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2 Peter 1

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Verse 1

Simon Peter, a servant and an apostle of Jesus Christ, to them that have obtained like precious faith with us through the righteousness of God and our Saviour Jesus Christ:

Simon. So B, Greek form; in 'Aleph (') A. 'Symeon' (Hebrew, i:e., hearing), as Acts 15:14. His mention of his original name accords with the design here, to warn against the coming false teachers, by setting forth the true "knowledge" of Christ on the testimony of the original apostolic eyewitnesses like himself. This was not required in the first letter.

Servant - `slave:' so Paul, Romans 1:1. To them ... He addresses a wider range of readers (all believers) than in the first letter, but includes especially those therein addressed, as 2 Peter 3:1 proves.

Obtained - by grace [ lachousin (G2975)]; applied by Peter to receiving of the apostleship by allotment (Acts 1:17; Luke 1:9). They did not acquire it: Divine election is as independent of man's control, as the lot which is east forth.

Like precious - `equally precious' to those who believe, though not having seen Christ, as to Peter and those who have seen Him. For it lays hold of the same "exceeding great and precious promise," and the same "righteousness of God our Saviour." "The common salvation," Jude 1:3. "Precious" is applied by Peter to "faith" and its "trial," 1 Peter 1:7; to "Christ," 1 Peter 2:7; it is "blood," 1 Peter 1:19; God's "promises," 2 Peter 1:4.

With us - apostles and eyewitnesses (2 Peter 1:18). Though enforcing his exhortation by his apostleship, he puts himself, as to "the faith," on a level with all believers. The degree of faith varies in different believers; but as to its objects, justification, sanctification, and future glorification, it is common to all. Christ is to all believers "made of God wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, and redemption."

Through, [ en (G1722)] - 'IN.' The one article to both nouns requires, "the righteousness of Him who is (at once) our God and (our) Saviour." Peter, confirming Paul's testimony to the same churches, adopts Paul's inspired phraseology. The Gospel plan sets forth God's righteousness, which is Christ's righteousness, in the brightest light. This passage establishes the imputation to us of the righteousness of Christ. Compare Isaiah 42:21; Jeremiah 23:6; Romans 3:22; Romans 4:6; Romans 10:4; 1 Corinthians 1:30. Faith has its sphere IN it as its element: God is in redemption "righteous," and at the same time a "Saviour" (cf. Isaiah 45:21, end).

Verse 2

Grace and peace be multiplied unto you through the knowledge of God, and of Jesus our Lord, Grace and peace - (1 Peter 1:2.)

Through, [ en (G1722)] - 'in:' the sphere IN which alone grace and peace can be multiplied. Knowledge, [ epignoosei (G1922)] - 'full knowledge.' Of God, and of Jesus our Lord. The Father is here meant by "God," but the Son in 2 Peter 1:1. How entirely one the Father and Son are! (John 14:7-11.) The prominent object is 'the knowledge of Jesus our Lord' (a rare phrase); only secondarily of the Father through Him (2 Peter 1:8; 2 Peter 2:20; 2 Peter 3:18).

Verse 3

According as his divine power hath given unto us all things that pertain unto life and godliness, through the knowledge of him that hath called us to glory and virtue:

According as. 'As He hath given us ALL things needful for life and godliness, (so) do you give ALL diligence,' etc. The oil and flame are given wholly by God's grace, and 'taken' by believers: their part is to 'trim their lamps,' (cf. 2 Peter 1:3-4, with 2 Peter 1:5, etc.)

Life and godliness. Spiritual life mast exist first, before there can be godliness. Knowledge of God experimentally is life (John 17:3). The child must have vital breath, then cry to, and walk in the ways of, his father. It is not by godliness we obtain life, but by life, godliness. To life stands opposed corruption; to godliness, lust (2 Peter 1:4).

Called us - (2 Peter 1:10, "calling") (1 Peter 2:9.) To glory and virtue, [ dia (G1223)] - 'through (His) glory.' So B; but 'Aleph (') A C, Vulgate [ idia (G2398) doxee (G1391)], 'by His own glory and excellency,' which characterize 'His divine power.' "Virtue," the standing word in pagan ethics, is found only once in Paul (Philippians 4:8), and in Peter in a distinct sense from classic usage. It is a term too earthly for expressing the gifts of the Spirit (Trench, 'Synonyms').

