Bible Commentaries
1 Corinthians 10

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Verse 1

Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea;

Moreover [ de (G1161)]. So C. But 'Aleph (') A B Delta G f g, Vulgate, read 'For.' Ye need to exercise self-denying watchfulness, notwithstanding your privileges, lest ye be cast-aways (1 Corinthians 9:24-27). FOR most of the Israelites, with all their privileges, were castaways through want of it.

Ignorant - with all their boasted "knowledge."

Our fathers. The Jewish Church is related as parent to the Christian' Church.

All. Arrange as the Greek, 'Our fathers were all under the cloud;' giving the "all" its proper emphasis. Not so much as one of so great a multitude was detained by force or disease (Psalms 105:37). Five times the "all" is repeated in enumerating the five favours God bestowed on Israel (1 Corinthians 10:1-4). Five times, correspondingly, they sinned (1 Corinthians 10:6-10). In contrast to the "all" stands "many (rather, 'the most') of them" (1 Corinthians 10:5). All had great privileges, yet most were cast-aways through lust. Beware you, having greater privileges, of sharing the same doom through a like sin. Continuing 1 Corinthians 9:24. they "run all, but one receiveth the prize."

Under the cloud - under the defense of the cloud-pillar, veiling them from the Egyptians (Exodus 13:21-22; Psalms 105:39).

Passed through the sea - by God's miraculous interposition (Exodus 14:29).

Verse 2

And were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea;

And - and so.

Baptized unto Moses - the representative of the Old Testament covenant, as Jesus, the Son of God, is of the Gospel covenant (John 1:17; Hebrews 3:5-6). The people were led to believe in Moses as God's servant by the miracle of the cloud, and by their being conducted safely through the Red Sea. "Baptized unto" him (Exodus 14:31) is thus equivalent to 'initiated into the Mosaic covenant:' introduced into relationship with him as the God-appointed leader. Paul's argument is, The Corinthians, it is true, have been "baptized," but so also were the Israelites; if the virtual baptism of the latter availed not to save them from the doom of lust, neither will the actual baptism of the former save them. The symbols also correspond: the cloud and sea consist of water. As these took the Israelites out of sight, then restored them again to view, so the water does to the baptized. The Egyptians represent the death-doomed old man; Israel, the newborn life. "The cloud" (symbol of the divine presence, Isaiah 4:5) and "the sea" may symbolize the Spirit and the water respectively (John 3:5; Acts 10:44-47). Christ is the pillar-cloud that screens us from God's hot wrath. Christ, "the light of the world," is our "pillar of fire" to guide us in this dark world. As the rock, when smitten, sent forth waters, so Christ, once for all smitten, sends forth the waters of the Spirit. As the manna bruised fed Israel, so Christ, when "it pleased the Lord to bruise Him," has become our spiritual food. A proof of inspiration is given in this, that the historical Scriptures, without the consciousness even of the authors, are tangible prophecies, as in the first germ the future tree is wrapped up.

Verse 3

And did all eat the same spiritual meat;

Same spiritual meat. As the water from the rock answered to baptism, so the manna corresponded to the other of the two Christian sacraments, the Lord's supper. Paul implies the importance attached to these two sacraments by all Christians in those days: an anticipatory protest against those who set them aside. Still, he guards against the other extreme-that the possession of such privileges will ensure salvation. Had there been seven sacraments, as Rome teaches, Paul would have alluded to them. He does not mean that the Israelites and we Christians have "the same" sacrament; but that believing and unbelieving Israelites alike had "the same" spiritual privilege of the manna (cf. 1 Corinthians 10:17). It was "spiritual meat" or food, because given by God's Spirit, not by human labour. Galatians 4:29, "born after the Spirit" - i:e., supernaturally; "corn of heaven," Psalms 78:24; Psalms 105:40. Rather, "spiritual," as typical of Christ, the true bread of heaven, John 6:32 (Grotius). Not that the Israelites clearly understood this, but believers among them would feel that the type contained some spiritual truth: their implicit and reverent, though indistinct, faith was counted to them for justification, of which the manna was a sacramental seal. 'They are not to be heard which feign that the old fathers did look only for transitory promises' (Article 7:, Church of England: cf. Hebrews 4:2).

Verse 4

And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ.

Drink (Exodus 17:6; Numbers 20:8) - the literal water typified, and so is called "spiritual drink."

