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Bible Commentaries
Jeremiah 49

Old & New Testament Restoration CommentaryRestoration Commentary

Verses 1-6

Jer 49:1-6

Jeremiah 49:1-6



Of the children of Ammon. Thus saith Jehovah: Hath Israel no sons? hath he no heir? why then doth Malcam possess Gad, and his people well in the cities thereof? Therefore, behold, the days come, saith Jehovah, that I will cause an alarm of war to be heard against Rabbah of the children of Ammon; and it shall become a desolate heap, and her daughters shall be burned with fire: then shall Israel possess them that did possess him, saith Jehovah. Wail, O Heshbon, for Ai is laid waste; cry, ye daughters of Rabbah, gird you with sackcloth: lament, and run to and fro among the fences; for Malcam shall go into captivity, his priests and his princes together. Wherefore gloriest thou in the valleys, thy flowing valley, O backsliding daughter? that trusted in her treasures, [saying], Who shall come unto me? Behold, I will bring a fear upon thee, saith the Lord, Jehovah of hosts, from all that are round about thee; and ye shall be driven out every man right forth, and there shall be none to gather together the fugitives. But afterward I will bring back the captivity of the children of Ammon, saith Jehovah.

Hath Israel no sons. no heir .....

(Jeremiah 49:1)? To understand this, one needs to recall some of the history of Ammon.


Ammon and Moab, were born to Lot by his incestuous union with his daughters (Genesis 19). Their original home was the extensive area east of the Jordan river, northward from the Moabites, and between the Arnon and Jabbok rivers. During the Amorite invasion, the Ammonites lost some of their territory to Sihon (Numbers 21:21-31), who in turn was conquered by Israel under Moses; and the territory was assigned to the tribe of Gad.

Thus, Israel benefited the Ammonites by destroying their old enemies, making the later conduct of Ammon even more reprehensible. Both during the days of the Judges and in the reigns of Saul and David they frequently fought against Israel (2 Samuel 10).

Amos prophesied against Ammon, particularly condemning them for "ripping up the women with child" (Amos 1:13).

The Ammonites regained their territory, and enlarged it by taking Heshbon from Moab, after Tiglath-pileser carried off the tribes of Israel that were east of the Jordan. They hated Israel and Judah continually, and their king engineered the assassination of Gedaliah (Jeremiah 40).

This prophecy, therefore, begins with the question, "Why is the pagan god Malcam and his Ammonite followers in possession of the land God gave to Gad?" Is it because Gad has no heirs? The message is that God will throw Ammon out of the land they have usurped from Israel.

Alarm of war to be heard against Rabbah...

(Jeremiah 49:2). This was the most important Ammonite city and was defended by a strong citadel. It was here that David king of Israel arranged the murder of Bathsheba’s husband (2 Samuel 11:15).

Along with Damascus, this place has continued as one of the oldest continually populated cities in the entire area. The modern Rabbah is Amman, capital of the Hashemite kingdom of Jordan.

Wail, O Heshbon...

(Jeremiah 49:3). Robinson exclaimed that, This must be corrupt, because Heshbon was a Moabite city.

But Heshbon, at the time of Jeremiah’s prophecy was occupied by Ammon. This was the royal city of Sihon, king of the Amorites, whom Israel defeated (Numbers 32:37). Israel assigned it to Gad; and when an opportunity came, Ammon had taken the city. Generally, however, it was a Moabite city.

Ai is laid waste...

(Jeremiah 49:3) This is not the Ai captured by Joshua, for that was on the west side of Jordan. This place is mentioned nowhere else, and the location of it is unknown.

Malcam shall go into captivity...

(Jeremiah 49:3). This national pagan deity of the Ammonites was exactly the same as Milcom, or Molech. Solomon erected high places in Jerusalem, not only for Molech, in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom, but also for many other pagan gods and goddesses to please his wives.

Solomon was punished for this, as indicated by Ahijah, and God rent out of the hand of Solomon ten tribes of Israel, giving the ten tribes to Jeroboam I (1 Kings 11:31-33).

That the burning of infant children as sacrifices to this deity was actually practiced by the Israelites is proved by such passages as Deuteronomy 12:31; Deuteronomy 18:10-13. Also, it is quite likely that David, after the capture of Rabbah, sacrificed many of the survivors by making them "pass through the fire to Molech." The passage on which this is based is disputed, but this writer, nevertheless, believes that is exactly what happened (2 Samuel 12:26-31).

Wherefore gloriest thou in the valleys...

(Jeremiah 49:4)? The exact meaning of the text here is not known, but it is clear enough that the valleys were a possession in which the Ammonites trusted and gloried, along with the treasures mentioned in the same verse. The trusting in any material thing is sinful; and the glorying of mortals in anything whatsoever, except in the grace and forgiveness of God is likewise wrong.

I will bring fear upon thee. ye shall be driven out ... there shall be none to gather the fugitives .....

(Jeremiah 49:5). The total ruin of Ammon is prophesied here. The Bible records the fulfillment of it in 2 Samuel 12:25-31. The Ammonites were captured, the crown of their god Malcam, weighing a talent of gold, and set with precious stones, was given to David; and the spoil of the city was exceeding much.

But afterward, I will turn back the captivity of the children of Ammon...

(Jeremiah 49:6). Here again, the afterward suggests the times of Messiah. The Ammonites were eventually absorbed into the peoples of Arabia, some of whom were present on Pentecost; and it is very likely that the three thousand souls saved that day included some of the descendants of the Ammonites (Acts 2).


The territory of Ammon lay just north of Moab with its capital Rabbah (modern Amman) on the Jabbok river. The Ammonites and Moabites were closely connected by descent and frequently united together in attacks against Israel. Prior to the Israelite invasion of Transjordan under Moses the Ammonites had been dislodged from their traditional home by the Amorite king Sihon. When the Israelites defeated Sihon, they assigned the former Ammonite territory to the tribe of Gad. With the Assyrian deportations of the northern tribes the Ammonites were able to gradually filter back into their ancient territory and occupy towns and villages which for centuries had belonged to Israel.

The oracle against Ammon lends itself nicely to an alliterative outline. Jeremiah speaks here of the crime (Jeremiah 49:1), conquest (Jeremiah 49:2-5), and the conversion (Jeremiah 49:6) of Ammon.

