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This Psalm was composed by Ezra, or some other man of God, at the return of Israel from Babylon.
The church, celebrating and praising God for her return out of the Babylonian captivity, Psalms 126:1-3, prayeth him to perfect his work, and foretelleth the good success thereof, Psalms 126:4-6.
Turned again the captivity of Zion, i.e. brought the captive Israelites out of Babylon into their own land.
We were like them that dream; we were so surprised and astonished with the report of such a favour, that we could not believe our own eyes and ears, but thought it to be but a dream or delusion of our own fancies; as is usual in matters of great joy, as Genesis 45:26; Luke 24:11; Acts 12:9.
They did and well might wonder at it, that a heathen emperor should of his own mere motion show so much kindness to so hateful and despicable a people as the Jews were.
Turn again our captivity; as thou hast brought us home, bring home also the rest of our brethren, who, are dispersed and yet remain captives in Babylon, or in any other parts oft he world. As the streams in the south; as thou art eased sometimes to send floods of water into dry and barren grounds, such as the southern parts of Canaan and the parts adjacent were; which is an act of thy great power and goodness; and no less will this reduction of thy people be, and no less shall we rejoice in it, and bless God for it.
This is an argument wherewith he presseth the foregoing prayer, Psalms 126:4, taken from the common course of God’s providence towards men of all nations, to whom he affords vicissitudes of sorrow and comfort; and particularly towards husbandmen, who though ofttimes they sow their seed-corn with care, and fear, and sorrow, yet afterwards for the most part meet with a joyful harvest. And therefore we hope thou wilt not deny this favour to thine own people. And as thou hast in some good measure granted it to us, so we pray thee grant it to our brethren, who are yet exercised with hard labours and griefs, that they and we together may at last obtain that blessed and full harvest which we still pray and hope for.
He that goeth forth; the husbandman that goeth out into his field, and walketh hither and thither to scatter his seed, as the manner is.
Weepeth, for fear of the loss of his seed, and of a bad harvest.
Precious seed; seed-corn when it is scarce and dear. Or, the basket of seed as it is rendered in our margin, as also by the Chaldee paraphrast, and some ethers.
Shall doubtless come, Heb. coming shall come; which manner of expression may note either the certainty of the thing, or the frequency and customariness of it. This verse is only an amplification of the former.
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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Psalms 126". Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 21 / Ordinary 26