Spiritual Rock that followed them. The tradition of Rabbi Solomon on Numbers 20:2 is, that the rock, or at least the stream from it, followed the Israelites from place to place (cf. Deuteronomy 9:21). Christ, the "spiritual Rock" (Deuteronomy 32:4; Deuteronomy 32:15; Deuteronomy 32:18; Deuteronomy 32:30-31; Deuteronomy 32:37; Psalms 78:20; Psalms 78:25; 1 Peter 2:6), 'accompanied them' (Exodus 33:15). "Followed" implies His attending on them to minister to them; though mostly going before them, He, when occasion required, followed "behind" (Exodus 14:19). He satisfied their bodily thirst whenever they needed it: four occasions are expressly recorded (Exodus 15:24-25; Exodus 17:6; Numbers 20:8; Numbers 21:16-18). This water symbolized that from the spiritual Rock (cf. John 4:13-14; John 7:38: see note, 1 Corinthians 10:3), which believing Israelites drank in types. As by the stream the rock followed them, so by His Spirit Christ is with us to the end of the world.

Was - represented (Matthew 26:26).

Verse 5

But with many of them God was not well pleased: for they were overthrown in the wilderness.

But - though they had so many spiritual privileges.

Many of them - rather, 'the majority of them.' All except Joshua and Caleb of the first generation.

God - whose judgment alone is valid.

Not - in the Greek emphatically beginning the sentence: "Not," as one might naturally expect, 'with the more part of them was,' etc. (Hebrews 3:14-17).

For - the event shows they pleased not God. Overthrown, [ katestrootheesan (G2693)] - strewn in heaps.

In the wilderness - far from the land of promise.

Verse 6

Now these things were our examples, to the intent we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted.

Were - Greek, 'came to pass (as).'

Our examples - literally, types: prefigurations of what will befall us, if we with all our privileges walk carelessly. There is continuity and unity in God's plan of dealing with the Church in all ages.

Lust - the common fountain of the four offences, and therefore put first (James 1:14-15: cf. Psalms 106:14). A particular lust was that after flesh, when they pined for the fish, leeks, etc., of Egypt, which they had left (Numbers 11:4-5; Numbers 11:33-34). These are not "evil things" in themselves, but they became so to the Israelites when they lusted after what God withheld, and were discontented with what God provided.

Verse 7

Neither be ye idolaters, as were some of them; as it is written, The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play.

Idolaters. A case in point. As the Israelites sat down (a deliberate act), ate, and drank at the idol feast to the calves in Horeb, so the Corinthians were in danger of idolatry by a like act, though not professedly worshipping an idol, as the Israelites (Exodus 32:6; 1 Corinthians 8:10-11; 1 Corinthians 10:14; 1 Corinthians 10:20-21). He passes from the first to the second person, as they alone (not he also) were in danger of idolatry. He resumes the first person appropriately at 1 Corinthians 10:16.

Some. The multitude follow the lead of some bad men.

Play - with lascivious dancing, singing, and drumming round the calf (cf. "rejoiced," Acts 7:41).

Verse 8

Neither let us commit fornication, as some of them committed, and fell in one day three and twenty thousand.

Fornication. Numbers 25:1-5 assigns idolatry of Baal-peor as the cause; but fornication was associated at the idol feast with it, and prompted Israel to it. This harlotry applied to the Corinthians (1 Corinthians 5:1; 1 Corinthians 5:9; 1 Corinthians 6:9; 1 Corinthians 6:15; 1 Corinthians 6:18; 1 Corinthians 8:10). Balaam tempted Israel to both sins (Revelation 2:14: cf. 1 Corinthians 8:7; 1 Corinthians 8:9).

Three and twenty thousand - in Numbers 25:9, "twenty and four thousand." If this were a real discrepancy, it would militate rather against inspiration of the subject matter than against verbal respiration. But Moses, in Numbers, includes all who died "in the plague;" Paul, all who died "in one day;" 1,000 more may have fallen next day; or the real number may have been between 23,000 and 24,000-say, 23,500 or 23,600. When writing generally, where exact figures were not needed, one writer might veraciously give one of the two round numbers near the exact one, and the other writer the other. Whichever be the true way of reconciling the statements, at least they are not irreconcileable.

Verse 9

Neither let us tempt Christ, as some of them also tempted, and were destroyed of serpents.