The Crime of Ammon Jeremiah 49:1

The crime of Ammon is infringement upon Israelite territory. From the very earliest times the Ammonites had laid claim to the territory occupied by the tribes of Transjordan. Jephthah had attempted to settle the issue by diplomacy back in the period of the Judges. To the charge that Israel had taken by force the territory of the Ammonites, Jephthah replied that as a matter of fact the Ammonites did not OCCUPY that territory when Israel had entered the land. Since Israel had not taken the land from Ammon originally and since Israel had already occupied the land for three hundred years, Jephthah argued that the Ammonites no longer had any claim to the territory (Judges 11:12-28). The king of Ammon refused to accept this reasoning and war broke out between the two peoples with Jephthah inflicting a crushing blow upon the Ammonites. Now, centuries after Jephthah, the territorial issue has been raised again. Since the Assyrians had removed so many Israelites from the area in 734 and 722 B.C., the Ammonites were able to occupy certain villages in the tribal territory of Gad. It is to this incursion that Jeremiah refers in verse one. “Has Israel no sons? Has he no heirs?” the prophet asks. It is true that Israel has been carried captive but will not his descendants return to claim the land Ammon has wrongfully seized? “Their king” is better read as a proper name “Malcam” as in the ASV. Malcam or Milcom or Molech was the chief god of the Ammonites (1 Kings 11:5; 1 Kings 11:7) and here represents his people just as Chemosh (Jeremiah 48:7) represents the Moabites.

The Conquest of Ammon Jeremiah 49:2-5

The seizure of Israelite territory is an affront to the Lord for “He is there” (Ezekiel 35:10), that is to say, it is His land. See 2 Kings 5:17; Hosea 9:3; Joel 2:18; Joel 3:2; Leviticus 25:23; Psalms 85:1. Therefore, the Lord will bring about the conquest and destruction of Ammon. Rabbah and her daughters (minor cities depending on her) will be destroyed, burned and left desolate. Israel then will be able to recover the territory lost to Ammon (Jeremiah 49:2). The destroyer of Ammon is not specifically named but there can scarcely be doubt that Jeremiah has in mind Nebuchadnezzar. The great Chaldean king devastated Ammon and Moab in 582–581 B.C. At this time the Ammonite king was Baalis who had been instrumental in the assassination of Gedaliah (Jeremiah 40:14).

In view of the forthcoming destruction of the land, Jeremiah calls upon the Ammonites to cry and howl in lamentation over their fate. In uncontrollable grief Jeremiah pictures them running hither and yon trying to find safety behind the “hedges” or stonewalls around fields and vineyards. Though a city of Moab, Heshbon seems at this period to have been under Ammonite control. The location of Ai, mentioned only here, is unknown. The reason for the grievous lamentation is that their god Malcam (see Jeremiah 49:1) has been carried off into captivity along with his priests and his princes (Jeremiah 49:3). What a disconcerting discovery to find that one’s god is really more helpless than the people who worship him.

The Ammonites were proud of their fruitful valleys, particularly the valley of the Jabbok river. The apostate nation had turned from the living God and placed their trust in their natural resources and treasures. Ammon boasted, “Who shall come unto me?” (Jeremiah 49:4). That false confidence will be shattered when God brings a fear upon the land. It will be every man for himself. With only the thought of self-preservation in mind the inhabitants of Ammon will flee in all directions (Jeremiah 49:5). “Every man right forth” probably means that each man takes what he thinks is the shortest route to safety. No one bothers to collect or rally the fugitives. What a sad future awaits those who regarded themselves as invincible.

The Conversion of Ammon Jeremiah 49:6

As in the case of Moab, a note is appended to the oracle against Ammon indicating that the Ammonites will in the future experience the grace of God. The language here is almost identical with that of Jeremiah 48:47 except that the phrase “afterward” replaces the more prophetically precise phrase “in the latter days.” See comments on Jeremiah 48:47.

Verses 7-13


Jeremiah 49:7-13



Of Edom. Thus saith Jehovah of hosts: Is wisdom no more in Teman? is counsel perished from the prudent? is their wisdom vanished? Flee ye, turn back, dwell in the depths, O inhabitants of Dedan; for I will bring the calamity of Esau upon him, the time that I shall visit him. If grape-gatherers came to thee, would they not leave some gleaning grapes? if thieves by night, would they not destroy till they had enough? But I have made Esau bare, I have uncovered his secret places, and he shall not be able to hide himself: his seed is destroyed, and his brethren, and his neighbors; and he is not. Leave thy fatherless children, I will preserve them alive; and let thy widows trust in me. For thus saith Jehovah: Behold, they to whom it pertained not to drink of the cup shall assuredly drink; and art thou he that shall altogether go unpunished? thou shalt not go unpunished, but thou shalt surely drink. For I have sworn by myself, saith Jehovah, that Bozrah shall become an astonishment, a reproach, a waste, and a curse; and all the cities thereof shall be perpetual wastes.

Is wisdom no more in Teman.?

(Jeremiah 49:7) Eliphaz the Temanite (Job 2:11) was the famous wise man of his day, Teman being renowned for its allegedly wise men. The term ’Teman’ here refers to the whole northern district of Idumea, not merely to a city. The question here is asked in irony and requires that it be understood negatively.

Inhabitants of Dedan...

(Jeremiah 49:9). This place is identified with the modern Alula, some 70 miles southwest of Taima. In the times of Jeremiah it was a flourishing caravan city.

Would they not leave some gleaning grapes...

(Jeremiah 49:9)? The questions here imply affirmative answers; but the destruction coming upon Edom would be complete.

Children... widows... I will preserve them alive...

(Jeremiah 49:11). God’s mercy upon this portion of the posterity of Abraham was here promised; but it was not stated for how long a time. Edom indeed continued for many centuries; but they never forsook their wickedness. So marked was this element of Edomite life that their nation was used in the prophecy of Isaiah to stand for all mankind in the final destruction of Adam’s race. This is fully developed in Isaiah 34. See our introduction to this chapter in the commentary on Isaiah for discussion of the phenomenal wickedness of Edom and note the complete justification of God’s judgment upon that people.

Bozrah... shall become a waste...

(Jeremiah 49:13). Located 30 miles south of the Dead Sea, Bozrah was the northernmost of the great Edomite cities. The overthrow of both Bozrah and Edom is prophesied both as a historical certainty and as symbolical of the Lord’s final dealing with Adam’s race.


