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SABBATH HEALING OF A DROPSY V. 1-4
1) "And it came to pass," (kai egeneto) "And it occurred," happened, or came to be.
2) "As he went into the house of one of the chief Pharisees," (en to elthein auton eis oikon tinos ton archonton ton Pharisaion) "As he went into a residence of one of the administrative leaders of the Pharisees, "not shrinking from an opportunity to do good, a ruler of the Pharisees, like Nicodemus "a ruler of the Jews," John 3:1. He was an influential Pharisee, a rabbi, perhaps a member of the Sanhedrin, as Nicodemus, a teacher in Israel seemed to be, John 3:2; John 3:10.
3) "To eat broad on the sabbath day," (sabbato phagein arton) "To eat bread (food) on a sabbath day," Exodus 16:23, a custom among the Jews. They loved feasts on sabbath days, sumptuous meals which they cooked the day before for the sabbath, Nehemiah 8:9-12. The term to eat bread was used as an Hebraism to mean "food" or to feast.
4) "That they watched him," (kai autoi esan parateroumenoi) "And they were carefully watching or guarding him," eyeing Him like an hawk watches a chicken, or a cat watches a mouse, or a snake watches a frog. That is they watched for ulterior motives, with evil designs, as in Matthew 16:1; Matthew 19:3.
1) "And, behold, there was a certain man," (kai idou anthropos tis en) "And behold (take note) that there was a certain man," a particular man with dropsy, apparently there not as a guest, but planted there by the Pharisees so that he would be right in sight of Jesus.
2) "Before him which had the dropsy." (hudropikos emprosthen autou) "Before him who was a dropsical," who had a heart illness known as dropsy, causing water in parts of the body. The phrase "before him," means literally "right in His (Jesus’) face," evidently to see what Jesus would do about it. Yet, Jesus knew what was in their deceitful hearts, John 2:24-25.
1)"And Jesus answering," (kai apokritheis ho lesous) "And Jesus responding," to the occasion, that appears to have been "set up," by the Pharisees, perverters of the Law of Moses, and rejectors of Him as the Savior, Mark 7:1-12; John 1:11-12; Matthew 5:20.
2) "Spake unto the lawyers and Pharisees, saying," (eipen pros tous nomikous kai Pharisaious legon) "Spoke directly to the Pharisees and the lawyers, saying," or challenging them for a commitment on what they were about to face. He knew their thoughts and the wickedness of their unregenerated hearts, Jeremiah 17:9-10; John 2:25.
3) "Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath?" (eksestin to sabbato therapeusai he ou) "Is it legal to heal, or not, on the sabbath?" Matthew 12:10, according to your law and judgment? What is your eminent judgment and your practical action regarding such, in the light of your law? since you also feast on the sabbath? He inquired or quizzed them. They had entrapped themselves in a dilemma, a contradictory position much as that of Luke 13:14-15.
1) "And they held their peace." (hoi de hesuchasain) "And they were silent," close-lipped, speechless, simply kept watching, but would not answer, as self-condemned hypocrites, as described Mark 7:6-9; Mark 7:13; Psalms 37:32; Isaiah 29:20-21.
2) "And he took him, and healed him," (kai epilabomenos iasato auton) "And he took him, took hold of or laid hands on him (the dropsied man) and healed him," with the lawyers "goggling" at Him. In tenderness, with care, mercy and compassion He healed him, that they might recognize Him as the Son of God, John 2:11; Mark 2:5-12; John 20:30-31.
3) "And let him go," (kai apelusen) "And he dismissed him," released, or let him go, free from, and visibly healed of the swollen dropsical condition. For whom Jesus declares to be free, lets go of sin or affliction, is "free indeed," John 8:32; John 8:36.
1) "And answered them, saying," (kai pros autous eipen) "And he said directly to them," responded to the entrapment motivated Pharisees, to the administrative Pharisees and lawyers in the residence where He had been invited for the meal, by religiously treacherous men, who resisted truth and the Holy Spirit, continually, Mark 7:9; Acts 7:51.
2) "Which of you shall have an ass or an ox fallen into a pit," (tinos himon hulos he bous eis phrear peseltai) "Who of you all shall have a son, an ass, or an ox having fallen into a pit," Luke 13:15, a ditch or a well, in a suffering or endangered state or condition; There is an analogy between dropsy and drowning in a pit, well, or ditch, that the astigmatized blind Pharisees could even see, 1 Corinthians 2:9; 2 Corinthians 4:3-4.