Verse 4

Whereby are given unto us exceeding great and precious promises: that by these ye might be partakers of the divine nature, having escaped the corruption that is in the world through lust. Whereby - By which glory and virtue: His glory making the "promises" exceeding great; His virtue making them "precious" (Bengel). Precious promises are the object of precious faith.

Given. The promises themselves are a gift; for they are as sure as if fulfilled. By these - promises. They even now have a sanctifying effect, assimilating the believer to God. Still more so when fulfilled.

Might, [ geneesthe (G1096)] - 'that ye MAY become partakers,' now in part, hereafter perfectly (1 John 3:2).

Of the divine nature - not God's essence, but His holiness, holiness, including His "glory" and "virtue" (2 Peter 1:3): opposite to 'corruption through lust.' Sanctification is the imparting of God Himself by the Holy Spirit in the soul. We by faith partake also of the material nature of Jesus (Ephesians 5:30). The "divine power" enables us to be partakers of the "divine nature."

Escaped the corruption - which involves in itself destruction of soul and body. (On "escaped," as from a condemned cell, cf. Genesis 19:17; Colossians 1:13; 1 Peter 2:18-20.)

Through, [ en (G1722)] - 'IN.' 'The corruption in the world' has its seat, not so much in the surrounding elements, as in the "lust" of men's hearts.

Verse 5

And beside this, giving all diligence, add to your faith virtue; and to virtue knowledge; And besides this [ auto (G846) de (G1161) touto (G5124), 'Aleph (') B C (A, autoi (G846) de (G1161), yourselves also)] - 'And for this very reason,' namely, 'seeing that His divine power hath given all things that pertain to life and godliness' (2 Peter 1:3).

Giving, [ pareisenengkantes (G3923)] - introducing, side by side with God's gift, on your part, "diligence" (cf. 2 Corinthians 7:11; 2 Peter 1:10; 2 Peter 3:14).

All - possible. Add, [ epichoreegeesate (G2023)] - 'minister additionally,' or abundantly (cf. 2 Corinthians 9:10): said of one who supplied all the equipments of a chorus. So 'there will be ministered abundantly unto you an entrance into the everlasting kingdom' (2 Peter 1:11).

To, [ en (G1722)] - 'IN;' in the possession of your faith, minister virtue. Their faith answering to "knowledge of Him" (2 Peter 1:3), is presupposed as God's gift (2 Peter 1:3; Ephesians 2:8), and not required to be ministered by us. In its exercise, virtue is to be, moreover, ministered. Each grace being assumed, becomes the stepping-stone to the succeeding grace: the latter in turn completes the former. Faith leads the band, love brings up the rear (Bengel). The fruits of faith are seven-the perfect number.

Virtue - moral excellency; manly energy answering to the virtue (energetic excellency) of God (2 Peter 1:3). Courage is needed to be a Christian (cf. Joshua 23:6; Joshua 10:24).

And to, [ en (G1722)] - 'IN;' 'and in the exercise of your virtue knowledge,' namely, practical discrimination of good and evil: perceiving what is the will of God in each detail.

Verse 6

And to knowledge temperance; and to temperance patience; and to patience godliness; [ En (G1722) ... engkrateian (G1466)], 'And in your knowledge self-control.' In the exercise of knowledge, or discernment of God's will let there be practical self-control as to one's lusts. Incontinence weakens, self-control imparts strength (Bengel). 'And in your self-control persevering endurance [ hupomonee (G5281)] amidst sufferings,' so much dwelt on in 1 Peter 2:1-25; 1 Peter 3:1-22; 1 Peter 4:1-19. 'And in your endurance godliness.' It is not to be mere stoicism, but united to piety as its source.

Verse 7

And to godliness brotherly kindness; and to brotherly kindness charity. 'And in your godliness brotherly-kindness;' not suffering your piety to be morose and sullen, but kind to the brethren. 'And in your brotherly-kindness love'-namely, to all men, even to enemies. From brotherly-kindness toward believers, we are to go forward to love to all men. (Compare 1 Thessalonians 3:12.) So charity completes the choir of graces in Colossians 3:14. In retrograde order, he who has love will exercise brotherly-kindness; he who has brotherly-kindness will feel godliness needful; the godly will mix nothing stoical with patience; to the patient, temperance is easy; the temperate weighs things well, so has knowledge; knowledge guards against sudden impulse carrying away its virtue (Bengel).

