by Israel is justified by victories over some Hittite colony ( cf. Numbers 13:29 JE, Genesis 23* P); for the main body of the nation was established N. of the Lebanon and was never subject to Israel. Amorite (p. 53, Genesis 14:7 *) also is used as a comprehensive term, but properly refers to a distinct people, ruled by Sihon, N.E. of the Dead Sea, and settled early N. of Canaan (Tell el-Amarna Letters, 1400 B.C.). For the Perizzites, see Genesis 13:7 *. The Hivites belonged to the centre, and the Jebusites held Jerusalem till David took it ( 2 Samuel 5:6-9).
Exodus 3:4 a. The Heb. is “ And Yahweh saw . . . and God called,” so that the division of the verse between J and E is grammatically natural.
Exodus 3:11 f. Moses’ s First Difficulty— personal unfitness ( cf. the cases of Gideon, Jeroboam, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel). Once Moses was rash and impulsive. Now he is older and sees the difficulties. All the sources agree in this representation. A fugitive, a shepherd, and unknown, how shall he interview the Pharaoh, or lead Israel? The promise, “ I will be with thee” (omit “ certainly” ), draws aside the veil and shows him his Unseen Divine Companion; cf. RV references.— The “ token” or sign ( Exodus 2:12) is but a further promise that on the sacred mount ( Exodus 2:1 *) the people should offer God worship; unless a reference to the “ rod” or the “ pillar” has been displaced.— The awkward “ ye shall serve” ( Exodus 2:12) becomes, by changing the Heb. initial t to y, “ they shall serve.”
Exodus 3:13-15 . Moses’ s Second Difficulty— ignorance of the Name under which Israel was to worship God. This is expressed in two of the sources (E here, and P in Exodus 2:6). He must learn the name of the God who was sending him. In ancient religions generally the knowledge of the name was a necessity for prayer or sacrifice ( Genesis 32:29 *), and its meaning was sometimes an indication of the nature of the God. Four points arise here: (i) the original pre-Mosaic meaning of the name Yahweh; (ii.) its meaning for Moses; (iii.) the idea of it in the mind of the author; (iv.) the identification of the author. As to (i.) there has been much discussion, but little agreement. Possibly it may have had reference to nature processes—” He who comes down as the rain or the lightning-flash,” or He who makes these come down. But the solution of this problem matters little. The greatest words may grow in meaning from the humblest seed of suggestion. Driver considers that there is enough Assyriological evidence “ to show that a West-Semitic deity, Ya-u, was known as early as c. 2100 B.C.” Taking (iv.) next, it is clear that, for the prophetic writer E, the name Yahweh was regarded as unknown both to the Israelites in Egypt and also to the patriarchs. The text here and the usage of this source in Gen. prove this. Indeed, it is possible that the identification of Yahweh with the God of the fathers is due to a later editor, and that the contrast between old and new was originally thought of as a revolution, a passage from the worship of Elim (“ gods” ) to the worship of one God, Yahweh, greater than all else, and alone revered in Israel. Besides the link with the past through Jethro ( Exodus 18:12 *) it has been suggested that one or more of the tribes may have been worshippers of Yahweh. (iii.) The diversity of views on the point of translation is shown by the four renderings of RV. For other alternatives, see M’ Neile, Ex., p. 22, or HDB ii. 199 (Davidson), or EBi. Exodus 33:20 (Kautzsch). The third mg., “ I will be that I will be,” is supported by Robertson Smith, Davidson, Driver, M’ Neile, and others. [The meaning would be more clearly conveyed to the English reader by the translation, “ I will be what I will be.”— A. S. P.] It brings out the implications both of the root and tense of the verb hayah. The root denotes rather becoming than being, and the tense (imperfect) marks uncompleted process or activity. AV and RV rendering (“ I am that I am”— the unnamable and in expressible One) involves an amount of reflectiveness alien to the Hebrew mind. And so with others: “ I am because I am,” “ I am who am.” Heb. syntax and thought analogies favour decisively the beautiful rendering adopted above, found as early as Rashi (A.D. 1105), and now preferred by British scholars. The temper of noble adventure which belongs to faith is here shown to spring out of the very Name ( i.e. Being) of Yahweh (= “ He will be” ): no one can limit the inexhaustibly fresh possibilities of One so named. The question (ii.) of the meaning of the name for Moses is too large for treatment here; but his must have been the parent conception which the historian has so grandly expressed here. In Exodus 3:14 read the last clause, “ I-will-be hath sent me.” The spelling “ Jehovah” (at least as early as A.D. 1278) arose from misunderstanding the Jewish practice of placing under the four-lettered word (or tetragrammaton) Yhwh (or Jhvh) the vowels of the word Adonay (“ Lord” ) which they pronounced in place of it, out of mistaken reverence based on Exodus 20:7 or Leviticus 24:11; Leviticus 24:16. The correctness of the form here adopted, Yahweh, is established, not merely by analogy with other names derived from verbs (Isaac, Jacob, etc.), but from the transliterations used by early Christian Fathers, before the tradition of substituting Adonay had become established; Theodoret, reporting Samaritan speech, and Epiphanius have Ἰ?αβέ , and Clement of Alexandria has Ἰ?αουαι (or Ἰ?αβέ , the occurrence in which of all the five vowels prompted certain magical uses).
Exodus 3:15 . Observe that in Exodus 3:14-16 there are three instructions of identical or similar scope in regard to the announcement of the Divine Name. The simplest explanation of the repetition is that Exodus 3:16 comes from J. and Exodus 3:14 from E, Exodus 3:15 being a link verse by the redactor of JE.
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Peake, Arthur. "Commentary on Exodus 2". "Peake's Commentary on the Bible ". https://studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 22 / Ordinary 27