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Bible Commentaries
Acts 27

Garner-Howes Baptist CommentaryGarner-Howes

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Verse 1

PAUL SENT TO ROME - FROM CAESAREA V. 1-13 (The Nautical Voyage of Paul - Chs. 27-28)

1) "And when it was determined," (hos de ekrithe) "Then when it was determined," a judgement had been made, a decision had been reached, and the time had arrived.

2) "That we should sail into Italy," (tou apoplein hemas eis ten Italian) "That we should sail into Italy;" the "we" included Luke who joined Paul again for the first time since Acts 21:1-40, writer of Acts and certain others, further described as follows:

3) "They delivered Paul and certain other prisoners,

(paredidoun ton te Paulon kai tinsa heterous clesmotas) "They (the Roman guards) delivered (or gave over) Paul and some other (different kind) of prisoners," state prisoners going to be tried at Rome, Acts 25:12; Acts 25:25-27; Acts 27:22-25; Acts 27:37. The total number sailing was 276, composed of soldiers, sailors, shipmen, Paul, Luke and many prisoners, perhaps numbering near 100, a full trust of a Roman centurion captain.

4) "Unto one named Julius, a centurion," (hekatontarche onomati loulio) "To a centurion, (a Roman captain of one hundred soldiers) by name of Julius," on detachment duty working out of Rome, for Caesar into various Roman provinces; He treated Paul with special courtesy throughout the voyage to Rome, had perhaps heard his appeal before Agrippa with sympathy, Acts 25:23; Acts 27:3-4; Acts 27:43; Acts 28:16.

5) "Of Augustus’ band." (speires Sebastes) "Of a Roman cohort or band of Augustus Caesar," referring to distinguished troops belonging to the Emperor, thought to be working for Caesar on confidential business matters, traveling between the imperial city of Rome, and various Roman provinces, men of high secret intelligence kind, and serving as a body-guard band for Caesar on special occasions.

Verse 2

1) "And entering into a ship of Adramyttium” (epibantes de ploio Adramutteno) "Then we went on board a ship of Adramyttium," belonging to Adramyttium a Roman province called Mysia, located at the top of the gulf of Mysia. It was an important seaport and commercial center, the metropolis of northwest Asia under Roman rule.

2) "We launched, meaning to sail by the coasts of Asia;” (mellonti plein eis tous kata ten Asian topous Anechthemen) "That was about to sail, (and) we sailed along the Asian coastline," by important places of trade, along the southern shores of Proconsular Asia.

3) "One Aristarchus, a Macedonian of Thessalonica," (Aristarchou Makedonos Thessalonikeos) "Aristarchus, a Macedonian of Thessalonica," called "Paul’s companion in travel," Acts 19:29, while at Ephesus, his "fellow-prisoner" in Rome, Colossians 4:10, and his fellow-laborer" Philemon 1:24. He with Gaius was also seized by the mob at the uproar in Ephesus, Acts 19:29.

4) "Being with us." (ontos sun humin) "There being in (closely in) fellowship with us, (Paul and me);" whether he went by Roman compulsion, as a Christian prisoner, or by Roman permission, to be with Paul is not known, but that he was identified as a friend with Paul, from Paul’s labors in Thessalonica, Ephesus, and finally in Rome is reflected in the above cited passages, He is mentioned as one of the seven with Paul, Acts 20:4.

Verse 3

1) "And the next day we touched at Sidon." (te hetera katechthemen eis Sidona) "Then on the following day we landed or docked at Sidon." Also called Zidon, 1 Chronicles 1:13. It is thought there was a delay for merchandise to be both taken on and off the ship at Sidon port, giving time for Paul to go off-board for a short period, about 70 miles north of Caesarea, Philippians 4:19. The term "Sidon" means "fishing;" Sidon was a son of Canaan, Genesis 10:15, and persons living in Sidon came to be called Sidonians, Deuteronomy 3:9; Joshua 19:28.

2) "And Julius courteously entreated Paul," (philanthropos te ho loulios to Paulo chresamenos) "And Julius treated Paul kindly," as formerly instructed by Felix, Acts 24:23; and as later permitted courtesy in Rome, Acts 28:16.