Verse 8

For if these things be in you, and abound, they make you that ye shall neither be barren nor unfruitful in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ. Be, [ huparchonta (G5225), 'Aleph (') B C; paronta, present, A, Vulgate] - 'subsist;' i:e., supposing these things to have an actual subsistence in you: "be" would express the mere fact.

Abound, [ pleonazonta (G4121)] - more than in others. Make, [ kathisteesin (G2525 ] - 'constitute you,' by the very fact of possessing these graces. Barren - `inactive,' as a field lying unworked [ argous (G692)], so useless. Unfruitful in, [ eis (G1519)] - ' ... in respect to,' etc. 'The full knowledge [epignosin] of Christ' is the goal toward which all these races tend. As their subsisting constitutes us not barren, so their abounding constitutes us not unfruitful, in respect to it. It is through doing His will, and so becoming like Him, that we grow in knowing Him (John 7:17).

Verse 9

But he that lacketh these things is blind, and cannot see afar off, and hath forgotten that he was purged from his old sins.

But, [ Gar (G1063)] - 'For.' Confirming the need of these graces (2 Peter 1:5-8) by the fatal consequences of wanting them.

He that lacketh - Greek, 'he to whom these are not present.' Blind - as to unseen spiritual realities. And cannot see afar off - explaining "blind." He closes his eyes [ muoopazoon (G3467)], unable to see distant objects-namely, heavenly things-and fixes his gaze on present earthly things, which alone he can see. Wilfulness in the blindness is implied in 'closing the eyes,' which constitutes its culpability: rebelling against the light shining around him.

Forgotten, [ leetheen (G3024) laboon (G2983)] - 'contracted forgetfulness:' willful obliviousness. That he was purged. The present sense of one's sins having been once for all forgiven, is the stimulus to every grace (Psalms 130:4). This once for all cleansing of believers at their new birth is taught symbolically by Christ (John 13:10) [ Leloumenos (G3068) - nipsasthai (G3538)], 'He that has been bathed (once for all) needeth not save to wash his feet (of the soils contracted in the daily walk), but is clean every whit (in Christ our righteousness).' 'Once purged (with Christ's blood), we should have no more consciousness of sin' (as condemning us, Hebrews 10:2; Hebrews 10:17), because of God's promise. Baptism sacramentally seals this.

Verse 10

Wherefore the rather, brethren, give diligence to make your calling and election sure: for if ye do these things, ye shall never fall:

Wherefore - seeing the blessed consequence of having, and the evil effects of not having, these graces (2 Peter 1:8-9).

The rather - the more earnestly. Brethren. The term, which only here he addresses to them, marks his affection, which constrains him so earnestly to urge them.

To make, [ poieisthai (G4160), middle] - 'to make so far as it depends on you.' "To make" absolutely is God's part: in the active.

Your calling and election sure - by 'ministering additionally in your faith virtue, and in your virtue knowledge,' etc. God must work all these graces in us, yet not so that we should be machines, but willing instruments in His hands, in making His election of us 'secure.' 'Aleph (') A, Vulgate, add, dia (G1223) toon (G3588) kaloon (G2570) humoon (G5216) ergoon (G2041) B C omit. The ensuring of our election is spoken of not as to God, whose counsel is stedfast, but as to our part. There is no uncertainty on His, but on ours the only security is our faith in His promise and the fruits of the Spirit (2 Peter 1:5-7; 2 Peter 1:11). Peter subjoins election to calling, because the calling is the effect and proof of God's election, which goes before, and is the main thing (Romans 8:28; Romans 8:30; Romans 8:33, where God's 'elect' are those 'predestinated,' and election is "His purpose," according to which He "called" them). We know His calling before His election; therefore calling is put first. Fall, [ ptaiseste (G4417)] - 'stumble' finally (Romans 11:11). Metaphor from a race (1 Corinthians 9:24).

Verse 11

For so an entrance shall be ministered unto you abundantly into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. An, [ hee (G3588)] - 'the entrance' which ye look for. Ministered - the same verb as 2 Peter 1:5. Minister in your faith virtue and the other graces, so shall there be ministered to you the entrance into heaven, where these graces shine most brightly. The reward of grace hereafter shall correspond to the work of grace here.