Tempt Christ. So Irenaeus (264). Delta G f g, Vulgate, 'Aleph (') B C read 'Lord;' A, from Numbers 21:5, 'God.' As "Christ" was referred to in one of Israel's five privileges (1 Corinthians 10:4), so He is mentioned in one of Israel's five corresponding sins. "Christ" or 'Lord' (i:e., the Second Person, Exodus 17:2; Exodus 17:7) answers to "God," Numbers 21:5; so "Christ" must be "God" (cf. Romans 14:11 with Isaiah 45:22-23). Israel's complainings were temptings of Christ, the "Angel" of the covenant (Exodus 23:20-21; Exodus 32:34; Isaiah 63:9). Though they drank of "that Rock ... Christ" (1 Corinthians 10:4), they put Him further to the proof by doubting could He supply water (Numbers 20:3-13). Though eating the meat (manna) that typified Christ, "the bread of life," they cried, "Our soul loatheth this light bread." Being punished by the fiery serpents, they were saved by the brasen serpent, the emblem of Christ (cf. John 3:14; John 8:56; Hebrews 11:26). The Greek [ ekpeirazoomen (G1598)] "tempt" means try, so as to wear out by unbelief, Christ's long-suffering (cf. Numbers 14:22; Psalms 95:8-9). The Corinthians were provoking God's long-suffering by verging toward idolatry, through overweening confidence in their knowledge (1 Corinthians 10:22).

Verse 10

Neither murmur ye, as some of them also murmured, and were destroyed of the destroyer.

Some ... murmured - upon the death of Korah and his company, who themselves were complainers (Numbers 16:41; Numbers 16:49). Their complaints against Moses and Aaron were virtually against God (cf. Exodus 16:8). Paul glances at the Corinthian murmurs against himself, Christ's apostle.

Destroyed 14 700 perished Or the murmuring was that upon the spies' evil report (Numbers 14:1; Numbers 14:37) Destroyed. 14,700 perished. Or the murmuring was that upon the spies' evil report (Numbers 14:1-37).

The destroyer - the same God-sent angel as in Exodus 12:23, and 2 Samuel 24:16.

Verse 11

Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples: and they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come.

Now all these things ... ensamples - resuming 1 Corinthians 10:6. History is a mirror for present times. So Delta G. But 'Aleph (') A B C read 'by way of example' [ tupikoos (G5178a)], 'typically.'

The ends of the world - literally, 'of the ages.' The New Testament dispensation winds up all former 'ages.' No new dispensation shall appear until Christ comes as Judge. The "ends" (plural) include various successive periods consummated and merging together (Ephesians 1:10: cf. Hebrews 9:26). Our dispensation being the consummation of all that went before, our responsibilities are the greater, and the greater our guilt, if we fall short of our privileges.

Verse 12

Wherefore let him that thinketh he standeth take heed lest he fall.

Thinketh he standeth - namely, "by faith;" in contrast to 1 Corinthians 10:5 (Romans 11:20).

Fall - from his place in the Church (cf. 1 Corinthians 10:8, "fell"), both temporally and spiritually (Romans 14:4). Our security as relates to God consists in faith; as relates to ourselves, in fear.

Verse 13

There hath no temptation taken you but such as is common to man: but God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able; but will with the temptation also make a way to escape, that ye may be able to bear it.

Consolation under temptation; it is such as is "common to man," or 'such as man can bear' by God's aid.

Faithful (Psalms 125:3; Isaiah 27:3; Isaiah 27:8; Revelation 3:10) - to His covenant with believers (1 Thessalonians 5:24) To be led into Faithful (Psalms 125:3; Isaiah 27:3; Isaiah 27:8; Revelation 3:10) - to His covenant with believers (1 Thessalonians 5:24). To be led into temptation is distinct from running into it, which would be 'tempting God' (1 Corinthians 10:9; Matthew 4:7).

Way to escape (Jeremiah 29:11; 2 Peter 2:9). The Greek is, 'the way of escape:' the appropriate way in each temptation; not immediate, but in due time, after patience has had her perfect work (James 1:2-4; James 1:12). He 'makes' the way of escape simultaneously "with the temptation" which He appoints. He permits the exigency, and provides the help.

To bear it, [ hupenengkein (G5297)] - to bear up under it. Not, he will take it away (2 Corinthians 12:7-9).