3) "And gave him liberty to go unto his friends," (epetrepsen pros tous philpus poreuthenti) "He permitted him liberty to go as he wished, to his friends," there in Sidon. True men of God usually have friends who love them wherever they go, to love, pray for, and help care for them, Proverbs 17:17; Proverbs 18:24. The friends here referred to were Christians in Sidon. Julius who had been guarding and observing Paul had likely also become his friend thru his testimony and conduct while on board the ship, Matthew 5:15-16,

4) "To refresh himself." (epimeleias tuchein) "To obtain attention, refreshment," that he might need, perhaps for purposes of cleanliness, bathing, an haircut, clothing and medical needs for himself, John 15:14; Proverbs 25:13; Matthew 25:34-40; Hebrews 13:1-2. How highly hospitality should be cultivated among children of God in these days of greed, covetousness, gluttony, and selfishness among men.

Verse 4

1) "And when we had launched from thence

(kakeithen anachthentes) "And from there we put out to sea," from Sidon we "set sail,"

2) "We sailed under Cypress” (hupepleusamen ten Kupron) "We sailed close by Cyprus," along the northeastern shore of the Island of Cyprus, to avoid the prevalent west winds, keeping Cyprus on their left, steering between it and the Phoenician mainland to the right as they sailed northward.

3) "Because the winds were contrary." (dia to tous anemous linai enantious) "Because the winds had come to be contrary," were high and shifting directions, blowing from the west to eastward, to make western sailing difficult.

Verse 5

1) "And when we sailed over," (to diapleusantes) "Then when we had sailed over," or across.

2) "The sea of Cilicia and Pamphylia," (te pelogos kata ten Kilikian kai Pampulian) "The sea against (near) Cilicia and Pamphylia," north of Cyprus and Sidon, an area familiar to Paul from his boyhood and his first missionary tour, Acts 12:13.

3) "We came to Myra, a city of Lycia," (katelehamen eis Mura tes Lukias) "We came down to Myra which is a city of Lycia," a seaport of southwest Asia Minor, docking there. Myra was 2 or 3 miles from Lycia, with a rock tomb and magnificent ruins in the area. It was a little east of Patara, Acts 21:1.

Verse 6

1) "And there the centurion found," (kakei heuron ho hekatontarches) "And there the centurion found or located;" the centurion Julius was apparently responsible for securing safe travel for all prisoners in his hand to Rome, Acts 27:1; Acts 27:3; Acts 27:37; Acts 27:43.

2) "A ship of Alexandria," (ploion Aleksandrion) "An Alexandrian ship," from Alexandria, Egypt, the then most important seaport city in Egypt, home of Apollos the Jewish Christian orator, Acts 18:24-28; 1 Corinthians 1:12; 1 Corinthians 3:4-7.

3) "Sailing into Italy;” (pleon eis ten Italian) "That was sailing to Italy," perhaps carrying wheat (grain) from Egypt to Italy, Acts 27:38. Because Egypt was then Rome’s granary.

4) "And he put us therein." (enebibasen hemas eis auto) "And put us into and on board it. "The "us" included the prisoners and Paul, Luke, and Aristarchus of Thessalonica, Acts 27:2; Colossians 4:10; Acts 19:29.

THE SHIP OF ALEXANDRIA AND ITS CARGO

Read in succession Acts 27:6; Acts 27:10; Acts 27:38. The continuous story told by these verses is not seen till they are thus combined. We find that the vessel was a ship of Alexandria, sailing into Italy. We read of the lading; it was therefore a merchant vessel. The cargo, whatever it was (we do not discover this till afterwards), was so valuable that it was only cast overboard in the last extremity. By-and-by we discover that that cargo was wheat. One by one these circumstances drop out "at intervals in the course of the narrative, unarranged, unpremeditated, thoroughly incidental; so that the chapter might be read twenty times, and their agreement with one another, and with contemporary history, be still overlooked." Now how does this consistent narrative coincide with known facts of history? Thus: - Egypt was the great corn-producing country of antiquity. It sometimes grew corn enough in one year to last for two, and supply other countries. The famine-stricken Israelites went down to the valley of the Nile to buy corn in the days of Joseph. In the days of Paul it was the granary of Rome. It was from the Egyptian port of Alexandria that this vessel sailed. Suetonius tells us that in times of scarcity the vessels coming from that port to Italy were watched with intent anxiety as they approached the coast. What was by no means usual in the vessels of that day, these merchant ships of Alexandria were in size almost equal to our old men-of-war, and might therefore well accommodate the centurion and his numerous party, in addition to its own crew and lading.