Beyond the brook Zered, the southern boundary of Moab, lay Edom. Edom was an exceedingly mountainous country rich in copper and iron ore. Because of its mineral wealth and because a main north-south trade route, the King’s Highway, passed through it, Edom was under constant threat of attack from surrounding nations. From the time of David the Israelites were able to dominate Edom except for a few brief periods of independence. Esau’s bitter hatred of his brother Jacob was inherited by his descendants, the Edomites. While history records that Jacob and Esau were reconciled (Genesis 33:1-16), the descendants of these two patriarchs remained implacable foes throughout most of their history.

The Inescapable Calamity Jeremiah 49:7-13

The oracle against Edom begins with a series of rhetorical questions designed to mock the wisdom for which that land was renown. The calamity comes with such suddenness upon Edom that the professional wisemen, counselors, and statesmen are incapable of offering any helpful advice. Teman is a city in the northern part of Edom. Human wisdom is certainly inadequate in the face of the judgment of the living God. The calamity draws near. Jeremiah calls on the neighboring Dedanites who inhabited the region south of Edom. These merchant people apparently carried on extensive trade with Edom and they are here urged to avoid all contact with Edom lest they be caught up in the calamity which was about to befall that nation. “Dwell deep” probably means to withdraw deep into the desert regions where they would be safe from the approaching destruction. It is the time of Edom’s judgment; the Lord will bring calamity upon Edom (Jeremiah 49:8).

The complete devastation of Edom is indicated by two powerful figures of speech. The enemy like grape gatherers will leave no gleanings in the land. Like thieves they will unsparingly plunder the land until they have their fill (Jeremiah 49:9). There is no real reason Why Jeremiah 49:9 should be rendered in English as an interrogative as in KJV and ASV. The ASV marginal reading is superior. The Lord Himself will lay Esau (Edom) bare revealing to the enemy the secret retreats and hiding places thus insuring that all the treasures of the land will be plundered. The inhabitants of Edom will be able to find no safe retreat. The descendants of Edom, those who shared his land and those who lived around about his land, would all suffer in the coming calamity. Most important, Edom himself “is not” i.e., would cease to exist as a nation (Jeremiah 49:10). All the warriors of Edom shall be cut off in the conflict leaving their wives and children as helpless widows and orphans. Yet the gracious God of Israel will care for these helpless ones if they but look to Him for protection. What a beautiful promise here in the midst of ominous threats and dreadful judgments.

Edom must drink of the cup of God’s wrath. The calamity is inescapable. After all, if the chosen people of God shall not escape His judgment, how could Edom? (Jeremiah 49:12). Since Israel must suffer, Edom cannot be unpunished. Furthermore, God has taken an oath that Bozrah, the chief city of northern Edom, and the other cities of the land shall become perpetual desolations (Jeremiah 49:13).

Verses 14-18

Jer 49:14-18

Jeremiah 49:14-18


I have heard tidings from Jehovah, and an ambassador is sent among the nations, [saying], Gather yourselves together, and come against her, and rise up to the battle. For, behold, I have made thee small among the nations, and despised among men. As for thy terribleness, the pride of thy heart hath deceived thee, O thou that dwellest in the clefts of the rock, that holdest the height of the hill: though thou shouldest make thy nest as high as the eagle, I will bring thee down from thence, saith Jehovah. And Edom shall become an astonishment: every one that passeth by it shall be astonished, and shall hiss at all the plagues thereof. As in the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah and the neighbor cities thereof, saith Jehovah, no man shall dwell there, neither shall any son of man sojourn therein.

Thou that dwellest in the clefts of the rocks...

(Jeremiah 49:15). Edom was probably the best fortified nation on earth when Jeremiah prophesied. The rocky vastness of Mount Seir, where Petra (Sela) was located, is a marvel even to this day for all who ever saw the place. Even yet it seems incredible that a nation with such a stronghold could be defeated.

Much of the little Book of Obadiah is incorporated into these prophecies by Jeremiah, and again we have evidence that Jeremiah was familiar with all that any of the prophets before him had written. Obadiah wrote during the ninth century B.C., and Jeremiah prophesied more than two centuries afterward.

Obadiah is not the only prophet who gave pronouncements of God’s wrath upon the Edomites. Others are Ezekiel 25:12-14; Ezekiel 35:1-15; Joel 3:19; Amos 9:12; Isaiah 21:11-12; Isaiah 34:5-7; Isaiah 63:1-6. So far I have already commented upon all of these (except the ones in Ezekiel). To all of these, of course, there must also be added the prophecies against Edom through the prophet Jeremiah.

Sodom and Gomorrah and the neighbor cities...

(Jeremiah 49:18). What is meant here is that the destruction of Edom would be total and complete like that of Sodom and Gomorrah, and that the old seat of the nation would become uninhabited. This, of course, is true to this very day. The neighbor cities of Sodom and Gomorrah were Admah and Zeboiim (Gen. 18--19; Deuteronomy 29:23-25 )

The Subsequent Conditions Jeremiah 49:14-18

Jeremiah begins the second section of the Edom oracle by announcing that he has heard a rumor or report directly from the Lord. God has revealed to the prophet that He has sent an heavenly ambassador or messenger to the nations urging them to come to battle against Edom (Jeremiah 49:14). God guides the counsels of nations. Often they carry out His plans and fulfill His purposes without even being aware that they are being used of God. The Lord has decreed that Edom shall be small among the nations and despised among men (Jeremiah 49:15). To this end he grants success to the enemies who march against Edom.

Again the finger of accusation points to national arrogance as the supreme cause of Edom’s doom. “Your terribleness” should probably be understood as “the terror you inspire.” No doubt many enemies upon approaching Edom were overcome with fear as they beheld what seemed to be unconquerable fortresses nestled in the inaccessible clefts of the mountains. This reputation of invincibleness had misled Edom and had given birth to pride or arrogance within the hearts of the inhabitants of that land.—After all, even if the other cities of the land fell there was still that impregnable fortress Sela or Petra, “the Rock.” Accessible only. by a narrow ravine which could easily be defended by a handful of men this city was the ultimate confidence of the Edomites. The inhabitants had cut huge cisterns for the storage of water and supplies so as to be able to withstand a siege of the longest possible duration. The references to the “clefts of the rock” and “the height of the hill” likely refer to this desert stronghold. The God of Israel will humble the arrogant pride of Edom. Even though they might build their fortresses as high in those mountains as an eagle might build her nest, God will bring them down to the ground (Jeremiah 49:16).