Verse 14

Wherefore, my dearly beloved, flee from idolatry.

Resuming 1 Corinthians 10:7; 1 Corinthians 8:9-10.

Flee. Do not tamper with it by doubtful acts, as eating idol meats on the plea of Christian liberty. Our safety is in wholly shunning whatever borders on idolatry (2 Corinthians 6:16-17). The Holy Spirit presciently warns the Church against the idolatry, subsequently transferred from the idol feast to the Lord's supper, in the figment of transubstantiation. The Lord's supper is here proved to be not a sacrifice, but the feast after the sacrifice: the "bread" remains so after consecration (1 Corinthians 10:17; 1 Corinthians 11:2-6).

Verse 15

I speak as to wise men; judge ye what I say.

Appeal to their own judgment to weigh the argument-namely, That as partaking of the Lord's supper involves a partaking of the Lord himself, and partaking of the Jewish sacrificial meats involved a partaking of the altar, and as the pagans virtually sacrifice to devils, to partake of an idol feast, with belief in idols as entities, is to have fellowship with devils. We cannot divest ourselves of the responsibility of 'judging' for ourselves. The weakness of private judgment is not an argument against its use, but its abuse. We should the more diligently search the infallible Word, with every aid, above all with prayer, for the Spirit's teaching (Acts 17:11). If an inspired apostle not only permits but urges men to judge his sayings by Scripture, much more should fallible ministers now do so.

To wise men - referring ironically to the Corinthian boast of "wisdom" (1 Corinthians 4:10; 2 Corinthians 11:19). Here you have an opportunity of exercising your 'wisdom.'

Verse 16

The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ?

The cup of blessing - answering to the Passover "cup of blessing," over which "blessing" was offered to God. It was in doing so that Christ instituted this part of the Lord's supper (Luke 22:17; Luke 22:20).

We bless - "we," not merely ministers, but also the congregation. The minister 'blesses' (i:e., consecrates with blessing) the cup to be the sign of Christ's blood, and a means of our union with His glorified humanity; not by any priestly transmitted authority, but as representing the congregation, who virtually through him bless the cup. The consecration is the corporate act of the Church. The joint blessing by Him and them (not "the cup" itself, which, as also "the bread," in the Greek is accusative), and the consequent drinking together, constitute "the communion" - i:e., joint participation "of the blood of Christ" (cf. 1 Corinthians 10:18). "Is" in both cases is literal. He who with faith partakes of the cup and the bread, partakes really (because spiritually) of the blood and body of Christ (Ephesians 5:30; Ephesians 5:32), and of the benefits of His sacrifice on the cross (Hebrews 13:10). In contrast to this is "fellowship with devils" (1 Corinthians 10:20). "The cup" (i:e., the wine in the cup), etc., is that whereby, through faith, the participation takes place of the blood, etc. It is the seal, and a means of our living union with our Saviour (John 6:53; John 6:57). It is not said, 'The cup ... is the blood,' or 'The bread ... is the body,' but 'is the communion' (joint-participation of the blood ... body). If the bread be changed into the body of Christ, where is the sign of the sacrament? Romanists eat Christ 'in remembrance of Himself.' To drink blood would have been an abomination to Jews and Christians alike (Leviticus 17:11-12; Acts 15:29). Breaking the bread was part of the consecrating of it; for thus was represented the crucifixion of Christ's body. The specification of both bread and wine disproves the Romish doctrine of concomitancy, and exclusion of the laity from the cup.

Verse 17

For we being many are one bread, and one body: for we are all partakers of that one bread.

One bread - rather, 'loaf.' One loaf alone probably was used in each celebration.

(And) one body. Omit "and:" 'one loaf (that is), one body.' 'We, the many (communicants: so the Greek), are one bread (by partaking of the same loaf, which becomes assimilated to the substance of all; so we become), one body' (with Christ, 1 Corinthians 12:12, and with one another). Or, '(as there is) one bread (composed of many separate grains) (so) we the many are one body.'

We are all, [ hoi (G3588) pantes (G3956)] - 'the whole of us.'

Verse 18

Behold Israel after the flesh: are not they which eat of the sacrifices partakers of the altar?

Israel after the flesh - the literal, as distinguished from the spiritual Israel (Romans 2:29; Romans 9:3; Galatians 4:29).