- Bible Lore.

Verse 7

1) "And when we had sailed slowly many days," (en hikanais de hemerais braduploeuntes) "Then when we had sailed slowly for several days," evidently because of the strong westerly winds and waves, a distance of about one hundred and thirty miles from Myra to Cnidus. One day would have been time enough for the sail, with a favorable wind.

2) "And scarce were come over against Cnidus," (kai molis genomenoi kata ten Knidon) "And had hardly even come over near Cnidus," or had with difficulty arrived near Cnidus, perhaps entered the southern harbor.

3) "The wind not suffering us," (me proseontos hemas tou anemou) "As the wind did not allow or permit us," to sail our straight course on to Italy. Northwest winds were prevalent in that sea area in late summer.

4) "We sailed under Crete, over against Salmone;” (hupepleusamen ten Kreten kata Salmonen) "We sailed close to Crete over against Cape Salmone," sailing the east and south coast of Crete, to avoid the turbulent west and north west gale winds. This was the island where Paul later left Titus, to set order in doctrine and worship, or establish the churches of Crete, in official function in relation to duties, doctrines, and service to be rendered in the churches by Bishops (pastors), elders (mature ordained teachers and leaders), and deacons, Titus 1:5; Titus 1:12. Salmone is still a port cape at the east end of Crete.

Verse 8

1) "And, hardly passing it," (molis te paralegomenoi auten) "And hardly sailing along it," along the island, or sailing with much difficulty along it.

2) "Came unto a place," (elthomen eis topon tina) "We came to a well known place," a particular locality.

3) "Which is called the fair havens;” (kaloumenon kalous limenas) "Which is called (known by the name of) the Fair or good Havens," in the Island or near the Island of Crete, east of Cape Matala.

4) "Nigh whereunto was the city of Lasea " (ho engus en polis Lasaia) "Which was near to a city known as Lasea," one of near one hundred small towns of Crete, five miles east of Fair Haven.

Lessons on the Ship and Cargo of Life:

1) Every man is sailing the storm tossed sea of life, with his vessel loaded with unneeded cargo.

2) Unneeded cargo, of low morals and unethical matters, had better be thrown overboard and save your sinking ship.

3) Every ship has a captain - - Jesus is the best, one needed most for the storms of life.

4) "Each passenger on the ship of life soon comes to dark days and stormy nights - - to sail much without Christ as a compass and guide is folly.

5) Some ships sail slowly, laden with barnacles, need scraping off.

6) Every ship makes a last voyage - - It may end in shipwreck or safely in a celestial harbor -- Where are you now sailing?

Verse 9

1) "Now when much time was spent," (hikanou de chronou diagenomenou) "Then when much time had passed," been spent sailing the boisterous or contrary winds and waves, delaying, drifting, waiting for a change of wind, debating on what course should be taken next.

2) "And when sailing was now dangerous " (kai ontos ede episphalous tou ploos) "And the voyage having now become a dangerous voyage," as the dangerous season for sailing had set in. Dangerous sailing in the area was from Sept. 14th Nov. 11th; and all navigation was discontinued each year from Nov. 11th to March 5th, according to ancient historians.

3) "Because the fast was now already past " (dia to kai ten nesteian ede pareleluthenai) "And because the fast had now already gone by." It was on the tenth day of the seventh month of Tisri, about the time of the autumn equinox on the Jewish calendar, as it revolved around special days, 1 Corinthians 16:8. It is therefore reasonable that Luke, a Gentile Christian and writing historian companion of Paul in labors, would adopt the same terms.

4) "Paul admonished them," (parenei ho Paulos) "Paul advised them," the shipmaster and the centurion. Paul had sufficient experience, if not direct revelation, to justify his respectfully admonishing these gentlemen of navigation, and high sea responsibility in sailing, and passenger security matters, 2 Corinthians 11:25.

