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Bible Commentaries
Ezra 9

Old & New Testament Restoration CommentaryRestoration Commentary

Introduction

Ezra Chapter 9

Ezra 9:1 "Now when these things were done, the princes came to me, saying, The people of Israel, and the priests, and the Levites, have not separated themselves from the people of the lands, [doing] according to their abominations, [even] of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Egyptians, and the Amorites."

It appears, that the time between when Zerubbabel had brought the people to Jerusalem in the first return to their homeland, and until this return led by Ezra, there had been very little government. It was bad enough for the people of Israel to break God’s law and marry the heathens around them, but it was even worse that the priests and leaders were involved in this, as well. All of those listed, above, were people forbidden for the Hebrews to marry. These were the very people that God had removed out of the land when He gave it to Israel.

Ezra 9:2 "For they have taken of their daughters for themselves, and for their sons: so that the holy seed have mingled themselves with the people of [those] lands: yea, the hand of the princes and rulers hath been chief in this trespass."

They were doing what was right in their own sight, and forgetting the teachings of the law of God. The sad thing was they were about to commit the very same sins, that caused them to be driven out by God before. These strange wives, or husbands, would bring in their abominations to worship in Judah.

Ezra 9:3 "And when I heard this thing, I rent my garment and my mantle, and plucked off the hair of my head and of my beard, and sat down astonied."

Ezra was overwhelmed with grief, when he saw the extent of the sins they had committed. The renting of the clothes, show a deep mourning. Plucking out the hairs on his head and beard was an extreme show of shame and mourning for what the people had done. Sometimes, the head was shaved in grief, but this was so evil an act upon their part, that he actually tore out his hair by the roots.

Ezra 9:4 "Then were assembled unto me every one that trembled at the words of the God of Israel, because of the transgression of those that had been carried away; and I sat astonied until the evening sacrifice."

It appears, that they did not know of this being a sin, or else thought the law did not apply to them. Now that Ezra had shown such terrible grief in this matter, it had frightened those who understand the magnitude of what they had done. Ezra was in a state of shock all day long.

Ezra 9:5 "And at the evening sacrifice I arose up from my heaviness; and having rent my garment and my mantle, I fell upon my knees, and spread out my hands unto the LORD my God,"

When Ezra stopped to pray at the evening sacrifice, he fell to his knees before the LORD with both hands extended to Him. 42

Ezra 9:6 "And said, O my God, I am ashamed and blush to lift up my face to thee, my God: for our iniquities are increased over [our] head, and our trespass is grown up unto the heavens."

Ezra was being ashamed for all of the people. They were so deep in sin themselves, they were not even ashamed. Ezra remembered why Israel and Judah went into captivity. He knew these people had done enough to deserve to die. This was the beginning of a prayer for them.

Ezra 9:7 "Since the days of our fathers [have] we [been] in a great trespass unto this day; and for our iniquities have we, our kings, [and] our priests, been delivered into the hand of the kings of the lands, to the sword, to captivity, and to a spoil, and to confusion of face, as [it is] this day."

Ezra knew that the captivity of Israel and Judah had been a punishment from God for their sinful ways. God had turned them over to the various kings. The sins of their fathers and grandfathers were the same sins they were involved in now. They did not learn a thing from the captivity in Babylon. He was explaining that they deserved all of their difficulties for their sins.

Ezra 9:8 "And now for a little space grace hath been [shewed] from the LORD our God, to leave us a remnant to escape, and to give us a nail in his holy place, that our God may lighten our eyes, and give us a little reviving in our bondage."

God always left a remnant, because they were His people, and He loved them. They had come back into the land, just a small portion of the great company of people who had originally come from Egypt. God had, once again, granted them grace to begin again, and now, they were sinning again, as they had before.

Ezra 9:9 "For we [were] bondmen; yet our God hath not forsaken us in our bondage, but hath extended mercy unto us in the sight of the kings of Persia, to give us a reviving, to set up the house of our God, and to repair the desolations thereof, and to give us a wall in Judah and in Jerusalem."

This was an amazing thing how God had extended mercy to them again. It was almost unexplainable why the Persian kings had suddenly decided to let them return to their homeland. It was even more unexplainable, why they would give all the gold and silver to rebuild the temple. The only answer was that God put this in their hearts to do. Ezra is in essence saying, God has done all of this for us to give us a new start, how can we fail him by sinning again?