Partakers of the altar - so of God, whose is the altar: they have fellowship in God and His worship, of which the altar is the symbol (Matthew 23:20-21).

Verse 19

What say I then? that the idol is any thing, or that which is offered in sacrifice to idols is any thing?

What say I then? The inference might be drawn, from the analogies of the Lord's supper and Jewish sacrifices, that an idol is really what the pagan thought it, and that in eating idol meats they had fellowship with the god. This verse guards against this: 'What do I mean then? that a thing sacrificed to idols has any real virtue, or that an idol is any real thing?' (A B read in this order: supply 'Nay'), 'But (I say) that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons.' Paul here introduces a new fact. It is true that an idol has no reality in the pagan's sense; but it has a reality in another sense: pagandom being under Satan's dominion, as "prince of this world," he and his demons are in fact the powers worshipped by the pagan, whether they are or are not conscious of it (Deuteronomy 32:17, Hebrew, sheediym (H7700); Leviticus 17:7; 2 Chronicles 11:15; Psalms 106:37; Revelation 9:20). 'Devil' is in the Greek restricted to Satan; 'demons is applied to his subordinate spirits. Fear, rather than love, is the motive of pagan worship: cf. the English word 'panic,' from PAN, whose human form with horns and cloven hoofs gave rise to the common representations of Satan, just as fear is the spirit of Satan and his demons (James 2:19).

Verse 20

But I say, that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils, and not to God: and I would not that ye should have fellowship with devils.

I would not that ye should have fellowship with devils - by partaking of idol feasts (1 Corinthians 8:10).

Verse 21

Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of devils: ye cannot be partakers of the Lord's table and Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of devils: ye cannot be partakers of the Lord's table, and of the table of devils.

Ye cannot ... - really, though ye may outwardly (1 Kings 18:21.)

Cup of devils - in contrast to the cup of the Lord. At idol feasts libations were made from the cup to the idol first, then the guests drank; so they had fellowship with the idol. Bread and a cup were used in initiating into the mysteries of Mithras (Justin Martyr).

The Lord's table. The Lord's supper is a feast on a table, not a sacrifice on an altar. Our only altar is the Cross, our only sacrifice that of Christ once for all. The Lord's supper stands in the same relation analogically to Christ's sacrifice as the Jews' sacrificial feasts did to their sacrifices (cf. Malachi 1:7, "altar ... table of the Lord"), and the pagan idol feasts to theirs (Isaiah 65:11). Heathen sacrifices were to idol nonentities, behind which Satan lurked. The Jews' sacrifice was a shadow of the substance to come. Our one sacrifice of Christ is the only substantial reality. The partaker of the Jews' sacrificial feast partook rather "of the altar" (1 Corinthians 10:18) than of GOD; the pagan idol-feaster had fellowship with demons; the communicant in the Lord's supper has in it a symbolic representation of, and a real fellowship in, the body of Christ once sacrificed, and now exalted as the Head of redeemed humanity.

Verse 22

Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? are we stronger than he?

Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? - by dividing our fellowship between Him and idols (Ezekiel 20:39). The Greek has 'Or' preceding 'Shall we yield to God's will?' 'Or' do we wish to provoke Him to assert His power? (Deuteronomy 32:21; Exodus 20:5.)

Are we stronger? - that we can risk a contest with Him.

Verse 23

All things are lawful for me, but all things are not expedient: all things are lawful for me, but all things edify not.

All things are lawful for me ... Recurring to the Corinthian plea (1 Corinthians 6:12), he repeats his qualification of it. A B C 'Aleph (') G f g, Vulgate, omit "for me." 'Aleph (') C have it.

Edify not - build not up the spiritual temple, the Church, in faith and love. Paul does not appeal to the apostolic decision, Acts 15:1-41, but to the broad principle of true Christian freedom, which does not think that, because we can use external things, we must use them (1 Corinthians 6:12). Their use or non-use should be regulated by regard to general edification.

Verse 24

Let no man seek his own, but every man another's wealth.

(1 Corinthians 10:33; Romans 15:1-2; 1 Corinthians 13:5.)

Verse 25

Whatsoever is sold in the shambles, that eat, asking no question for conscience sake:

Shambles - butchers' stalls.

Asking no question - whether it has been offered to idols or not.

For conscience' sake - lest, by hearing it had been offered to idols, a needless scruple should arise in your conscience, which, but for your asking, would never have arises. Or, 'not feeling it necessary for conscience' sake to ask questions.' [ meeden (G3367) is subjective.]

