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Deuteronomy 12-26, 28. A code of laws (Deuteronomy 1-26) followed by promises to the obedient and threats of punishment for the rest (Deuteronomy 28): see Introd., p. 231. The great Deuteronomic law of one sanctuary is taught or implied in Deuteronomy 12:1 to Deuteronomy 19:13 and hardly in any other part of Dt. This section may, therefore, represent essentially the original Deuteronomic code (see Introd.).
Deuteronomy 25:1-3. Another of Dt.’ s humanitarian laws. Punishment by the bastinado among the ancient Hebrews and Egyptians was common (see Wilkinson- Birch, Ancient Egyptians, i. pp. 305, 308). The present writer saw it in Egypt in 1888; see Exodus 21:20 (showing that a slave was sometimes beaten to death), Proverbs 10:13; Proverbs 19:29.
Deuteronomy 25:3 . The forty stripes became thirty- nine ( 2 Corinthians 11:24) in later times to prevent the proper number from being exceeded.
Deuteronomy 25:4 . God cares even for oxen ( 1 Corinthians 9:9 f.* misapplies this verse) and other dumb animals ( Deuteronomy 15:12-18, cf. Jonah 4:11). Oxen should be allowed to partake of the corn on which in threshing they tread.
Deuteronomy 25:5-10 . Levirate (Lat. levir, husband’ s brother) marriage (p. 109) prevailed widely in ancient times; McLennan traces it to polyandry. Here the motives are to secure succession on the male side and to prevent the family estate from being alienated ( Deuteronomy 25:9).
Deuteronomy 25:9 . loose his shoe: a sign of transference ( Ruth 4:7 *), here of the man’ s honour.— spit: Numbers 12:14, Job 30:10, Isaiah 50:6.
Deuteronomy 25:10 . His family shares his disgrace ( Deuteronomy 21:1-9 *).
Deuteronomy 25:11 f. Cf. CH, § 195: “ If a man has struck his father his hands shall be cut off” (often wrongly translated and then compared with Deuteronomy 25:11 f.).
Deuteronomy 25:13-16 . Leviticus 19:35 f.* (H). That this prohibition was needed is shown by Amos 8:5, Micah 6:10 f.; cf. Ezekiel 45:10. The great weight was used for buying, the small for selling.
Deuteronomy 25:17-19 . Repeats Exodus 17:8-13 * (H). Since the Amalekites had been exterminated under Saul ( 1 Samuel 14:48; 1 Samuel 14:15; 1 Samuel 27:8) and by David ( 1 Samuel 30:17, 2 Samuel 8:12; cf. Numbers 20) how could a command go forth in the seventh century B.C. to destroy them? D writes from the point of view of Moses’ time.
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Peake, Arthur. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 25". "Peake's Commentary on the Bible ". https://studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 21 / Ordinary 26