3) "And will not straightway pull him out on the sabbath day"’ (kai ouk eutheos anaspasei auton en hemera tou sabbatou) "And will he not pull him up immediately on a day of the sabbath?" as commanded in the law, Deuteronomy 22:4. He will, will he not? The implied answer is, by necessary inference, certainly; unless he is himself below an ox, an ass, or a son in mercy and compassion, 2 Corinthians 1:3-4. Even their law required that the righteous show mercy and compassion, Proverbs 20:28; Micah 6:8.
1) "And they could not answer him," (kai ouk ischusan antapokrithenai) "And they were not able to reply," in any intelligent or defensible way, without further revealing their donkey nature to each other and to those at the feast, much as they found themselves on other occasions before Him, Matthew 21:23-27; Matthew 21:45-46.
2) "Again to these things." (pros tauta) "Directly to these things," to the challenge of what He had done, in healing the man with dropsy, on the sabbath day, or to the practical illustrations regarding their own ethical conduct, as it related to the laws of the sabbaths and Jewish morals and ethics, Deuteronomy 22:4. Obstinacy, unbelief, and religious pride sealed their minds and seared their hearts against Him and His Divine nature of reasoning, 1 Corinthians 2:9; Isaiah 55:8-9.
THE AMBITIOUS GUEST PARABLE V. 7-15
1) "And he put forth a parable to those which were bidden," (elegen de pros tous keklemenous parabolen) "Then he posed to those who had been invited a parable," to these who had also come as a guest for the meal at the residence of the Pharisee, after He had healed the man with the dropsy and quieted the Pharisees, Luke 14:3-6.
2) "When he marked out how they chose out the chief rooms;" (epechon pos tas protoklislas ekselegonto) "Noting particularly how the chief seats they were choosing," Philippians 2:3, or ambitiously picking out the first place, priority seats, the positions of greatest prominence. Luke 14:12 indicates that there were in attendance many rich and luxurious living people who desired "top billing," See Luke 18:14; James 4:10.
3) "Saying unto them," (legon pros autous) "Repeatedly or explicitly saying and pointing out to them," to all those who were at the apparently large feast or festival, in teaching a lesson of humility in life and service, Luke 14:11; Proverbs 16:19; Isaiah 57:15; Philippians 2:5-8; 1 Peter 5:5-6.
1) "When thou art bidden of any man to a wedding," (hotan klethes hupo tinos eis gamous) "When you personally are invited by anyone into wedding festivities," a wedding feast, perhaps a little more formal one than this feast was, to avoid too severe or cutting a rebuke from the host, Luke 14:1.
2) "Sit not down in the highest room;" (me kataklithes eis ten protoklisian) "Do not recline in the first place of honor seat," with presumptuous pride, self-exaltation, Luke 14:11; Luke 18:14. For such behavior is a sin of presumption, Numbers 15:30; Psalms 19:13; 2 Peter 2:10.
3) "Lest a more honorable man than thou," (mepote entimoteros sou) "Lest someone who is more honorable than you are," more worthy of honor or respect, because of the position of service he renders, or his character of life.
4) "Be bidden of him;" (e keklemenos hup’ autou) "Be there (appear) arrives late, who has been invited by him," by the host, without your knowledge.
1) "And He that bade thee and him come," (kai elthon ho se kai auton kalesas) "And the one who invited both you and him comes," approaches you from the higher position, you have seized on your own.
2) "And say to thee," (erei soi) "He will say to you," inform you as a presumptuous, proud celebrity-seeking, self-exalting person.
3) "Give this man place;" (dos touto topon) "Give to this man (the) place," the one you have covetously taken for the temporary honor.
4) "And thou begin with shame to take the lowest room." (kai tote arkse meta aischunes ton eschaton topon katechein) "And then (at that point) you will begin with shame to take the last or lowest place," of honor, to the foot of the class of honor at the feast, perhaps to the last seat available, as a matter of self-entrapped humiliation, while coveting, clamoring for exaltation, Proverbs 25:6-7.
1) "But when thou art bidden," (air hotan klethes) "But when you are invited," to a wedding festivity, etc., for a special occasion, let the invitation be honor enough.
2) "Go and sit down in the lowest room;" (poreutheis anapese eis ton eschaton topon) "Go and sit or recline in the lowest place of honor," in an inconspicuous place, so as not to grab attention from the host, or guest of honor, John 8:54.
3) "That when he that bade thee cometh," (hina hotan elthe ho keklekos se) "in order that when the one who invited you comes," as a courtesy and honor to you.
4) "He may say unto thee, Friend, go up higher" (erei soi phile) "He may (will) say to you, Friend," (prosanabethi anoteron) "Go up to an higher tier," or position of honor. It is he then who exalts you and not you yourself, Romans 12:10.