Verse 26

For the earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof.

Ground on which such eating without questioning is justified. The earth and all its contents ("the fullness thereof," Psalms 24:1; Psalms 50:12), including all meats, belong to the Lord, and are appointed for our use; where conscience suggests no scruple, all are to be eaten (Romans 14:14; Romans 14:20; 1 Timothy 4:4-5: cf. Acts 10:15).

Verse 27

If any of them that believe not bid you to a feast, and ye be disposed to go; whatsoever is set before you, eat, asking no question for conscience sake.

Ye be disposed to go - tacitly implying they would be safer not to go, yet not forbidding them (1 Corinthians 10:9). The feast is a general entertainment, at which, however, there might be meat that had been offered to idols.

For conscience' sake (note, 1 Corinthians 10:25).

Verse 28

But if any man say unto you, This is offered in sacrifice unto idols, eat not for his sake that shewed it, and for conscience sake: for the earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof:

If any man - a weak Christian at table, wishing to warn his brother.

Offered in sacrifice unto idols. So C Delta G. But 'Aleph (') A B H [ hierothuton (G2412a)] omit "unto idols." At a pagan's table the expression offensive to him would naturally be avoided.

For conscience' sake - not to cause a stumblingblock to thy weak brother's conscience (1 Corinthians 8:10-12).

For the earth is the Lord's ... Not in 'Aleph (') A B C Delta G f g, Vulgate.

Verse 29

Conscience, I say, not thine own, but of the other: for why is my liberty judged of another man's conscience?

Conscience ... of the other - the weak brother (1 Corinthians 10:28).

For why is my liberty judged of another man's conscience? Paul puts himself, as it were, in the position of his converts. The Greek for "the other" [ heterou (G2087)] and "another" [ allees (G243)] are distinct. "The other" is the one with whom Paul's and his convert's concern is: "another" is any other with whom he and they have no concern. If a guest know the meat to be idol meat, while I know it not, I have "liberty" to eat without being condemned by his "conscience" (Grotius). Thus the "for," etc., is an argument for 1 Corinthians 10:27, "eat, asking no question." Or, 'Why should I give occasion, by rash use of my liberty, that another should condemn it' (Estius). Or the words are those of the Corinthian objector (perhaps quoted by Paul from their letter), 'Why is my liberty judged by another's conscience?' why should not I be judged only by my own, and have liberty to do whatever it sanctions? Paul replies, 1 Corinthians 10:31, Your doing so ought always to be limited by regard "to the glory of God" (Vatablus). The first explanation is simplest: the "for," etc., in it refers to "not thine own" (i:e., 'not my own,' in Paul's change to the first person). I am to abstain only in the case of liability to offend the other's conscience; in cases where my own has no scruple, I am not bound, in God's judgment, by any other conscience than my own.

Verse 30

For if I by grace be a partaker, why am I evil spoken of for that for which I give thanks?

For. 'Aleph (') A B C Delta G f g omit "for" de (G1161)].

I by grace - rather 'with thankfulness.'

Be a partaker - of the food set before me.

Evil spoken of - by him who does not use his liberty, but will eat nothing without scrupulously questioning whence the meat comes.

Give thanks - which consecrates all the Christian's acts (Romans 14:6; 1 Timothy 4:3-4).

Verse 31

Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God.

Contrast Zechariah 7:6, worldly men. The godly "eat and drink," and it in well with him (Jeremiah 22:15-16).

To the glory of God (Colossians 3:17; 1 Peter 4:11) - which involves regard to the edification of our neighbour.

Verse 32

Give none offence, neither to the Jews, nor to the Gentiles, nor to the church of God:

Give none offence - in things indifferent; for in essential things affecting doctrine and practice, even in the smallest detail, we must not swerve from principle, whatever offence result (Matthew 18:7; Acts 24:16; 1 Corinthians 1:23; Philippians 1:10).

Verse 33

Even as I please all men in all things, not seeking mine own profit, but the profit of many, that they may be saved.

I please - I try to please (Romans 15:2; 1 Corinthians 9:19; 1 Corinthians 9:22).

Not seeking mine own (1 Corinthians 10:24).

Many - rather, as Greek 'THE many.'

Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 1 Corinthians 10". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". 1871-8.