Suddenly the picture changes. The battle is over and Edom has fallen. Centuries pass and Edom remains uninhabited, a complete desolation. Those who pass by the area will hiss or whistle in astonishment at the extent of the desolation. The destruction of Edom shall remind men of the earlier destruction of the cities of the plain in that the whole region would henceforth be uninhabited (Jeremiah 49:18). Of the Patriarchal accounts mentioned in the prophetic books none is mentioned so frequently as the Sodom account. The number of occurrences and the distribution of the references are truly remarkable. From the eighth century on the cities of the plain, made famous by Genesis 19, became proverbial for divine judgment. Their destruction became the norm for punishment—the standard which other judgments approximated or equaled. The emphasis here is not on the manner of Sodom’s overthrow but on the permanent effects of that destruction. Cf. Isaiah 13:19-20; Jeremiah 50:40. Some commentators call attention to the fact that whereas in the case of Moab and Ammon a promise of restoration is appended to the oracle of doom, no such promise appears in the Edom oracle. Edom will be destroyed as completely as Sodom and Gomorrah; there will be no restoration, That this observation is not particularly significant is indicated by two facts. First, Zephaniah (Jeremiah 2:9) uses the Sodom and Gomorrah simile in reference to Moab and Ammon. Second, the prophet Amos (Jeremiah 9:12) foretold that Edom would be included in the Messianic kingdom, at least that is the interpretation that James put upon the passage (Acts 15:15-18).

Verses 19-22

Jer 49:19-22

Jeremiah 49:19-22


Behold, he shall come up like a lion from the pride of the Jordan against the strong habitation: for I will suddenly make them run away from it; and whoso is chosen, him will I appoint over it: for who is like me? and who will appoint me a time? and who is the shepherd that will stand before me? Therefore hear ye the counsel of Jehovah, that he hath taken against Edom; and his purposes, that he hath purposed against the inhabitants of Teman: Surely they shall drag them away, [even] the little ones of the flock; surely he shall make their habitation desolate over them. The earth trembleth at the noise of their fall; there is a cry, the noise whereof is heard in the Red Sea. Behold, he shall come up and fly as the eagle, and spread out his wings against Bozrah: and the heart of the mighty men of Edom at that day shall be as the heart of a woman in her pangs.

Like a lion from the pride of the Jordan...

(Jeremiah 49:19).

This is a prophecy of the coming of Babylon upon Edom. The "pride of the Jordan" refers to the heavy timber and vegetable growth along the banks if the lower river, productive breeding ground for lions in ancient times.

Did Nebuchadnezzar really come against Edom? Indeed yes. Josephus has this.

"In the fifth year after the destruction of Jerusalem, which was the twenty-third of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, he made an expedition against Coele-syria; and when he had possessed himself of it, he made war against the Ammonites and the Moabites; and when he had brought all these nations under subjection, he fell upon Egypt and overthrew it, slew their king, and set up another in his place, and took those Jews that were there (the ones who were led away after the death of Gedaliah) captive."

Despite the fact of Josephus’ having not mentioned Edom specifically here, the nations all around him were mentioned; and the words all these nations undoubtedly included Edom also.

However, the complete fulfillment of the prophecy against Edom did not take place immediately. It began with the activity of the Chaldeans five years after the destruction of Jerusalem. Keil stated that that destruction "is unquestionably inferred from Jeremiah 49:7 ff; Ezekiel 35; Jeremiah 25:9; Jeremiah 25:21, and Malachi 1:3."

Edom’s destruction continued when Alexander the Great conquered the world in the fourth century B.C.; Hyrcanus conquered them in 129 B.C., compelling them to accept circumcision and the Mosaic law. They continued until the first century A.D. as a prominent element among the Jews. The dynasty of Herod (an Edomite) perpetrated (1) the slaughter of the innocents, (2) the mockery of Christ, (3) the murder of John the Baptist, (4) the murder of the apostle James, (5) the imprisonment of Peter and of all the apostles, and (6) in the person of Bernice and Drusilla were factors in the persecution and imprisonment of the apostle Paul. The Herods precipitated the final and total judgment against Edom in the Jewish war that resulted in their being exterminated by Vespasian and Titus in 70 A.D. following the sack of Jerusalem.

Noise heard in the Red Sea...

(Jeremiah 49:21). Donald Wiseman commented on this: Better, Reed Sea (The Hebrew has [~yam] [~cuwp]), that is, ’marshes by the Bitter Lakes.’ The word has not yet reached many scholars; but the old critical hog wash about [~yam] [~cuwp] meaning Reed Sea has been scientifically disproved and emphatically rejected. The rendition ’Reed Sea’ was never anything but a crutch of unbelievers who would not believe that Israel crossed the Red Sea. As a matter of fact, the proper meaning of [~yam] [~cuwp] is End Sea, meaning the Indian Ocean, viewed by ancients as the end of the world. Thus it was actually an arm of the Indian Ocean which Israel really crossed by the miraculous power of God.

The Chosen Conqueror and the Divine Counsel Jeremiah 49:19-22

The enemy which is to come against Edom is compared to a lion that comes up from the pride of the Jordan (ASV) to pounce upon the prey. The lion, which is extinct in Palestine today, posed quite a threat to the inhabitants of the region in Biblical times. The lush vegetation which grows along side of the Jordan river, the so-called pride or swelling of the Jordan, was a favorite haunt for lions in those days. Shepherds especially had to be on guard against the attacks of this beast. In the present passage Edom is called “the habitation of the strong” i.e., strong sheepfold or, as some prefer, permanent or perennial pasture (ASV margin). The phrase “I will suddenly make him run away from her” is difficult and has received various explanations. Probably the meaning is that God will cause the Edomites to flee in fear from their strong habitation in the face of the ravaging lion.

The one who comes to rend and ravage Edom is the appointee of the Lord. “And he who is chosen, him will I appoint over it.”1 No mortal has the right to question the decision of the Lord, no one can “appoint Me the time.” This terminology seems to be taken from the court of law. A plaintiff in a law suit had the right to appoint the time of the trial. But no one can take God to court, as it were, and there protest against his sovereign decisions. Neither can any shepherd or ruler of Edom stand before the Lord to resist Him or His appointee.