5) "Then shalt thou have worship," (tote estai soi doksa) "At that point there will be glory or praise to you," or honor, as contrasted with the shame and humiliation of the proud, fame-seeking one who arrived early, seized the highest seat of honor, for temporary fame, certain shame, Luke 14:8.
6) "In the presence of them that sat at meat with thee." (enopion panton ton sunanakeimenon soil "in the presence of or before all those who are seated or reclining in colleague or close affinity with you." This in as eminent explanation and social application of Proverbs 25:6-7.
1) "For whosoever exalteth himself shall be abased;" (hoti pas ho hupson heauton tapeinothesetai) "Because each who exalts himself will be humbled," brought low, Luke 18:14, as also described Isaiah 14:13-15. See also Proverbs 15:33; James 4:6.
2) "And he that humbleth himself shall be exalted." (kai ho tapeinon heauton hupsathesetai) "And the one who humbles himself will be exalted," much as God exalted Jesus Christ, as an admonished pattern for our humility of life and service, Matthew 20:25-26; Philippians 2:5-11; Isaiah 57:15; Matthew 5:3.
In Luke 14:7-11 Jesus addressed the guests at the feast regarding good (ideal) behavior, as a guest, then He turned to address the host of the feast, Luke 14:12, as follows:
See also Pharaoh’s exaltation of Joseph, Genesis 41:14-44, and as Nebuchadnezzar, king of the Chaldeeans, exalted Daniel and the three Hebrew children, Daniel 1:7-8; Daniel 1:17-21.
1) "Then said he also to him that bade him," (elegen de kai to kekletoi auton) "Then he also said to the one who had invited him," to the host of the feast that day or evening, Luke 14:1; Luke 14:7.
2) "When thou makest a dinner or supper," (hotan poies ariston he deipnon) "When you make a dinner or a supper," to do special honor that is ideal or that will glorify God, when you host a feast four kinds of people are to be left out, as follows:
3) "Call not thy friends, nor thy brethren," (me phonei tous philous sou mede tous adelphous sou) "Do not call your friends nor even your brothers," your religious brethren, if you desire honor that is honorable indeed.
4) "Neither thy kinsmen, nor thy rich neighbors;" (mede tous sungeneis sou mede geitonas plousious) "Nor your relatives, nor even your wealthy neighbors," if you seek to express love and cultivate friendship that honors God and helps your fellowman, Proverbs 22:16.
5) "Lest they also bid thee again," (mepote kai autoi antikalesosin se) "Lest they also invite you in response," as a sense of revolving duty, to keep your good will, to make a merry-go-round of honor seeking one of another, John 5:44.
6) "And a recompense be made thee." (kai genetai anatpodoma soi) "And it comes to be a recompense to you," and you have really given nothing, but been repaid. When one does this to be exalted, or stay in the limelight, it is his only pay. This was not spoken to condemn social functions or fellowship, but to emphasize that motives for giving such a feast should be without a priority greed for self exaltation, Luke 14:11; James 4:6; Luke 18:14.
1) "But when thou makest a feast," (air hotan dochen poies) "But when you make or (prepare for) a party," a feast of social nature to honor someone, to show love or charity, John 13:34-35.
2) "Call the poor, the maimed, the lame, and the blind:" (kalei ptochous anaperous cholous tuphlous) "You invite poor persons, maimed ones, lame ones and blind ones," those who can not repay you, the more impoverished and needy ones, Nehemiah 8:10; Nehemiah 8:12; Matthew 25:34-35; Matthew 25:40. "Do good to all men," literally all kind of men, Deuteronomy 15:11; Galatians 2:10.
1) "And thou shalt be blessed;" (kai makarios ese) "And you will be blessed," be spiritually prospered, have Divine sanction in what you do, Matthew 25:25; Matthew 25:40. You will both have and promote more happiness in doing good to the needy than in throwing feasts for those with plenty.
2) "For they cannot recompense thee:" (hoti ouk echousin antapodounai) "Because they do not have (things) to recompense or repay you," if you give expecting or hoping for nothing," coveting nothing in return for your charity, else it is no charity, Luke 6:35.
3) "For thou shalt be recompensed," (antapodothesetai gar soi) "For it will be recompensed to you," or computed, calculated to you in rewards, at the judgment seat of Christ, Proverbs 19:17; 1 Corinthians 3:8; 2 Corinthians 5:10; Revelation 22:12.
4) "At the resurrection of the just." (en te anastasei ton dikaion) "In the resurrection of the just ones," the resurrection of the righteous dead, John 5:11; when He comes to be "glorified in his saints," meaning "His church," 2 Thessalonians 1:10, and in addition to be "admired in all them that believe," those who are saved, but never become members of His body, which is the church, in the institutional sense, Ephesians 1:22-23; Acts 24:15.
