Bible Commentaries
1 Samuel 2

Everett's Study Notes on the Holy ScripturesEverett's Study Notes

Verses 1-36

1 Samuel 2:1-10 Hannah’s Prophesy 1 Samuel 2:1-10 records Hannah’s prophecy of her son’s purpose and ministry as being lent unto the Lord. More importantly, it reflects the prophetic destiny of the Messiah, to which Samuel served as a type and figure in some aspects of his ministry.

Within the prophecy of Hannah recorded in 1 Samuel 2:1-10 we find a theme that is woven throughout the books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles. It states that God lifts up the humble men or humble nations and brings the proud low.

This prophecy opens (1 Samuel 2:1) and closes (1 Samuel 2:10) with the phrase “exalting the horn.” It practically speaks of God exalting her above her enemies, but predicts the exaltation and victory that Christ Jesus will accomplish in His redemptive work on Calvary.

1 Samuel 2:3 Talk no more so exceeding proudly; let not arrogancy come out of your mouth: for the LORD is a God of knowledge, and by him actions are weighed.

1 Samuel 2:3 Comments - We can see within these words of warnings against pride and arrogance a reference to Peninnah, who provoked Hannah sore and became her adversary.

1 Samuel 2:5 They that were full have hired out themselves for bread; and they that were hungry ceased: so that the barren hath born seven; and she that hath many children is waxed feeble.

1 Samuel 2:5 “so that the barren hath born seven” Comments - Hannah prophesies that the barren would bare seven. The number seven is used throughout Scripture as a sign of divine intervention, such as seven years of famine. Thus, seven children would represent divine intervention by God. It could also represent completeness and contentment as a sign that the barren woman had truly fulfilled her destiny. It is interesting to note that Hannah went on to have five more children for a total of six children (1 Samuel 2:21). Billye Brim suggests that the Messiah, who is mentioned within this prophecy, served as a reference to the seventh child; for it was through the birth of Jesus Christ that true contentment is fulfilled. Thus, the six children she bore in the flesh symbolized man’s incompleteness to achieve peace and rest. It is only by the coming of the Messiah that true fulfilment is accomplished. [21]

[21] Billye Brim, interviewed by Gloria Copeland, Believer’s Voice of Victory (Kenneth Copeland Ministries, Fort Worth, Texas), on Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California), television program.

1 Samuel 2:21, “And the LORD visited Hannah, so that she conceived, and bare three sons and two daughters. And the child Samuel grew before the LORD.”

1 Samuel 2:18 But Samuel ministered before the LORD, being a child, girded with a linen ephod.

1 Samuel 2:18 “girded with a linen ephod” - Comments - This is not the ephod that was adorned and worn by Aaron and the high priests. This was a simple apron or cloth that was worn by those priests who served in the temple (1 Samuel 22:18).

1 Samuel 22:18, “And the king said to Doeg, Turn thou, and fall upon the priests. And Doeg the Edomite turned, and he fell upon the priests, and slew on that day fourscore and five persons that did wear a linen ephod .”

1 Samuel 2:20-21 Comments The Principle of Sowing and Reaping - Hannah sowed a child to the Lord and reaped five-fold from the Lord in the same area.

1 Samuel 2:25 If one man sin against another, the judge shall judge him: but if a man sin against the LORD, who shall intreat for him? Notwithstanding they hearkened not unto the voice of their father, because the LORD would slay them.

1 Samuel 2:25 “because the LORD would slay them” - Comments - Or, “because Jehovah was minded to slay them” ( ASV). Note:

Proverbs 29:1, “He, that being often reproved hardeneth his neck, shall suddenly be destroyed, and that without remedy.”

1 Samuel 2:27 And there came a man of God unto Eli, and said unto him, Thus saith the LORD, Did I plainly appear unto the house of thy father, when they were in Egypt in Pharaoh's house?

1 Samuel 2:27 “unto the house of thy father” - Comments - Eli, being the high priest in Israel, was of the tribe of Levi, of the house of Aaron. This phrase is a reference to Aaron.

1 Samuel 2:29 Wherefore kick ye at my sacrifice and at mine offering, which I have commanded in my habitation; and honourest thy sons above me, to make yourselves fat with the chiefest of all the offerings of Israel my people?

1 Samuel 2:29 Comments - How did Eli honour his sons above God? He did not restrain them from abusing their priestly offices. Eli should have brought judgment upon his own sons, but he withheld this judgment to his and their own harm.