Abundantly, [ plousios (G4145)] - 'richly.' So "abound," 2 Peter 1:8. If these graces abound in you, you shall have your entrance into heaven, not merely, "scarcely" (as 1 Peter 4:18), nor "so as by fire" (1 Corinthians 3:15), like one escaping with life after having lost all his goods, but in triumph, without 'stumbling and falling.'

Verse 12

Wherefore I will not be negligent to put you always in remembrance of these things, though ye know them, and be established in the present truth.

Wherefore - as these graces are so necessary to your abundant entrance into Christ's kingdom (2 Peter 1:10-11).

I will not be negligent. 'Aleph (') A B C, Vulgate, read [ Melleesoo (G3195)], 'I will be about always to put you in remembrance' (an accumulated future): I will regard you as always needing to be reminded (cf. 2 Peter 1:15).

Always - why he writes the second letter so soon after the first: there is likely to be more and more need of admonition on account of the increasing corruption (2 Peter 2:1-2).

In the present truth - the Gospel truth: formerly promised to Old Testament believers as about to be, now in the New Testament actually with, and in, believers, so that they are "established" in it as a "present" reality. Its importance renders frequent monitions never superfluous (cf. Romans 15:14-15).

Verse 13

Yea, I think it meet, as long as I am in this tabernacle, to stir you up by putting you in remembrance; Yea, [ de (G1161)] - "But;" though "you know" the truth (2 Peter 1:12).

This tabernacle - soon to be taken down (2 Corinthians 5:1): I therefore need to make the most of my short time for the good of Christ's Church. The zeal of Satan against it, the more intense as his time is short, ought to stimulate Christians (Revelation 12:12).

By - `IN' (cf. 2 Peter 3:1).

Verse 14

Knowing that shortly I must put off this my tabernacle, even as our Lord Jesus Christ hath shewed me. Shortly I must put off, [ apothesis (G595)]. 'The putting off (as a garment) of my tabernacle is speedy:' a soon approaching, also a sudden, death. Christ's words (John 21:18-19), 'When thou art old,' etc., were the ground of his "knowing," now that he was old, that his foretold martyrdom was near. Compare Paul, 2 Timothy 4:6. Though a violent death, he calls it a 'departure' (2 Peter 1:15: cf. Acts 7:60).

Verse 15

Moreover I will endeavour that ye may be able after my decease to have these things always in remembrance.

Endeavour - `use my diligence' [ spoudasoo (G4704)], as 2 Peter 1:10, the field in which my diligence has scope. Peter fulfils Christ's charge, "Feed my sheep."

That ye may be able - by this written letter; perhaps also by Mark's gospel, which Peter superintended. Decease - `departure.' The very word [ exodon (G1841)] used in the transfiguration, Moses and Elias conversing about Christ's decease (found nowhere else in the New Testament, but Hebrews 11:22, 'the departing of Israel' out of Egypt, to which the saints' deliverance from the bondage of corruption answers). "Tabernacle" also is found here, as well as there (Luke 9:31; Luke 9:33): an undesigned coincidence, confirming Peters authorship. Always, [ hekastote (G1539)] - 'on each occasion:' as occasion may require. To have ... in remembrance, [ teen (G3588) touton (G5126) mneemeen (G3420) poieisthai (G4160)] - 'to exercise remembrance of,' as of precious truths. Not merely 'to remember' as things we care not about.

Verse 16

For we have not followed cunningly devised fables, when we made known unto you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but were eyewitnesses of his majesty.

For - reason why he is so earnest that the remembrance of these things be continued after his death. Followed - out in detail [ exakoloutheesantes (G1811)].

Cunningly devised. -`devised by (man's) wisdom' [ sesofismenois (G4679): 'sophisticated'], as Cunningly devised. - `devised by (man's) wisdom' [ sesofismenois (G4679): 'sophisticated'], as distinguished from what the Holy Spirit teaches (cf. 1 Corinthians 2:13). Compare also 2 Peter 2:3, "feigned words." Fables - as pagan mythologies, and subsequent Gnostic 'fables and genealogies,' of which the germs already existed in Judaism, combined with Oriental philosophy in Asia Minor. The Spirit's precautionary protest against the rationalistic mythical theory of the Gospel.