1) "When one of them that sat at meat with him heard these things." (akousas de tis ton sunanakeimenon tauta) "Then when one of those who was reclining with them heard these things," evidently one of the large group of guests at the feast, of the neighbours, friends, kinsmen, and high-seated wealthy, the plutocrats, Luke 14:12.
2) "He said unto him," (elpen auto) "He responded to him;" It was perhaps one of the church disciples who had been called who had heard the Lord’s sermon on the mount, in which he spoke the blessed and assuring beatitudes to and concerning members of His church, Matthew 5:1-12.
3) "Blessed is he that shall eat bread," (makarios hostis phagetai arton) "Blessed is the one who eats bread," literally, who now feasts, at this time, Matthew 6:33.
4) "In the kingdom of God." (en te basileia tou theou) "In the kingdom of God," in harmony with the work of God, in the "kingdom of heaven," the church, which Jesus had already established, and the Pharisees and Sadducees sought to obstruct or destroy, Matthew 5:1-3; Matthew 5:20; Matthew 23:12-13.
Except this guest who spoke these words of blessing may have had in mind mere feasting in the longed for restored kingdom of Israel, even as His disciples often did, Acts 1:6-8. To reject Jesus Christ as the "bread of life," offered as the true feasts for hungry souls, is to miss true feasting, happiness, with God forever, John 6:51-58.
1) "Then said he unto him," (ho de eipen auto) "Then he (Jesus) said to him," Jesus said to the one who had spoken the words of blessing on the one who should eat at God’s table, Luke 14:15, perhaps thinking of temporal feasting in Israel only, Acts 1:6-8.
2) "A certain man made a great supper," (anthropos tis peoiei deipnon mega) "A certain (kind of) man made (ready) a great supper," that man represents God, in this parable. It was He who prepared food, the great feast for all men, with the sending of His Son, John 3:16; As the Bread of Life, John 6:32-33; John 6:48-51; John 6:57-58.
3) "And bade many:" (kai ekalesen pollous) "And he invited many," the Jews first, as He came to His own race, the Jew first, in fulfillment of the Law and Prophets, John 1:11-12; Luke 24:44-45; Acts 10:43. All men of all times have been invited, but not angels. Of the "many" of the Divine creatures of creation, only men have had redemption provided for them, thus been called to salvation, the redemption provided for them to choose, to accept, Hebrews 2:9; John 3:16; 1 Timothy 2:4-6.
1) "And sent his servant at supper time," (kai apesteilen ton doulon autou te hora tou deipnou) "And he sent, directed, or mandated his servant at the hour of the supper," Luke 10:1-6; Matthew 3:1-3; Matthew 10:1-15, a custom that was familiar in the middle east, Matthew 22:3-4. The man’s (God’s) sent servant was Jesus, preceded by John the Baptist, Matthew 3:1-3, John 3:17; John 6:38; John 20:21.
2) "To say to them that were bidden," (eipein tois keklemenois) "To say to those who had already been invited," to the Jews first, especially the responsible Jewish rulers and leaders in religious matters, rulers, Pharisees and doctors of the Law.
3) "Come; for all things are now ready." (erchesthe hoti ede etomia estin) "You all come, if you will, because it is already prepared," or it is all ready, right now, the feast is spread, on the table, to satisfy your hunger, just what you need. That servant offered:
1) Water forever for the thirsty, John 4:14.
2) Food forever for the hungry soul, John 6:35; Isaiah 55:1-3.
3) Eternal life, life forever to such as came to Him and ate, John 6:37; John 6:58; John 10:27-29.
1) "And they all with one consent began," (kai erksato apo mias pantes) "And they all, from one mind, began," all as one man, all the Jews first, selfishly, defiantly pursuing their own chosen path began, set out, with one voice, especially the loudmouthed Pharisee leaders, John 1:11.
2) "To make excuse." (paraitelsthai) "To beg off," to excuse themselves, similarly, along parallel lines, unjustified excuses, as all disobedience to God’s call are, Romans 2:1; Isaiah 30:15; Matthew 23:3; John 5:40.
3) "The first said unto him," (ho protos eipen auto) "The first in order said to him," explaining, at a final hour, as "His own received Him not," in each instance of excuse, John 1:11; John 5:40.
4) "I have bought a piece of ground," (argon egorasa) "I bought a farm," just finished buying a plot of ground, of real estate, about which there was no evil, but his wrong was in loving it more than God’s call to the supper, Luke 14:17.