Ezra 9:10 "And now, O our God, what shall we say after this? For we have forsaken thy commandments,"

There was nothing left for Ezra to say, except to repent for all of the people. He admitted guilt for all the people.

Ezra 9:11 "Which thou hast commanded by thy servants the prophets, saying, The land, unto which ye go to possess it, is an unclean land with the filthiness of the people of the lands, with their abominations, which have filled it from one end to another with their uncleanness."

God had warned them of the sinfulness of the people. He had run out to give the land to the Hebrews. The corruption of the nations around them and of Canaan, which they had overthrown, had been common knowledge to them from the beginning. They seemed to never learn. The abominations of the heathens were their downfall.

Ezra 9:12 "Now therefore give not your daughters unto their sons, neither take their daughters unto your sons, nor seek their peace or their wealth for ever: that ye may be strong, and eat the good of the land, and leave [it] for an inheritance to your children for ever."

God had forbidden intermarriage with these people. God’s law had not changed. They were still obligated to keep God’s commandments not to intermarry. They had done exactly what God had forbidden them to do.

Ezra 9:13 "And after all that is come upon us for our evil deeds, and for our great trespass, seeing that thou our God hast punished us less than our iniquities [deserve], and hast given us [such] deliverance as this;"

Ezra realized as bad as the punishment had been, when they had lost their homeland and gone into captivity, it was not as bad as what they deserved. They all deserved to die.

Ezra 9:14 "Should we again break thy commandments, and join in affinity with the people of these abominations? wouldest not thou be angry with us till thou hadst consumed [us], so that [there should be] no remnant nor escaping?"

Ezra was aware that God is a loving God. He was, also, aware that He was just in His judgements. He feared that the punishment this time would be death for everyone. Ezra felt they should expect death for these terrible sins they had committed.

Ezra 9:15 "O LORD God of Israel, thou [art] righteous: for we remain yet escaped, as [it is] this day: behold, we [are] before thee in our trespasses: for we cannot stand before thee because of this."

God is full of mercy. His righteousness was from generation to generation, but so was His mercy. There was no way they could stand and face God with these sins not atoned for. This will continue in the next chapter.

Ezra 9 Questions

1. What terrible report came to Ezra in Ezra 9:1?

2. When had they begun committing this sin?

3. What was worse than the people committing this sin?

4. What were the Hebrews called in Ezra 9:2?

5. They were doing what was right in ________ _______ _____.

6. What was so bad about the heathen marriages?

7. What did Ezra do, when he heard the news?

8. What did Ezra do, that showed the extreme sin they had committed?

9. Who assembled to Ezra?

10. When did Ezra begin to pray?

11. Did he stand and pray? Explain.

12. Who was Ezra ashamed for?

13. They had done enough to deserve to ______.

14. The captivity of Judah and Israel had been what?

15. God always left a __________.

16. Who had released them to return to their homes?

17. What was even more unexplainable than their release?

18. Why had this happened?

19. What was Ezra doing in Ezra 9:10?

20. What had the land been called, before they received it from God?

21. In Ezra 9:12, what had been forbidden?

22. God had punished them ________ than their iniquities deserved.

23. What question does Ezra ask the people in Ezra 9:14?

24. Quote Ezra 9:15.

25. God is full of _________.

Verses 1-2

Ezr 9:1-2

Introduction

EZRA’S PRAYERFUL RESPONSE TO THE MIXED MARRIAGES OF ISRAEL WITH PAGANS

Actually, both of these final chapters of Ezra are devoted to the solution of the problem presented by Israel’s intermarriage with foreigners. It is easy for us to see how this problem developed. In the first place there might have been a shortage of women in that company of returnees which came with Zerubbabel; and again, the great men of Israel’s history had repeatedly taken foreign wives. Both Abraham and Joseph had married Egyptians; Judah also married a Gentile; Moses married a Cushite; one of David’s wives was a foreigner (2 Samuel 3:3); and Solomon’s harem was apparently dominated by pagan wives. Under the circumstances, therefore, it is easy to see how this problem developed.