When we made known unto you. Not that Peter himself had personally taught the churches in Pontus, Galatia, etc.; but he was one of the apostles whose testimony was borne to the Church in general, to whom this letter is addressed, (2 Peter 1:1, including, but not restricted to, as 1 Peter, the churches in Pontus, etc.) Power - the opposite of "fables:" cf. the contrast of "word" and "power," 1 Corinthians 4:20. A specimen of His power was given at the transfiguration; also of His "coming" again, and its attendant glory. [ Parousian (G3952)] "Coming" is always used of His second advent. A refutation of the scoffers (2 Peter 3:4): I, James, and John, saw with our own eyes a sample of His coming glory.

Were, [ geneethentes (G1096)] - 'were made.' Eye-witnesses. As initiated spectators of mysteries [ epoptai (G2030)], we were admitted into His innermost secrets, namely, at the transfiguration.

His, [ tees (G3588) ekeinou (G1565)] - THAT great ONE'S majesty.

Verse 17

For he received from God the Father honour and glory, when there came such a voice to him from the excellent glory, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. Received ... honour - in the voice that spake to Him.

Glory - in the light which shone round Him: answering to the Shechinah glory in the Tabernacle. Came, [ enechtheisees (G5342)] - 'was borne:' only in 1 Peter 1:13: the argument against this second letter, from its dissimilarity of style, as compared with 1 Peter, is not well rounded.

Such a voice - as he describes. From the excellent glory, [ hupo (G5259) tees (G3588) megaloprepous (G3169) doxees (G1391)] - 'BY (i:e., uttered by) the magnificent glory.' (i:e., by God: as His manifested presence is called by the Hebrews 'the Glory:' cf. "His Excellency," Deuteronomy 33:26; Psalms 21:5).

In whom, [ eis (G1519) hon (G3739)] - 'in regard to whom' (accusative); but Matthew 17:5, "in whom" [ en (G1722) ho (G3588)] centers my good pleasure. Peter omits, as not required by his purpose, "hear Him," showing his independence in his inspired testimony.

I am - aorist [ eudokeesa (G2106)]: 'My good pleasure rested (from eternity).'

Verse 18

And this voice which came from heaven we heard, when we were with him in the holy mount. Which came - `we heard borne from heaven.'

We - James, and John, and myself. Holy mount - as the transfiguration, mount came to be regarded as the scene of Christ's divine glory.

Verse 19

We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts:

We - all believers.

A more sure, [ echomen (G2192) bebaioteron (G949) ton (G3588) profeetikon (G4397) logon (G3056)] - 'we have the word of prophecy more sure' (confirmed); become a firmer ground of confidence. Previously we knew its sureness by faith; through that visible specimen of its future fulfillment, assurance is made doubly sure: so that, even after Peter and the other apostles are dead, those whom he addresses will feel sure that they have "not followed cunningly devised fables." Prophecy assures us that Christ's sufferings, now past, are to be followed by Christ's glory, to come. The transfiguration gives a pledge to make faith still stronger, that "the day" of His glory will "dawn" ere long. He does not mean that the "word of prophecy," or Scripture, is surer than the voice of God at the transfiguration. The fulfillment of prophecy so far in Christ's history makes us the surer of what is yet to be fulfilled-His consummated glory. The word was the 'lamp [ luchnoo (G3088), "light"] heeded' by Old Testament believers, until a gleam of the "day dawn" was given at Christ's first coming, especially in His transfiguration. So the word is a lamp to us still, until "the day" burst forth fully at the second coming of "the Sun of righteousness." The day, when it dawns upon you, makes sure the fact that you saw correctly, though indistinctly, the objects revealed by the lamp. Whereunto - to which word of prophecy: primarily the Old Testament (and the New Testament, so far as it was then written) in Peter's day; now also in our day the whole New Testament, which, though brighter than the Old Testament (cf. 1 John 2:8, end), is but a lamp even still, as compared with the brightness of the eternal day (cf. 2 Peter 3:2). Oral teachings and traditions are to be tested by the written word (Acts 17:11). Dark, [ auchmeeroo (G850), squalid] - without water, or light. Such spiritually is the world without, and the smaller world (microcosm) within, the natural heart. Compare "dry places," Luke 11:24 (namely, unwatered by the Spirit), through which the unclean spirit goeth.

Dawn - bursting through the darkness. And - and so; namely, by this sample of Christ's glory in His humiliation (John 1:14), and earnest of His coming glory in His exaltation.