5) "And I must needs go and see it:" (kai ego anagken ekselthon idein auton) "And I am going of my own accord, by obligation, to see it," for myself, out and away into the country, to see just what I have bought. His priorities of life allowed or provided no place for God, John 8:24.
6) ”I pray thee have me excused." (eroto se eche me paretemenon) "I ask you, just have me begged off," or excused, if you will, to the host of the supper invitation, and this final call. With civil courtesy but a procrastinating, soul-damning personal choice he turned and walked away from eternal life that day, not realizing it was his final call, Luke 14:24; Hebrews 4:7.
1) "And another said, I have bought five yoke of oxen," (kai heteros eipen zeuge boon egorasa pente) "And another of a different king of excuse said, I just, bought five yoke of oxen," and put his immediate priority in them, for where one’s treasure is "there will his heart be also," as a fact of life, Matthew 6:21.
2) "And I go to prove them:" (kai poreuomai dokimasai auto) "And I am going forth to prove or test them," to see how good they are, what kind of a deal I have just made. No argument is made that it was necessary. He selfishly chose to do it, 1 John 2:17-19.
3) “I pray thee have me excused." (eroto se eche me paretemenon) "I ask you, just have me begged off (excused) at this late hour," as a respectful courtesy, while I do my "thing", what I carnally please to do, Judges 21:25. In each of these two cases earthly possessions and covetousness kept the parties from the feast.
1) "And another said," (kai heteros eipen) "And another of another kind of business, said," explained, excused his ingratitude to the supper invitation by saying:
2) N have married a wife," (gunaika egema) "I just married a wife," and have a family obligation.
3) "And therefore I cannot come." (kai dia touto ou dunamai elthein) "And because or on account of this priority I am not able to come," at all, at this late hour. In essence he did not choose to accept the friendship invitation. Mosaic law excused a newly married man from the hardships of war for one year, Deuteronomy 25:5, or from military service. But marriage was not a Biblical basis for slighting a gesture of friendship, 1 Corinthians 7:29. Even a new wife is no good reason for rejecting Jesus. Though each of the three excusing parties may have had some materially plausible ground for their excuses, it is made clear that no earthly ground of excuse is justified in rejecting God’s invitation to the feast to honor His Son in salvation and service, Matthew 6:33.
1) "So that servant came," (kai paragenomenos ho doulos) "And the slave servant coming up from having delivered the calls," when he returned, having faithfully done his master’s bidding, in bearing the invitation message "to the Jew first," Romans 1:16; Romans 2:10.
2) "And shewed his lord these things." (apengeilen to kurio autou tauta) "Reported these things to his lord," who had sent him out on the supper-call, how his invitation had been turned down in such trifling ways, Isaiah 53:1; Proverbs 1:24; John 1:11-12; Romans 2:1; Romans 2:4-5.
3) "Then the master of the house being angry," (tote orgistheis ho oikodespotes) "Then the house-master being angry," existing in a state of boiling anger, insulted at the refusal of his friendship gesture, his preparation and invitation, extended to each of the three, Psalms 7:11-12; Romans 2:4-6; Hebrews 3:11; Proverbs 1:22-30.
4) "Said to his servant," (elpen to doulo autou) "Told his servant," very directly, giving alternate invitations to others, yet among the Jews. His first call was not only to the Jews, but even to their rulers or religious leaders, before turning to the poor.
5) "Go out quickly Into the streets and lanes of the city," (ekselthe tacheos eis tas plateias kai hrumas tes poleos) "You go out and away into the lanes and streets of the city," that the banquet be not spoiled, wherever you may find people, in the by-ways, Revelation 22:17.
6) "And bring in hither," (eisagage hode) "And bring in here, to this supper," not call, but persuade, that they come to the feast, be reconciled to God, 2 Corinthians 5:10.
a) "The poor," (kai tous ptolous) "Even the poor," publicans, sinners, and harlots of the lost sheep of the house of Israel, Matthew 10:5-6.
b) "And the maimed," (kai anaperous) "And the maimed," the bruised and wounded, corresponding to those described, Luke 14:13; 1 Samuel 2:8; Mark 12:37.
c) "And the halt," (kai cholous) "And halting or crippled ones," who are lame, Nehemiah 8:10-11; Matthew 5:3; James 2:5.
d) "And the blind." (kai tuphlous) "And blind people," who have to beg for a livelihood, Isaiah 35:6.
1) "And the servant said," (kai elpen ho doulos) "And the slave-servant said," the one sent, Jesus Christ, John 3:17; John 20:21; Philippians 2:5-9.