The prophet does not name the one appointed by the Lord to conquer the land of Edom. The Chaldeans dealt a crushing blow to Edom as is indicated by Malachi 1:3. During the intertestamental period the Maccabean rulers of Judea launched vicious attacks against the Edomites. The Romans continued the annihilation of that people about the time of the Jewish war against Rome. The conqueror of Edom as depicted in this passage is a composite of all of those agents who would be used by God through the centuries to bring divine judgment to the land of Edom.

It was no accident of history that the Edomites were unable to withstand the invader who plundered their land. Nothing that they did or could have done would have averted that destruction short of complete repentance and turning to the true God in faith. Even the wisdom for which the Temanites were famous could not avert that disaster. The God of the universe and the King of nations has decreed that Edom shall be destroyed. The Hebrew of the last part of Jeremiah 49:20 is difficult but the ASV seems to have captured the sense: ‘Surely they shall drag them away, even the little ones of the flock; surely he shall make their habitation desolate over them.” The enemy will drag away the Edomites as sheep to the slaughter. Even the most feeble among them will not be spared. The pasture upon which the flock of Edom had grazed will be turned to desolation (Jeremiah 49:20).

The sound of Edom’s fall will shake the earth and the wail that shall arise will be heard at the Red Sea (Jeremiah 49:21). In times of prosperity the southern border of Edom extended to the Gulf of Akabah, one of two great arms of the Red Sea (cf. 1 Kings 9:26). As the enemy is strong as a lion, so he is also as swift as an eagle. The towering heights of Edom will offer no difficulty to this conqueror. When he swoops down and spreads his wings over Bozrah the heart of the most fearless men will become “as the heart of a woman in her pangs.”

Verses 23-27

Jer 49:23-27

Jeremiah 49:23-27


Of Damascus. Hamath is confounded, and Arpad; for they have heard evil tidings, they are melted away: there is sorrow on the sea; it cannot be quiet. Damascus is waxed feeble, she turneth herself to flee, and trembling hath seized on her: anguish and sorrows have taken hold of her, as of a woman in travail. How is the city of praise not forsaken, the city of my joy? Therefore her young men shall fall in her streets, and all the men of war shall be brought to silence in that day, saith Jehovah of hosts. And I will kindle a fire in the wall of Damascus, and it shall devour the palaces of Ben-hadad.

There is sorrow on the sea...

(Jeremiah 49:23). Damascus was not situated on a sea, but on the river Barada; and therefore this expression is a metaphor drawn from the restlessness of the ocean, indicating the grief and sorrow of Damascus, as indicated in the following verse. However, in the Old Testament, rivers (especially the Nile) were sometimes called seas. This could be another instance of the same usage.

Hamath. Arpad .....

(Jeremiah 49:23). During Sennacherib’s invasion of Judah, Rabshakeh (his commander) mentioned the pagan gods of these cities, which Sennacherib had destroyed, and from this warned Hezekiah and Jerusalem not to trust in Jehovah (Isaiah 36:18). Hamath marked the farthest extent of the Solomonic empire, which was mentioned as having been restored by Jeroboam I (2 Kings 14:25). This ruthless, pagan city fully deserved the judgment of God pronounced upon then. One of their most intolerable sins was their slaughter of the people of Gilead with threshing instruments of iron (Amos 1:3). This happened during the Syrian war against Israel in the reign of Jehu (2 Kings 10:32-33; 2 Kings 13:7).

Fire in the wall of Damascus...

(Jeremiah 49:27). This verse is almost identical with Amos 1:4. Again it appears that Jeremiah was familiar with the prophets who were before him, Amos having prophesied in the eighth century B.C.

Note that there is nothing in this prophecy that speaks of Damascus as a waste, or without inhabitants. Damascus has continued as an important city even until this day; and the Encyclopedia Britannica gave the population as 383,239 in 1933. This is impressive evidence that these prophecies are the words of God and not the words of men. Oh, but Damascus was on a river! So were Nineveh, and Babylon!

As of a woman in travail...

(Jeremiah 49:24, also Jeremiah 49:22). This expression or its equivalent is found many times in Jeremiah’s writings.


Jeremiah 49:23-27

Damascus was the capital of the kingdom of Aram (Syria), the northern neighbor of Israel. During the ninth century before Christ the Syrians were the most formidable foe with whom the nations of Israel and Judah had to do battle. Damascus reached the height of its power under Hazael (841–801 B.C.) who oppressed Israel and Judah throughout his reign. Damascus suffered greatly in the campaign of Shalmaneser IV in 797 B.C. and the king of Israel was able to recover the territories which he had lost to Hazael (2 Kings 13:25). Under king Rezin (750–732 B.C.) Syria again oppressed the people of God (2 Kings 16:6) and many Judeans were taken captive to Damascus (2 Chronicles 28:5). In 732 B.C. the mighty Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser crushed Damascus and thereby unwittingly fulfilled the prophecies of Isaiah (Isaiah 17:1) and Amos (Jeremiah 1:4-5). Thereafter Damascus lost its political influence. Very little is known about Damascus in the days of Jeremiah. Perhaps some day texts will be unearthed which will shed more light on the political background of the oracle concerning Damascus. Meanwhile it is best to assign the Damascus oracle to the period just prior to the battle of Carchemish.

A Picture of Consternation Jeremiah 49:23-24

The oracle against Damascus opens with a vivid picture of the consternation that sweeps over the land of Aram with the approach of a dreaded enemy. Hamath and Arpad, prominent cities of northern Aram, melt in fear at the reported approach of the foe. Hamath is located about 110 miles north of Damascus and Arpad about 96 miles north of Hamath. The exact meaning of the phrase “there is sorrow on the sea” (Jeremiah 49:23) is uncertain. Some take the expression to mean that the anxious concern over the invasion of the land extends to the seashore, i.e., throughout the country. Others suggest that the prophet is poetically describing the sea as participating in the sorrow of the land of Aram. As the news of invasion sweeps southward even Damascus, the once proud and powerful city, becomes paralyzed by fear. Using one of his favorite figures Jeremiah compares the anguish of Damascus to that of a woman in travail (Jeremiah 49:24).