Nevertheless, in spite of what some view as the violation of human rights, and the incredible grief, sufferings, and emotional distress that resulted from Ezra’s drastic solution of this crisis, it needed to be corrected; and there can be no doubt whatever that God’s will was accomplished in the epic severance of Israel from their idolatrous wives. "There is no doubt that if the practice of intermarriage had continued and extended, then the Jews would have lost their national identity; and it is of the greatest significance that the New Testament warns against marriages with unbelievers (2 Corinthians 6:14)."

In this connection, we must reject the liberal view that, "The Israelites did not originally condemn intermarriage."; Deuteronomy 7:3 specifically forbade intermarriage with non-Israelites; and it is a gross mistake to identify that restriction with some alleged "Deuteronomist." The prohibition against Israel’s mingling with non-Israelites in marriage was an integral part of the entire Mosaic covenant, as taught in Exodus 23:32, where God forbade making "any covenant" with the pagan populations, a restriction which absolutely included the marriage covenant as well as all other covenants. Again, "Is it not that we are separated, I and thy people, from all the people that are upon the face of the earth" (Exodus 33:16)? The wholesale violation of God’s law in this matter by many of Israel’s famous leaders in no way invalidated God’s specific orders.

Before proceeding to examine the text of this chapter, we notice another liberal viewpoint which we must reject. It seems to be a presumptive privilege falsely arrogated to themselves which prompts many critical scholars to proceed with rearranging the Biblical text to conform to their imaginative theories and prejudices, apparently overlooking the fact that they are absolutely without any divine mandate to do any such rearranging of the Biblical text.

We thank God that the custodianship of the Sacred Scriptures was not entrusted to the radical critical enemies of the Bible whose writings have proliferated during the current century. The inspired writings of the apostle Paul tell us exactly who received that commission of custodianship. Here it is:

"WHAT ADVANTAGE THEN HATH THE JEW? ... MUCH EVERY WAY; FIRST OF ALL BECAUSE THEY WERE ENTRUSTED WITH THE ORACLES OF GOD" (Romans 3:1-2).

Well, there we have it! The Jews were entrusted with keeping the Sacred Scriptures of the O.T.; and because of that, we cannot receive the proposition that, "The story of the reading of the law and its aftermath (Nehemiah 7:73 to Nehemiah 9:37) originally stood between the Ezra 8 and Ezra 9." There are excellent explanations of the gap of several months between Ezra’s arrival in Jerusalem and his getting down to the problem of the mixed marriages; and we shall note these below.

This is a remarkably interesting and important chapter. There are ten divisions in these final two chapters, three of which appear in this chapter. These are: (1) "The complaint of the princes regarding the mixed marriages (Ezra 9:1-2); (2) Ezra’s astonishment and horror (Ezra 9:3-4); and (3) Ezra’s confession and prayer to God (Ezra 9:5-15)."

Ezra 9:1-2

EZRA GETS THE BAD NEWS ABOUT THE MIXED MARRIAGES

"Now when these things were done, the princes drew near unto me, saying, The people of Israel, and the priests, and the Levites have not separated themselves from the peoples of the lands, doing according to their abominations, even of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Egyptians and the Amorites. For they have taken of their daughters for themselves and for their sons, so that the holy seed have mingled themselves with the peoples of the lands: yea the hands of the princes and the rulers have been chief in this trespass."

"Now when these things were done" (Ezra 9:1). Hamrick wrote that, "These words seem to imply that the controversy over mixed marriages occurred immediately upon Ezra’s arrival in Jerusalem." A number of current scholars take the same view; and then, because Ezra’s action to correct the situation did not take place until the twentieth day of the ninth month (Ezra 10:9), the critical scholars at once account for this "gap," as they call it, by supposing that, "The story of the reading of the law and its aftermath (Nehemiah 7:73 to Nehemiah 9:37) should be inserted into the Book of Ezra, between Ezra 8 and Ezra 9."

As noted above, we believe in the integrity and authenticity of both Ezra and Nehemiah; and we do not accept the assumed authority of 20th century scholars to revise the Holy Bible and to do any kind of a scissors and paste job on it that pleases them.

Their error here is in the failure to see that "after these things" in the text says nothing about Ezra’s actions being "immediately after his arrival in Jerusalem." It simply means that Ezra received the word about the mixed marriages after he had completed his assignment from the king. And how long was that?