2) "Lord, it is done as thou hast commanded," (kurie gegonen ho epetaksas) "Lord, what you ordered has been done, in both the lanes and the streets, I have done what you bid me do; Even as Jesus obediently came to do, and did, His Father’s will and work, Luke 6:38; John 17:4-5; John 14:15; John 15:14; James 1:22.
3) "And yet there is room." (kai eti topos estin) "And there is still room," for others to be seated and to eat at your supper, room for more to feast to satisfy their hunger, forever, Psalms 130:7; There is food, the bread of life available for and offered to all men, Isaiah 55:1-3; John 6:33; John 6:35; John 6:51; John 6:58.
1) "And the lord said unto the servant," (kai eipen ho kurios pros ton doulon) "And the lord said to the slave-servant," further directing Him in doing His will, John 6:38; John 17:4-5.
2) "Go out into the highways and hedges," (ekselthe eis tas hodous kai phragmous) "You go forth into the highways and hedges," outside the city, to the outcasts, to the Gentiles, though He as sent to the Jews first, as also certified by Paul, Romans 1:14-16; Romans 2:10; Romans 10:12; Acts 3:2-3; 2 Corinthians 5:11.
3) "And compel them to come in," (kai anagkason eiselthein) "And compel (them) to come in," by moral persuasion, strong, earnest, emotional, appeal for 1) the time was short, 2) the table was set, and 3) the master was anxious that every seat be occupied, 1 Corinthians 15:58; Galatians 6:9; 2 Timothy 4:2.
4) "That my house may be filled." (hina gemisthe mou ho oikos) "In order that my house may be filled," my name may be honored, my will be done. With a similar earnestness children of the master, His church servants especially, should do His bidding today, Matthew 28:18-20; John 20:21; Mark 16:15; Acts 1:8; Revelation 22:17; Psalms 121:5-6.
1) "For I say unto you," (lego gar humin) "For I tell you all;" Here Jesus expounded on the meaning, drew conclusions from the parable addressed to all, while the master had spoken to the servant only.
2) "That none of those men which were hidden," (hoti oudeis ton andron ekeinon ton keklemenon) "That not one of those men who has been invited," to the feast, and has personally, obstinately rejected the invitation, Luke 14:18-20; who arbitrarily put the invitation aside, procrastinated, or deferred the call, Acts 13:46; Matthew 21:43; Matthew 22:8; Hebrews 12:25.
3) "Shall taste of my supper." (geusetai mou tou deipnou) "Shall taste of my supper," as a result of their own final choice, not by my "fixation," Proverbs 1:20-20; Jeremiah 11:14; Jeremiah 14:11-12.
TEST OF DISCIPLESHIP V. 25-27
1) "And there went great multitudes with him:" (suneporeuonto de auto ochloi polloi) "Then there came together or went with him many crowds," as he left the house of the Pharisee, Luke 14:1, from different areas, making multitudes, hard to be numbered. They desired to be near Him or hear His teaching, on the way up to the feasts in Jerusalem. Some were anxious, others were curious, Genesis 6:5.
2) "And he turned, and said unto them," (kai strapheis eipen pros autous) "And turning he said to them," personally and directly, stern words to sift the multitude of so many fickle followers, in the face of the supreme betrayal, suffering, and sacrifice that soon confronted Him, John 6:66-67.
1) "If any man come to me," (ei tis erchetai pros me) "if anyone comes to me," even of his own accord, for mere outward identity, attachment, or company.
2) "And hate not his father and mother," (kai ou miesei ton patera autou kai te metera) "And does not hate his father and his mother," his parents, in the sense of a willingness to sever ties with them, that would hinder or prevent their following me, as I severed such ties with my earthly family, Genesis 29:31; Matthew 10:37; Deuteronomy 33:8-9.
3) "And wife, and children," (kai ten gunoika kai ta tekna) "And his wife and children," or have not a priority attachment of affections for them over me, toward his wife or his children, Matthew 6:33.
4) "And brethren, and sisters," (kai tous adelphous kai tas adelphas) "And his brothers and sisters," of his own family flesh, Romans 10:1-4; Even as Paul also did, Philippians 3:4-9.
5) "Yea, and his own life also." (eti te kai ten psuchen heautou) "And besides these also the life of himself," above sharing my life and telling the story of my offer of eternal life to all. Matthew 10:39; Acts 14:22; as Paul did Acts 20:34.
6) "He cannot be my disciple." (ou dunatai einai mou mathetes) "He is not able to be (exist as) my disciple," a true learner and obedient servant in my company, which I have chosen to be witnesses of me, John 15:16; John 15:27; John 20:21; Acts 1:8; Acts 1:11; Luke 9:23.