A Picture of Conflict Jeremiah 49:25-27

The fear of the foe has so paralyzed the inhabitants of Damascus that they cannot flee from their city even though they realize that to remain there will mean disaster to them. The prophet laments, “How sad it is that the city of praise has not been abandoned.” It is impossible to tell from this context whether the lament is sarcastic or sincere. Men have sung the praises of the city of Damascus throughout history. Because of its geographical location at the juncture of several important trade routes the city in antiquity was prosperous and flourishing. In appreciation for the beauty of this place the prophet refers to it as “the city of my joy”(Jeremiah 49:25). But because the inhabitants of Damascus would not flee from before the enemy “her young men shall fall in her streets and all the men of war shall be cut off in that day” (Jeremiah 49:26). Jeremiah 49:27 is based on Amos 1:4; Amos 1:14. The phrase “kindle a fire” denotes the ravages of war (cf. Numbers 21:28; Deuteronomy 32:22). The conflagration shall consume the “places of Benhadad.” At least two kings of Damascus named Benhadad appear in the books of Kings. Some think that “Benhadad” was something of a throne name of the kings of Damascus.

Information concerning the city of Damascus subsequent to the fall of that city to the Assyrians in 732 B. C. is scanty. To date no reference to a destruction of Damascus following the days of Jeremiah has been found. The destroyer of Damascus is unnamed in the prophecy for he is relatively unimportant. The important thing is At the destruction comes from the Lord the God of Israel. Most likely the prediction was fulfilled by Nebuchadnezzar after the battle of Carchemish (605 B.C.) when he victoriously marched throughout the Hatti land i.e., Syria-Palestine.

Verses 28-33

Jer 49:28-33

Jeremiah 49:28-33


Of Kedar, and of the kingdoms of Hazor, which Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon smote. Thus saith Jehovah: Arise ye, go up to Kedar, and destroy the children of the east. Their tents and their flocks shall they take; they shall carry away for themselves their curtains, and all their vessels, and their camels; and they shall cry unto them, Terror on every side! Flee ye, wander far off, dwell in the depths, O ye inhabitants of Hazor, saith Jehovah; for Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon hath taken counsel against you, and hath conceived a purpose against you. Arise, get you up unto a nation that is at ease, that dwelleth without care, saith Jehovah; that have neither gates nor bars, that dwell alone. And their camels shall be a booty, and the multitude of their cattle a spoil: and I will scatter unto all winds them that have the corners [of their hair] cut off; and I will bring their calamity from every side of them, saith Jehovah. And Hazor shall be a dwelling-place of jackals, a desolation for ever: no man shall dwell there, neither shall any son of man sojourn therein.

Little is known of Kedar or Hazor; but from the description here it appears that the people whom God commanded Nebuchadnezzar to destroy were desert-dwellers, living carelessly. Keil suggested that these names "refer to all of the nomadic tribes and shepherd nations of Arabia."

Joshua (Joshua 11:1; Joshua 15:23) and Nehemiah (Nehemiah 11:33) both mentioned towns of the name of Hazor in Palestine; but the Hazor here is evidently Arabian.

Curtains. vessels ... camels ... tents ... flocks ... cattle .....

(Jeremiah 49:29-32). What else was left in the desert? The devastation of these Arabian tribes would be complete and without mercy.

"This prophecy was evidently fulfilled in Nebuchadnezzar’s sixth year (599-598 B.C.) when the Babylonian Chronicle relates that the king of Babylon in Syria sent out companies, and scouring the desert, they took much plunder from the Arabs, their possessions, their domestic animals, and gods. The Babylonians did the same thing again in 581 B.C."

Them that have the corners of their hair cut off...

(Jeremiah 49:32). This does not indicate that God is all that much disturbed about one’s style of haircut, or dress, but is doubtless a reference to this earmark of some pagan cult in rebellion against God. The mention of their gods in the above quotation indicates this probability.


Kedar and Hazor represent the Arabian tribes which occupied the desert regions east of Palestine. The tribe of Kedar, descended from Ishmael, is mentioned by Isaiah (Isaiah 21:16-17), and Ezekiel (Ezekiel 27:21) as well as Jeremiah (Jeremiah 2:10). Several Hazors are mentioned in the Old Testament. It is not certain whether Hazor here is a city, a region, or, as seems most likely, a tribal name. The title of the oracle indicates the fulfillment of the prophecy in the words “which Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon smote” (Jeremiah 49:28). The KJV wrongly makes the verb future. The ASV is preferable. At the time this oracle was placed in its present position within the body of the oracles against the nations it had already been fulfilled and the editor of the book, Jeremiah himself or Baruch, makes note of that fact in the introductory verse.

Exhortation Jeremiah 49:28-32 a

The opening verses of this oracle contain three words of exhortation addressed to (1) the attackers (Jeremiah 49:28-29); (2) the Arabs (Jeremiah 49:30); and (3) the attackers again (Jeremiah 49:31-32 a.).

The oracle begins with an exhortation to the troops of Nebuchadnezzar to arise and plunder Kedar and the other Arab tribes of the eastern desert (Jeremiah 49:28). The Chaldeans will heed the exhortation and will confiscate the tents, flocks, beautifully ornamented tent hangings, vessels, and camels of the Arab tribes. The expression “fear on every side” (Jeremiah 49:29) is characteristic of Jeremiah. See Jeremiah 20:3; Jeremiah 20:10; Jeremiah 46:5; Jeremiah 49:29. Some regard the expression here as the battle cry of the invader; others regard it as descriptive of the effect that the enemy battle cry produces among the Arab tribes.

Just as Jeremiah earlier urged the Dedanites (Jeremiah 49:8) to “dwell deep,” i.e., retreat into the impenetrable desert, so now he urges the inhabitants of Hazor to do the same. The desert dwellers of antiquity relied on the vast expanse of the desert to protect them from the scourge of war. Enemy armies would seldom dare to attempt to penetrate those wide-open spaces where the lack of food and water and the blistering heat would make a military expedition most perilous. But Nebuchadnezzar, the daring young prince of Babylon, has carefully made his plans to attack these tribes. Therefore Jeremiah urges the desert people to retreat even farther into the trackless waste.

Again the prophet turns to the attackers and urges them to launch the attack against the Arab tribes. Three facts about the Arab tribes are mentioned as incentives to the invaders. First, the Arabs are described as a nation “that is at ease, that dwells without care” (ASV). In other words the Arab nations have hitherto felt secure from attack and thus a Chaldean invasion would catch them off guard. Second, the Arabs have no walled cities which would involve the invaders in prolonged siege. Third, the Arabs dwell alone, i.e., they have no powerful neighbors or allies upon which they can call for aid.