The atonement Fast season, or period that Was annually observed by Israel, was always around the weather changing vernal (autumn) equinox, Leviticus 16:29; Leviticus 23:27; Numbers 29:7.

Verse 10

1) "And said unto them, Sirs," (legon autois Andres) "Saying to them with repeated emphasis, ye responsible men," in whose hands our 276 lives are held, Acts 27:37.

2) “I perceive that this voyage," (theoro hoti ton ploun) "I perceive (calculate) that this voyage," I theorize, based on personal observation and experience, not revelation, that this voyage you have charted, at this season of the year, that you are about to make, Acts 17:22; Acts 19:26; Acts 21:20 use the term (Gk. theiro) in this sense. His observation was from personal, previous experience, as he had already written, 2 Corinthians 11:25.

3) "Will be with hurt and much damage," (meta hubreos kai polles zemias) "Will be met with injury and much loss," (mellein esesthai) "Is about to be," with much hurt, injury, damage, and loss, for "He revealeth His secret unto His servants, the prophets," Amos 3:7. This refers to injury inflicted by the elements in the tossing of the ship.

4) "Not only to the lading and ship," (ou monon tou phortiou kai tou ploiou) "Not only of the cargo and of the ship," from the violent tempest they later encountered for more than 14 days, Acts 27:14; Acts 27:21; Acts 27:33-37.

5) "But also our lives." (alla kai ton psuchon hermon) "But also (what is more important) of our lives," being 276 in number, inclusive of sailors, prisoners, preachers, the centurion and shipmaster, captain of the crew. Paul "looked not on the things of his own," to save his neck or life, but also on the interest of others, and said so on this occasion, Philippians 2:4.

Verse 11

1) "Nevertheless the centurion," (ho de hekatontarches) "Then the centurion," however or nevertheless the centurion, perhaps not wanting to be embarrassed on arriving in Rome, if the people waited a long time after schedule, before the grain arrived on the ship.

2) "Believed the master and owner of the ship," (to kubernete kai to nauklero mallon epeitheto) "Was persuaded or convinced by the shipmaster and the steerman (owner), rather than by Paul." It was a custom for the owner to sail with his ship on commercial voyages. He would naturally feel them best able to judge sailing conditions.

3) "More than those things which were spoken by Paul." (e tois hupo Paulou legomenois) "Rather than the warnings repeatedly spoken by Paul," God’s prophet and protector on board the ship, who had warned of hurt and damage or "injury and loss," to the people on board the ship, the ship itself, and the cargo, Acts 27:10. Men must still "take heed."

1) What they hear, Mark 4:24.

2) How they hear, Luke 8:18; Acts 17:30-34.

In the latter account when Paul preached:

a) Some mocked, Acts 27:32.

b) Some procrastinated, Acts 27:32.

c) and some believed and clave unto him, Acts 27:34.

Verse 12

1) "And because the haven was not commodious," (aneuthetou de tou limenos huparchontos) "Then as the port of Fair Haven was unsuitable," apparently for spending the winter, to meet needs of the 276 passengers who would have to reside in it.

2) "To winter in," (pros paracheimasian) "For a place to spend the winter," for wintering, lacking sufficient provisions for shelter and heat against the cold winter blasts.

3) "The more part advised to depart thence also," (hoi pleiontes ethento boulen anachthenai ekethen) "The majority decided to sail from the place," to put out to sea, or set sail on from the port of Fair Haven, Acts 27:8.

4) "If by any means they might attain," (ei pos dunainto) "if somehow they might be able," be enabled by providence of good winds to sail on.

5) "To Phenice, and thereto winter;" (katantesantes eis Phoinika paracheimasai) "Having arrived at Phenice, a south coast bay quite suitable and secure for winter detainment.

6) "Which is an haven of Crete," (limena tes Kretes) "Which exists as a seaport of Crete," a place to dock, refresh, and rest on the south side of the Island of Crete.

7) "And lieth toward the south west and north west." (bleponta kata liba kai kata choron) "Looking toward the south west and north west," from the inlet of the harbor at bay.