All terms which define emotions and affections in the Greek are comparative and relative terms. Natural affections are to be or exist, as compared with devotion to Christ, as if they were hate, which means to love or hold affections of much lower degree and lower priority of commitment to people in the flesh than to Jesus, even as Jesus did to His family, Matthew 12:47-50. For He surely commanded that men are even to love their enemies, Matthew 5:44. In the Lord natural affections are to be sanctified to a level of Divine love, John 19:26-27; Ephesians 5:25-28.
1) "And whosoever doth not bear his cross," (hostis ou bastazei ton saturon heauton) "Whoever does not bear his (own) cross," assume a willingness to suffer severe exposure for the name of Jesus Christ, personally, to be crucified with Him, Galatians 2:20; Galatians 6:14.
2) "And come after me," (kai erchetai opiso mou) "And does not come after me," follow me in service, as a free, yet voluntary servant, John 8:32; John 8:36; Luke 9:23; Matthew 16:24. Self must be dethroned, mortified, and sufferings endured, 1 Thessalonians 3:4-5; 2 Timothy 3:12.
3) "Cannot be my disciple." (ou dunatai einai mou mathetes) "He cannot come to be (exist as) my disciple," one of my kind of choosing to compose my church company, as witnesses for me, Mark 8:34-35; 2 Timothy 3:12; To break family ties to follow Jesus meant exclusion from membership in the synagogue with its social, religious, and educational privileges, John 9:22; John 9:34; John 16:2.
PARABLE OF TOWER BUILDING V. 28-30
1) "For which of you, intending to build a tower," (tis gar eks humon thelon purgon oikoeomesai) "For who out of your company having a priority will to build or erect a tower," that is here referred to as the building of a life of tower-like character, with a good or godly name, Proverbs 22:1.
2) "Sitteth not down first, and counteth the cost,’ (ouchi proton kathisas psephizei ten dapanen) "Does not first, sitting down, count the cost," deliberate or calculate, with pebbles, what the construction cost will be? Have you counted the cost, if your soul should be lost? Or if a life of service is given to an evil or heretical or immoral cause? Have you deliberately considered?
3) "Whether he have sufficient to finish it?" (ei echei eis apartismon) "if he has, holds, or possesses enough to complete construction? Our Lord thus compared to challenge of following Him with a man who had a tremendous vision, but quizzed him, have you counted the cost, so that you have the heart commitment from which there will be no turning back? Lest shame come to you and the members of your family? Luke 9:52.
1) "Lest haply, after he hath laid the foundation," (hina me pote thentos autou themelion) "Lest at the point when he has already laid a foundation," begun construction, made a visible, public commitment to himself and before his family and the public.
2) "And is not able to finish It," (kai me ischuontos ektelesai) "And not being able to complete it," to finish the building, or proceed to complete the tower, Matthew 20:22; 1 Thessalonians 3:4-5; Proverbs 24:27. Unfinished buildings tell many a tale of sin and failure, as they stand by roadsides, witnessing that someone did not count the cost, in time to avoid shame.
3) "All that behold it begin to mock him." (pantes hoi theorountes arksontai auto empaizein) "All those observing (the failure) begin to mock him," to speak in derision concerning him, his hay-stack-vision, and his needle judgment, his foolish judgment and half-planned start of the tower. For "things half planned are usually half done," Luke 9:62; James 4:14-17.
1) "Saying, This man began to build," (legontes hoti houtos ho anthropos erksato oikodomein) "Repeatedly saying, this man began to build," mockingly they said it, as he "asked for it," in a demeaning, blaming way they repeatedly called attention to it, to his poor vision, judgment, and waste of time and money.
2) "And was not able to finish." (kai ouk ischusen ektelesai) "And he was not able to complete it," Hebrews 6:11-12. He did not finish the race or run the course that he himself had chosen, without total commitment, 1 Corinthians 9:24-27; 1 Corinthians 15:58; 2 Timothy 4:7-8; Hebrews 12:1-3; Galatians 6:9. He exposed himself to ridicule in life and in death, just as that person who does not prepare to meet God does, Amos 4:12; Hebrews 4:7.
PARABLE OF A KING FOR WAR V. 31-33
1) "Or what king," (he tis basileus) "Or just what king" is there or what kind of a king is there, or would he be; a true disciple is a king, a soldier, and a builder.
2) "Going to make war against another," (poreuomenos hetero basilei sumbalein eis polemon) "Going to attack another king in war," the prince of this world, in a war engagement, in mortal combat. The former illustration lays stress on the folly of excuses, while this emphasized the danger of outward commitment, without resolute resolve. The Christian life is a battle, a worthy warfare, an "holy war," 2 Timothy 4:7-8; Ephesians 6:11-18.