Declaration Jeremiah 49:32-33

The second part of the oracle against the Arab tribes contains a divine declaration concerning the destruction and subsequent desolation of the area. The camels of the desert tribes will become spoil for the invader. Those who escape the initial onslaught will be scattered to the wind i.e., in all directions. The phrase “them that are in the utmost corners” (KJV) is more correctly rendered “them that have the corners of their hair cut off” (ASV). The Israelites were forbidden to shave or trim the beard (Leviticus 19:27) and they regarded the custom of the Arabs of cutting off the hair from the edges of the beard and from the temples as something unusual. The calamity of invasion shall surround these Arab tribes (Jeremiah 49:32). As a result of the attack the area of Hazor will become a perpetual desolation, a habitation for jackals (not dragons as in KJV). No man will dwell in that area again (Jeremiah 49:33). Just when Nebuchadnezzar launched his campaign against the desert tribes cannot be determined. That he did attack and conquer Arabia is specifically attested by Berosus, the Babylonian historian, who is quoted at length in the writings of Josephus. The fact that Nebonidus, the last king of Babylon, occupied the oasis of Tema in the Arabian desert would also indicate that the prophecies of this section were fulfilled.

Verses 34-39

Jer 49:34-39

Jeremiah 49:34-39


The word of Jehovah that came to Jeremiah the prophet concerning Elam, in the beginning of the reign of Zedekiah king of Judah, saying, Thus saith Jehovah of hosts: Behold, I will break the bow of Elam, the chief of their might. And upon Elam will I bring the four winds from the four quarters of heaven, and will scatter them toward all those winds; and there shall be no nation whither the outcasts of Elam shall not come. And I will cause Elam to be dismayed before their enemies, and before them that seek their life; and I will bring evil upon them, even my fierce anger, saith Jehovah; and I will send the sword after them, till I have consumed them; and I will set my throne in Elam, and will destroy from thence king and princes, saith Jehovah. But it shall come to pass in the latter days, that I will bring back the captivity of Elam, saith Jehovah.

Elam was a very ancient kingdom mentioned in Genesis 14:1. Feinberg stated that it was two hundred miles east of Babylon and west of the Tigris river; and Hyatt located it "east of Babylonian and north of the Persian Gulf."

The prophecy, unlike others in this chapter, is dated in the beginning of the reign of Zedekiah in 498 B.C. Scholars, seeking to find some reason why this prophecy was given have surmised that, "At the time of this prophecy through Jeremiah the Elamites were threatening Babylon; and the Jewish exiles (hoping for a quick end of their exile) were expecting Elam to overthrow Babylon." If that is true, the prophecy was then designed to show that no power could stand in the way of Babylon.

I will break the bow of Elam...

(Jeremiah 49:35). The Elamites were famous for their skilled use of the bow (Isaiah 22:6), but their skilled bowmen would not be able to stand against the judgment of God.

Four winds from the four quarters of heaven...

(Jeremiah 49:36). Jamieson thought this is a reference to Nebuchadnezzar’s army, made up of soldiers from the four quarters of heaven, i.e., from all over the world.

Till I have consumed them...

(Jeremiah 49:37). A total destruction of Elam as any kind of deterrent to the power and ambitions of Nebuchadnezzar is prophesied.

I will set my throne in Elam...

(Jeremiah 49:38). This occurred when Nebuchadnezzar, God’s instrument, set up his throne in Media, of which Elam was a part. Jeremiah 43:10 provides an example of how Nebuchadnezzar erected his throne in various countries which he conquered. A similar thing is prophesied here.

In the latter days, I will bring back the captivity of Elam...

(Jeremiah 49:39). In the latter days is a reference to the times of the Messiah; and it is a fact that Elamites participated in the blessings of the kingdom of God that began on Pentecost.

"How hear we every man in our own language wherein we were born? Parthians and Medes and Elamites, etc." (Acts 2:8-9)? Some of these, no doubt, were baptized on that Pentecost and formed part of the nucleus of the church of Jesus Christ the kingdom of God.

Note that "bringing back the captivity" of a nation was not primarily a promise of release from physical captivity, but a release from the slavery of sin. No captivity of Elam was mentioned.

AN ORACLE AGAINST ELAM Jeremiah 49:34-39

Elam was located in the hill country east of Babylon and north of the Persian Gulf. Its capital was Shushan or Susa which was located about 200 miles due east of Babylon. Unlike the other nations mentioned in this section of oracles, Elam had very little contact with Israel throughout history. During the time of Abraham an Elamite king by the name of Chedor-laomer and his allies put down a revolt by certain city-states in the Valley of Siddim near the Dead Sea (Genesis 14:1-11). Other than this episode only brief allusions to Elam can be found in the Bible. Isaiah names the Elamites as allies of Assyria in the campaign against Judah (Isaiah 22:6). The same prophet predicts that it will be the Elamites along with the Medes who will ultimately conquer Babylon (Isaiah 21:2-6).

The question will naturally be raised as to why Jeremiah delivered this oracle against far-distant Elam. The suggestion has been made that the oracle was intended mainly for the benefit of the Jewish captives who had only recently been deported to Babylon (in 597 B.C.). Some evidence exists that Elam was giving Nebuchadnezzar trouble about, this time and the Jewish exiles may have been looking to that nation for deliverance. False prophets had stirred their expectations of immediate return to Palestine and at the moment Elam looked like the most likely prospect to make the prediction of these deceivers come true. God then directed Jeremiah to utter this brief oracle against Elam in order that the illusions and delusions of the Babylonian exiles might be dashed to pieces. It may be that a copy of this oracle was sent to exiles along with the letter recorded in chapter 29.

The oracle against Elam is dated “in the beginning of the reign of Zedekiah” (Jeremiah 49:34) shortly after king Jehoiachin had been deported to Babylon. The prophecy was uttered about eight years after the preceding oracles of this section. Babylonian operations against Elam seem to have been conducted in the winter of 596 B.C. which would fall in the early part of the reign of king Zedekiah. It may be that this campaign of Nebuchadnezzar was the beginning of the fulfillment of the present prophecy.