Keil explained that several months elapsed before the word about the mixed marriages came to Ezra. "The delivery of the king’s commands to the satraps and governors ... occupied weeks, or months; because the king’s command was not merely to transmit the royal decree, but to come to such an understanding with them as would secure their goodwill and support in furthering the people and the house of God." In view of the vast distances involved in Ezra’s delivery of the king’s decree to all the satraps and governors beyond the River, it is surprising that he confronted the mixed marriage situation as early as he did.

"The Canaanites, the Hittites, Perizzites, ..." (Ezra 9:1). There were seven of the Canaanite nations (Exodus 3:8; Exodus 23:23; Deuteronomy 7), five of whom are mentioned here. The Ammonites, Moabites and Egyptians are here mentioned in addition to five of the seven Canaanite races. "If any effectual check was to be put upon Israel’s relapse into heathenism, the prohibition against marriages with all of these groups, under existing circumstances, was absolutely necessary."

The problem was aggravated and intensified by the violations of many of the princes and rulers of the Israelites by such marriages.

E.M. Zerr:

Ezra 9:1. One of the most outstanding predictions that appear in the writings of the prophets is that the Jews would be cured of idolatry by the captivity. That subject will be given complete discussion when writing on the prophetic books. This verse might seem to contradict that prediction by its charge that they were doing according to the evil ways of the heathen nations. The group named were the ones of old whose idolatrous practices had led the people of God into the condition that resulted in their downfall. But take note that the verse does not specify what the abominations were, except that some unlawful connection had been formed.

Ezra 9:2. This is the place that tells us what was meant in the first verse of the chapter. The marriage between God’s people and those of other nations had been forbidden by the law of Moses (Exodus 34:16; Deuteronomy 7:3). That law had been violated by the Jews who had been living in Palestine. The reader will remember that a great many of the children of Israel had gone up there from Babylon in the days of Zerubbabel, 75 years before this period of which we are studying, and in that time these unlawful intermarriages had taken place. Holy seed means the children of Israel because they alone composed the nation that had been recognized as the people of God.

Verses 3-4

Ezr 9:3-4

Ezra 9:3-4

THE ASTONISHMENT AND HORROR OF EZRA

"And when I heard this thing, I rent my garment and my robe, and plucked off the hair of my head and of my beard, and sat down confounded. Then were assembled unto me every one that trembled at the words of the God of Israel, because of the trespass of them of the captivity; and I sat confounded until the evening sacrifice."

Ezra’s reaction to the bad news was extreme. There is hardly anything more painful than pulling out the hairs of one’s beard. Similar actions were customary among Oriental peoples as an expression of grief, dismay, or consternation (Job 1:20; Ezekiel 7:18). "Notice that Ezra’s appeal was moral and religious ... reformation can never be achieved by force." As the chief authority, Ezra could have ordered the needed reforms and enforced them even with the death penalty; but he chose the better way.

Oesterley commented that, in Ezra’s strict enforcement of the prohibition of mixed marriages, "His zeal in this matter resulted in his going beyond the requirements of the law (Deuteronomy 23:7)." That passage states that, "Thou shalt not abhor an Edomite ... or an Egyptian ... The children of the third generation of them that are born unto them shall enter into the assembly of Jehovah"; but there is nothing in that passage that justifies Oesterley’s conclusion.

E.M. Zerr:

Ezra 9:3. Garment means the main body of his clothing and the mantle was an outer piece, covering the upper part of the body. Many customs of old times seem odd to us, and we do not know their origin. But the actions of Ezra in this instance were part of the practices used in times of great anxiety or grief. Astonied is another form which means to be astonished or amazed.

Ezra 9:4. To tremble at the words of God means to be respectful toward them, and to feel a great anxiety for those who have disobeyed. Such persons had brought the shocking report to Ezra, and now they gathered about him as he sat in his state of amazement. This sitting continued until the evening sacrifice which was at the middle of the afternoon. See Numbers 28:4, and the marginal reading in connection with it.