3) "Sitteth not down first," (ouchi kathisas proton) "Does not first (in priority) sit down," in a deliberating manner, evaluating strategy and methodology. And equipment and topography of land and environmental conditions, James 4:14-17.
4) "And consulteth whether he be able with ten thousand," (bouleusetai ei dunatos estin en deka chiliasan) ’And deliberate or consult whether or not he is able with ten thousand," considers information and advice from others regarding material, his people, and their strength of numbers and morale, Proverbs 20:18.
5) "To meet him that cometh against him," (hupantesai to erchomeno ep’ auton) "To confront or engage the one who is coming upon him," coming for an attack on him, in military, combat strength.
6) "With twenty thousand?" (meta eikosi chilladon) "With (an army of) twenty thousand?" though Satan has super resources to marshal against the believer, there is a greater power, 1 John 5:4. With twice the number of military combat people that he himself has in arms. For the midst of counsel, Solomon declared," there is (exists) a safety," which is "the principal thing," Proverbs 4:7; Proverbs 11:14.
1) "Or else, while the other is a great way off," (ei de me eti autou porro ontos) "Otherwise while he is yet at a distance," upon realizing, before it is too late, the danger of the course on which he had begun, if he is a wise king or lives very long.
2) "He sendeth an ambassage," (presbeian aposteilas) "He sends a delegation," on a mission mandate, with some specific instructions, appeasing considerations, toward avoiding combat; He seeks reconciliation, Isaiah 55:6.
3) "And desireth conditions of peace." (erota ta pros eirenen) "And asks what are conditions that may be accepted for peace," asks alternatives that are desired by the king of the larger army for peace, while himself making overtures toward a negotiated peace, Isaiah 57:19-20; Romans 5:1.
1) "So likewise, whosoever he be of you," (houtos oun pas eks) "Therefore in a similar manner, everyone of you all," in this huge multitude, pressing to hear my teachings and considering an outward identity with me and my New Covenant company of disciples, my church.
2) "That forsaketh not all that he hath," (hos ouk apotasaetai pasin tois heauton huperchousin) "Who does not say farewell to all his possessions," in counting the cost, Luke 14:28, or put your profession and life’s commitment to them behind you, in a secondary allegiance to them, even your willingness to lose your synagogue membership and its personal advantages, John 9:23; John 9:34; John 16:2.
3) "He cannot be my disciple." (ou dunatai einai mou mathetes) "He is not able to be my disciple," a true, faithful chosen follower of me, Luke 9:23; John 15:16; John 15:27; Acts 1:8.
PARABLE OF SALT WITHOUT SAVOUR V. 34, 35
1) "Salt is good:" (kalon oun to alas) "Therefore the salt is good," exists as ideal, useful, profitable, as a product, Mark 9:50. It both helps preserve and makes more tasty many foods.
2) "But if salt have lost its savour," (ean de kai to alas moranthe) "Yet even if salt becomes useless," loses its strength, as it will, when long exposed to the sun and open air, Matthew 5:13 a; Mark 9:50.
3) "Wherewith shall it be seasonsed?" (en tini artuthesetai) "With what shall it be seasoned?" Matthew 5:13; Mark 9:50; 2 Timothy 3:5; Revelation 3:2.
1) "it is neither f it f or the land," (eutheton estin pute eis ge) "it is neither suitable for soil," for it adds nothing to the value of the soil as "dead salt," Mark 9:50.
2) "Nor yet for the dunghill;" (oute eis koprian) "Nor for fertilizer," to be spread on the fields, even as a mix for manure, Matthew 5:13. It is good (ideal) for nothing. Neither is man, without God, John 15:6; Jeremiah 17:6.
3) "But men cast it out." (ekso ballousin auto) "They cast it outside." Matthew 5:13; Instead our Lord admonished that His disciples have, hold, or possess "salt with or among themselves," preserving strength and be at peace, Mark 9:50; John 15:6.
4) "He that hath ears to hear, let him hear." (ho echon ota akouein akoueto) "The one having ears to hear (capable of giving heed) let him hear," Luke 8:8, give heed or obey, with total commitment, not half-hearted, half-way, or hesitating commitment. Our Lord spoke of and directly addressed His colleague-disciples, church disciples, in the sermon on the mount, saying, "you all are the salt of the earth," Matthew 5:13-14; and "the light of the world," or light reflecting agency, Matthew 5:15-16.
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Text Courtesy of Blessed Hope Foundation and the Baptist Training Center.
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Luke 14". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://studylight.org/
the Fourth Week after Epiphany