1 Samuel 3:13, “For I have told him that I will judge his house for ever for the iniquity which he knoweth; because his sons made themselves vile, and he restrained them not .”

1 Samuel 2:35 And I will raise me up a faithful priest, that shall do according to that which is in mine heart and in my mind: and I will build him a sure house; and he shall walk before mine anointed for ever.

1 Samuel 2:35 Comments - 1 Samuel 2:35 contains a two-fold prophecy of both Samuel and a Messianic prophecy of the office of the Lord Jesus Christ, who would serve as our Great High Priest (Hebrews 3:1).

Hebrews 3:1, “Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus;”

1 Samuel 2:36 And it shall come to pass, that every one that is left in thine house shall come and crouch to him for a piece of silver and a morsel of bread, and shall say, Put me, I pray thee, into one of the priests' offices, that I may eat a piece of bread.

1 Samuel 2:30-36 Comments The Prophecy Against Eli and His Sons - The prophecy of 1 Samuel 2:30-36 was fulfilled on several occasions, culminating in the stripping of Abiathar from the priesthood.

1 Samuel 4:11, “And the ark of God was taken; and the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were slain .”

1 Samuel 22:16-18, “And the king said, Thou shalt surely die, Ahimelech, thou, and all thy father's house . And the king said unto the footmen that stood about him, Turn, and slay the priests of the LORD; because their hand also is with David, and because they knew when he fled, and did not shew it to me. But the servants of the king would not put forth their hand to fall upon the priests of the LORD. And the king said to Doeg, Turn thou, and fall upon the priests. And Doeg the Edomite turned, and he fell upon the priests, and slew on that day fourscore and five persons that did wear a linen ephod.”

1 Kings 2:27, “So Solomon thrust out Abiathar from being priest unto the LORD ; that he might fulfil the word of the LORD, which he spake concerning the house of Eli in Shiloh.”

Eli was of the lineage of Aaron through Ithamar, Aaron's son:

1 Chronicles 24:3, “And David distributed them, both Zadok of the sons of Eleazar, and Ahimelech of the sons of Ithamar , according to their offices in their service.”

Aaron Þ Ithamar ÞÞÞÞ Eli

Eli Þ Hophni Þ

Phinehas Þ Ichabod

Þ Ahitub Þ Ahiah

Þ Zadok

Þ Ahimelech Þ Abiathar Þ Jonathan

Þ Ahimelech

Eli's two sons were Hophni and Phinehas:

1 Samuel 1:3, “And this man went up out of his city yearly to worship and to sacrifice unto the LORD of hosts in Shiloh. And the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, the priests of the LORD, were there.”

Phinehas had two sons, Ichabod and Ahitub:

1 Samuel 4:19-22 - Ichabod

1 Samuel 14:3, “And Ahiah, the son of Ahitub, Ichabod's brother, the son of Phinehas , the son of Eli, the LORD'S priest in Shiloh, wearing an ephod. And the people knew not that Jonathan was gone.”

Ahitub's sons were Ahiah, Zadok and Ahimelech:

1 Samuel 14:3, “And Ahiah, the son of Ahitub , Ichabod's brother, the son of Phinehas, the son of Eli, the LORD'S priest in Shiloh, wearing an ephod. And the people knew not that Jonathan was gone.”

2 Samuel 8:17, “And Zadok the son of Ahitub , and Ahimelech the son of Abiathar, were the priests; and Seraiah was the scribe;”

1 Samuel 22:20, “And one of the sons of Ahimelech the son of Ahitub , named Abiathar, escaped, and fled after David.”

The son of Ahimelech was Abiathar:

1 Samuel 22:20, “And one of the sons of Ahimelech the son of Ahitub, named Abiathar , escaped, and fled after David.”

The sons of Abiathar were Jonathan and Ahimelech:

2 Samuel 15:27, “The king said also unto Zadok the priest, Art not thou a seer? return into the city in peace, and your two sons with you, Ahimaaz thy son, and Jonathan the son of Abiathar .”

1 Chronicles 24:6, “And Shemaiah the son of Nethaneel the scribe, one of the Levites, wrote them before the king, and the princes, and Zadok the priest, and Ahimelech the son of Abiathar , and before the chief of the fathers of the priests and Levites: one principal household being taken for Eleazar, and one taken for Ithamar.”

Bibliographical Information
Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 2". Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. 2013.