Verses 5-15

Ezr 9:5-15

Ezra 9:5-15

EZRA’S PRAYER REGARDING ISRAEL’S SIN IN THE MIXED MARRIAGES

"And at the evening oblation I arose up from my humiliation, even with my garment and my robe rent; and I fell upon my knees, and spread out my hands unto Jehovah my God; and I said, O my God, I am ashamed and blush to lift up my face to thee, my God; for our iniquities are increased over our head, and our guiltiness is grown up unto the heavens. Since the days of our fathers we have been exceeding guilty unto this day; and for our iniquities have we, our kings, and our priests, been delivered into the hand of the kings of the lands, to the sword, to captivity, to plunder, and to confusion of face, as it is this day. And now for a little moment grace hath been showed from Jehovah our God, to leave us a remnant to escape, and to give us a nail in his holy place, that our God may lighten our eyes, and give us a little reviving in our bondage. For we are bondmen; yet our God hath not forsaken us in our bondage, but hath extended lovingkindness unto us in the sight of the kings of Persia, to give us a reviving, to set up the house of our God, and to repair the ruins thereof, and to give us a wall in Judah and in Jerusalem. And now, O our God, what shall we say after this? for we have forsaken thy commandments, which thou hast commanded by thy servants the prophets, The land, unto which ye go to possess it, is an unclean land through the uncleanness of the peoples of the lands, through their abominations, which have filled it from one end to another with their filthiness: now therefore give not your daughters unto their sons, neither take their daughters unto your sons, nor seek their peace or their prosperity forever; that ye may be strong, and eat the good of the land, and leave it for an inheritance to your children for ever. And after all that has come upon us for our evil deeds, and for our great guilt, seeing that our God hast punished us less than our iniquities deserve, and hast given us such a remnant, shall we again break thy commandments, and join in affinity with the peoples that do these abominations? wouldest thou not be angry with us till thou hadst consumed us, so that there should be no remnant, nor any to escape? O Jehovah, the God of Israel, thou art righteous; for we are left a remnant that is escaped, as it is this day: behold, we are before thee in our guiltiness;for none can stand before thee because of this."

"At the evening oblation I arose up from my humiliation" (Ezra 9:5). "This is probably to be identified with the ninth hour (3:00 P.M.) (Acts 3:1)."

"Our guiltiness is grown up unto the heavens" (Ezra 9:6). This was also the conviction of Nehemiah (Nehemiah 9:29-35), and likewise that of Daniel (Daniel 9:5-8). "The captivity had effectively done its work in convincing a previously proud and self-righteous nation of their gross wickedness and unfaithfulness to God."

"Since the days of our fathers we have been exceeding guilty" (Ezra 9:7). "The guilt which Ezra confessed was not merely that of his contemporary generation but that of their whole history. The guilt of the corporate community transcended that of a given generation."

"To give us a nail in his holy place" (Ezra 9:8). "This metaphor is probably derived from a tent-pin, driven into the earth to secure the tent."

"We are bondmen ... God hath not forsaken us ... to give us a wall in Judah and Jerusalem" (Ezra 9:9). Although the Persian kings had granted favors to the Jews regarding their return to Jerusalem and the building of their temple, they nevertheless still remained subjects of the Persian king, bound to obey him in everything. The mention of "a wall" here does not mean that the walls of Jerusalem had been rebuilt. "The word wall means a fence, and is used of a fence around a vineyard; and it is used here metaphorically for protection."

"Which thou hast commanded by thy servants the prophets" (Ezra 9:11). Ezra here, by the words, "The land unto which ye go to possess it," clearly had the Mosaic age in mind; and we have already cited three references in the Books of Moses that forbade foreign covenants including marriages; but the mention here of "prophets" has led some scholars to point out that there are no specific commandments in the prophets regarding this. However, as Moses was the Great Prophet unto whom even the Christ was compared; and since all of the prophets endorsed the Mosaic Law and commanded the people to observe it, "It was proper for Ezra to designate the Mosaic Law as the sayings of the prophets also."

"God hast punished us less than our iniquities deserve" (Ezra 9:13). It is significant that Ezra includes himself along with the guilty people, identifying himself in every way with the sinful nation. Note also that he acknowledges the righteous judgment of God in the acceptance of his punishments as being "less than they deserved."

We appreciate Bowman’s rejection of the criticism of some radical scholars who deny the authenticity of this prayer, on the basis of several, erroneous assumptions and `guesses.’ He wrote: "This prayer does not have an artificial or secondary nature, but is psychologically as well as historically appropriate. It is relevant to the occasion and necessary for the development of the situation."

This magnificent prayer was used by the Lord to rally Israel around Ezra and to provide sufficient support for the drastic rejection of the mixed marriages.