Doom Jeremiah 49:35-38

In spelling out the doom of Elam the prophet makes four points. (1) The strength of Elam will be demolished. God declares that he will break the “bow of Elam,” the weapon on which that nation chiefly relied (cf. Isaiah 22:6). (2) The inhabitants of Elam will be dispersed, scattered to the four winds, as they seek refuge in surrounding nations (Jeremiah 49:36). (3) The Elamites will be dismayed when the fierce anger of the Lord is poured out on their nation. Even in captivity they will be hounded by the sword of the Lord until they are utterly consumed (Jeremiah 49:37). (4) The rulers of Elam will be destroyed. The real Ruler of this world will set up His throne in Elam, remove the king and princes of the land, and appoint a ruler of His own choosing. When Cyrus, the anointed of the Lord (Isaiah 44:28; Isaiah 45:1), incorporated Elam as a province in his vast empire, the present prophecy was fulfilled.

Hope Jeremiah 49:39

In the “latter days” i.e., the days of the Messiah, the Lord will “bring again the captivity of Elam” i.e., reverse the fortunes of Elam. Elamites will experience the spiritual deliverance and blessing of the Messiah’s kingdom. Men from Elam were present in the Pentecost audience when Peter preached the first Gospel sermon (Acts 2:9). Perhaps some of them accepted Jesus Christ as Saviour that day and were baptized into Christ. If so, they would be the first fruits of a great host of their countrymen who would embrace the Gospel of Christ.

Prophecies about Foreign Nations - Jeremiah 46:1 to Jeremiah 51:64

Open It

1. What, in your mind, is a good example of a situation in which justice was served?

2. In what strategic defense or weapon would you have the most confidence during a personal attack?

Explore It

3. Why did Jeremiah say that the mighty warriors of Egypt would cower before Nebuchadnezzar? (Jeremiah 46:13-17)

4. Despite the judgment coming on Egypt, what did God promise them eventually? (Jeremiah 46:25-26)

5. What promises did God make to Israel with honesty, justice, and hope? (Jeremiah 46:27-28)

6. To what terrifying natural disaster did God compare the Egyptian conquest of Philistia? (Jeremiah 47:2-5)

7. Where did the people of Moab misplace their trust, sending themselves and their idols into captivity? (Jeremiah 48:6-9)

8. In the context of judging the nations, what curse did Jeremiah pronounce on the lax or merciful? (Jeremiah 48:10)

9. Why would it be particularly appropriate when Moab became an object of scorn and ridicule? (Jeremiah 48:26-27)

10. What brought about Moab’s destruction as a nation? (Jeremiah 48:42)

11. What was the source of Ammon’s false sense of security? (Jeremiah 49:4)

12. What did God promise to the Ammonites when their punishment was complete? (Jeremiah 49:6)

13. How did God say He would treat the helpless, even within the borders of His enemy, Edom? (Jeremiah 49:11)

14. Why did Edom think its location made it invincible? (Jeremiah 49:15-16)

15. How would Damascus along with Kedar and the kingdoms of Hazor also fall under God’s judgment? (Jeremiah 49:23-33)

16. What would eventually happen to the nation of Elam after it was defeated and taken into exile? (Jeremiah 49:37-39)

17. With their enemies facing God’s wrath, what did Jeremiah predict Israel and Judah would do? (Jeremiah 50:4-5)

18. What attitude of the Babylonians in relation to God’s people convinced God to leave them desolate? (Jeremiah 50:11-13)

19. Since the Babylonians had exiled many of the peoples they conquered from their own land, what would happen when God punished them? (Jeremiah 50:16)

20. When Babylon was made accountable to God, what would become of Israel’s guilt? (Jeremiah 50:20)

21. What did Jeremiah tell us about Israel’s Redeemer? (Jeremiah 50:34)

22. To what historic event did God compare the coming destruction of Babylon? (Jeremiah 50:39-40)

23. What were the Babylonians failing to take into account about God’s relationship to Israel? (Jeremiah 51:5)

24. What nation was to become God’s instrument of justice against Babylon? (Jeremiah 51:11-14)

25. How did Jeremiah contrast the God of Israel with the idols of the other nations? (Jeremiah 51:17-19)

26. What religious disgrace of the people of Israel would be remedied by God Himself? (Jeremiah 51:51-53)

27. What message about Babylon was Seraiah to deliver to the exiles in Babylon? (Jeremiah 51:59-64)

Get It

28. Why was it important for the Jews exiled in Babylon to know that Babylon’s great power would soon fall?

29. Why was it important that each instrument of God’s wrath not be lax?

30. In what ways does modern society practice some of the same evil and rebellious attitudes that brought on God’s punishments for these nations?

31. What will become of those who rejoice when one of God’s servants stumbles morally?

32. How does our worship become acceptable to God?

Apply It

33. In what situation can you demonstrate a new attitude toward a Christian who has stumbled?

34. Through what difficult circumstance will you ask God to give you perspective, patience, and (eventually) freedom?

Questions On Jeremiah Chapters Forty-Seven thru Forty-Nine

By Brent Kercheville

1 What is God’s message to the Philistines (Jeremiah 47:1-7)?

2 What do we learn about God (cf. Jeremiah 47:7)?

3 What is God’s message to Moab (Jeremiah 48:1-47)?

4 What sin does God condemn the people of Moab for (Jeremiah 48:7)?

5 What lessons do we learn about ourselves and about God?

6 What sin does God condemn the people of Moab for (Jeremiah 48:26)?

7 What lessons do we learn about ourselves and about God?

8 What sin does God condemn the people of Moab for (Jeremiah 48:29-30)?

9 What lessons do we learn about ourselves and about God?

10 What hope is given to Moab (Jeremiah 48:47)? Explain how this would be fulfilled.

11 What is God’s message to Ammon (Jeremiah 49:1-6)? Explain how verse 2 and verse 6 would be fulfilled.

12 What is God’s message to Edom (Jeremiah 49:7-22)?

13. Explain the imagery of Jeremiah 49:9-10.

14 Explain the imagery of Jeremiah 49:15-18.

15 What is God’s message to Damascus (Jeremiah 49:23-27)?

16 What is God’s message to Kedar and Hazor (Jeremiah 49:28-33)?

17 What is God’s message to Elam (Jeremiah 49:34-39)?

What hope is given to Elam (Jeremiah 49:39)? Explain how this would be fulfilled.


How does this relationship change your relationship with God?

What did you learn about him?

What will you do differently in your life?

Bibliographical Information
"Commentary on Jeremiah 49". "Old & New Testament Restoration Commentary". https://studylight.org/commentaries/eng/onr/jeremiah-49.html.
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