Day-star, [fosforos] - "the morning star" (Revelation 22:16); the Lord Jesus. In your hearts. Christ's arising in the heart, by His Spirit giving full assurance, creates spiritually full day, the means to which is prayerfully giving heed to the word. This is associated with the day of the Lord-being the earnest of it. Even our hearts shall not fully realize Christ in all His glory and felt presence, until He shall come (Isaiah 66:14-15; Malachi 4:2). However, Tregelles' punctuation is best, 'Whereunto ye do well to take heed (as unto a light shining in a dark place, until the day have dawned, and the morning star arisen) in your hearts.' For the day has already dawned in the believer's heart; what he waits for is, its visible manifestation at Christ's coming.

Verse 20

Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation.

'Forasmuch as ye know this' (1 Peter 1:18). First - the foremost consideration in studying prophecy; a first principle, never to be lost sight of. Is, [ ginetai (G1096)] - 'proves to be.' No prophecy found to be the result of "private (the individual writer's uninspired) interpretation" (solution), and so origination. [ Epilusis (G1955) does not mean in itself origination, but that which the sacred writer could not always interpret; though, being the speaker or writer (1 Peter 1:10-12), was plainly not of his own, but of God's disclosure, origination, and inspiration, as Peter proceeds to add, "But holy men ... spake (and afterward wrote) ... moves by the Holy Spirit:" a reason why ye should 'give' all "heed" to it.] The parallelism to 2 Peter 1:16 shows that "private interpretation," contrasted with "moved by the Holy Spirit," answers to 'fables devised by (human) wisdom,' contrasted with "we were eye-witnesses of His majesty," etc., attested by the 'voice from God.' The words of the prophetic (so of all) Scripture writers were not mere words of the individuals, therefore to be interpreted by them, but of "the Holy Spirit," by whom they were "moved." "Private" is explained (2 Peter 1:21) "by the will of man" (namely, the individual writer). In a secondary sense, as the word is the Holy Spirit's, it cannot be interpreted by its readers (anymore than by its writers) by their private human powers, but by the teaching of the Holy Spirit (John 16:14); for it was by the Holy Spirit that its speakers and writers were "moved." [ Idias (G2398), "private," is not opposed to the Catholic Church's interpretation (as Rome argues), but to the Holy Spirit's motion.] It is not by individual wisdom, but by the Holy Spirit, the Bible's Author, that any can interpret it. No Scripture is an isolated composition of the individual man, but part of an organic whole, to be solved by comparison with the rest of the Spirit-inspired Word. 'He who is the Author of Scripture is its Supreme Interpreter' (Gerhard). Alford, 'Springs not out of human interpretation' - i:e., is not a prognostication by a man, knowing what he means when he utters it, but, etc. (John 11:49-52.) Rightly: except that the verb is, Doth prove to be. It not being of private interpretation, you must 'give heed' to it, looking for the Spirits illumination "in your hearts" (notes, 2 Peter 1:19).

Verse 21

For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.

Came not in old time, [ ou (G3756) ... eenecthee (G5342) pote (G4218)] - 'was never at any time borne' (to us).

By the will of man - alone (Jeremiah 23:26: cf. 2 Peter 3:5, "willingly"). Holy men of God. 'Aleph (') A, Vulgate; but B C, 'men FROM God;' emissaries from God. "Holy," because they had the Holy Spirit.

Moved, [ feromenoi (G5342)] - 'borne' (along), as by a mighty wind: Acts 2:2, 'rushing [ feromenees (G5342)] wind:' rapt out of themselves; still not in fanatical excitement (1 Corinthians 14:32). [Hebrew, nabiy' (H5030), 'prophet,' meant an interpreter of God. He, as God's spokesman, interpreted not his own "private" will or thought, but God's.] 'Man of the Spirit,' (margin, Hosea 9:7; Neb. 9:30, margin). 'Seer,' on the other hand, refers to the mode of receiving the communications from God, rather than to the utterance of them to others. "Spake" implies that, both in its original oral announcement and now even in writing, it has been always the living voice of God speaking to us through His inspired servants. 'Borne along' forms a beautiful antithesis to 'was borne.' They were passive, yet not mere mechanical instruments. The Old Testament prophets primarily; including also all the inspired penmen, whether of the New or Old Testament (2 Peter 3:2).

Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Peter 1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". 1871-8.