E.M. Zerr:

Ezra 9:5. At that hour it would be necessary for Ezra to be concerned with the religious activities, including an address to God as well as the regular sacrifice.

Ezra 9:6. Increased over our heads signified that their iniquities were not confined to their personal surroundings; that they had reached up to the notice of high heaven. Ezra was not personally guilty of any of the evils present, but his concern for the nation was so great that he was overwhelmed with humiliation.

Ezra 9:7. This verse is a general view of the history of the people, going back to the first generations. As a whole, the record of the nation was one of shameful disobedience, and it had brought them into contact with the heathen lands, whose people had been suffered to afflict them with the sword and other means of torture.

Ezra 9:8. This verse comes down to the more favorable conditions at present surrounding the better part of the congregation. Little space is a comparative term, referring to the period that followed the 70 years of captivity. The remnant was noted in Ezra 2:64, which see. When nail is used figuratively it means a fixed place. It here applied to the assurance that, while the nation had been subjected to great humiliation, yet through the preservation of the remnant, the people of God would still have a secure abode in the holy place, which was the temple in Jerusalem. Reviving refers to the renewed hope that had been brought to the remnant by the favorable turn of affairs through the king of Persia.

Ezra 9:9. Were bondmen refers to the 70 years of captivity, during which time God kept a jealous eye over his people. And when their term of bondage was served out, the people who had been God’s instruments for the chastisement due them, were themselves overthrown. The Persians came into power and would have been the overlords to continue the bondage of the people of God. But that was not the divine will, and the new rulers were infiuenced to be merciful to the captives they found in the country they took over. Reviving is defined in Strong’s lexicon as "preservation of life." That was not restricted to the physical life of the individual, but applied to them as a nation. By granting the Jews a release from bondage, and by authorizing the restoration of their temple, their national existence also was preserved. A wall in Judah means that a defense was assured them, since a wall about a city was one of its fortifications. While the word is used figuratively in this place, yet it had a literal application in its effect, for Ezra 7:26 decreed that force should be used if necessary to protect the Jews in the privileges granted them by the Persian government.

Ezra 9:10-11. This paragraph starts with what is a question in form, but rather is an admission that something worthwhile should be done. The reasons for the admissions are then stated. The people had forsaken the commandments of God concerning the land into which they had been led by divine grace. They had been told beforehand that the people of the land were filthy and abominable. For that and other reasons they had been forbidden to permit marriages between their own young people and those of the nations. This law had been disregarded, and now Ezra made an admission in question form, that something should be done about it. This paragraph was addressed to God. It will be interrupted temporarily to give attention to the people.

Ezra 9:12. In keeping with the agreement implied in his address to God in the preceding paragraph, Ezra then addressed himself to the people. It was on the subject that directly concerned the prevailing conditions, which pertained to their marriage relations. He forbade their marriages with the nations around them. They were not even to seek their peace, which means they were not to make any compromise with them in order to be at peace with them. As an inducement for such conduct, they were promised the best of the land for their enjoyment, and to be able to leave it for their children when they were gone.

Ezra 9:13. Ezra then addressed himself to God again, and the whole speech was in the spirit of confession, and acknowledgement for the many favors they had received from the Lord. It also acknowledged that the punishment inflicted on them was less than they deserved. How different that spirit from what is so often manifested by the professed servants of God. We complain and speak of our lot as if it were unjust, when we should realize that if we were treated according to the just desert of our deeds, "we would long since have been lifting our piteous cries where hope and mercy can never reach." Let us read carefully and ponder Psalms 103:10.

Ezra 9:14. Ezra continued his prayer and lamentation to God. While it was in question form, it was a declaration of the unreasonableness of their thought of disobeying God, after he has done so much for them. Should they do so, it should be expected that God would be angry with them and bring them to final destruction.

Ezra 9:15. After exclaiming that God is righteous, Ezra gave a logical reason for his statement. It was the fact that they had yet escaped, notwithstanding the great sins of the nation. Before thee in our trespass means that their trespasses were exposed before God. We cannot stand signifies they had no justification to face the Lord in their awful sinful condition.

Bibliographical Information
"Commentary on Ezra 9". "Old & New Testament Restoration Commentary". https://studylight.org/commentaries/eng/onr/ezra-9.html.
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