Verse 13

1) "And when the south wind blew softly," (hupopneusantos de notou) "Then when a south wind blew gently," softly. It was a moderate breeze from the south which would temporarily favor their northwest course, a tempting breeze, that the shipmen thought would carry them to their winter quarters in a few hours.

2) "Supposing that they had obtained their purpose," (doksantes tes protheseos kekratekenai) "When they thought they had bided their time and obtained their purpose;" What they had purposed or planned to do, in sailing away from Fair Haven to Lutro on the south side of the island of Crete, a distance of about forty nautical miles.

3) "Loosing thence, they sailed close by Crete." (arantes asson parelegonto ten Kreten) "Lifting or raising anchor, they coasted close to the north, they sailed around to the south-southwest side of the Island, they "hugged the shore."

Verse 14

THE MIGHTY STORM ENCOUNTERED V. 14-20

1) "But not long after," (met’ ou polu de) "Then not much after they sailed away," after but a short time had passed, when they put out to sea, from Fair Haven, under a gentle southern breeze that they hoped would help them to a purposed landing at Lutro, an ideal place for spending the winter, Acts 27:8; Acts 27:13.

2) "There arose against it," (ebalen kat’ autes) "There arose and beat down upon it," upon the ship of Alexandria, a cargo ship in which 276 were sailing, Acts 27:6; Acts 27:37-38; The wind arose from the high mountains of Crete, along the south coast.

3) "A tempestuous wind," (anemos tuphonikos) "A typhoon-like wind," a tempestuous gale or storm, perhaps Divinely sent or mandated of the Lord, as surely as that storm in which Jonah was thrown overboard, into the sea, Jonah 1:4-16; Psalms 107:25.

4) "Called Euroclydon." (ho kaloumenos eurakulon) "Being then known as or called Euraquilo" It was an east-northeast wind that would tend to carry the ship of Alexandria toward Africa, in an almost opposite direction from their desired, eventual landing in Rome, Italy, Acts 27:1; Acts 28:14-16.

Verse 15

THE STORM AT SEA, NEAR CRETE, V. 15-20

1) "And when the ship was caught," (sunarpasthentos de tou ploiou) "And when the ship was seized," under the power of the winds and waves and carried away, could not face the wind.

2) "And could not bear up into the wind," (kai me dunamenou antophthalmein to anemo) "And when it was not able to beat against or stay above the wind and waves without dipping," on its intended course, when the ship could no longer move, facing the typhoon-like wind, could not look and go toward it, "eye to eye."

3) "We let her drive." (epidontes epherometha) "Giving way (all tiedowns, sails, and anchors) we were borne- carried adrift," to the sea, solely to the control of the typhoon; We gave way to the winds, to carry the ship where it would, to avoid sinking. We gave in to the gale.

Verse 16

1) "And running under a certain island," (nesion de ti hupodramontes) "Then when we run under the lee of a certain islet," a small island, they sailed with a side wind to leeward of Cyprus and Crete.

2) "Which is called Clauda," (kaloumenon Klauda) "That is called Clauda," known as Clauda, now Gozzo. This was an area of calmer water and the small islet would afford them a refuge from the gale, for a time.

3) "We had much work to come by te boat:" (ischusamen molis perikrateis genesthai tes skaphes) "We were hardly strong enough to get control of the boat," or able with much difficulty to secure the boat, which had to be lifted, as a life-boat alongside the ship of Acts 27:15. They were anxious to save the life-boat alongside the ship as a last means of escape.

Verse 17

1) "Which when they had taken up, they used helps

(hen arantes boetheias echronto) "Which when they had lifted up, hoisted on board the ship, they used the helps in the little boat," used the life-boat equipment.

2) "Undergirding the ship," (hupozonnuntes to ploion) "Undergirding, repairing the ship," using "frappings," or cables to prevent the timbers of the ship from being strained, breaking, or coming apart under pressure of the storm and the waves, around the hull and frame of the ship.

3) "And, fearing," (phoboumenoi te) "And being fearful," all the time, with continuing fear, tormented by fear of sudden death from the storm, 1 John 4:18.

4) "Lest they should fall into the quicksands," (me eis ten surtin ekpesosin) "That they might fall out onto the quicksand," lying to the southwest of Clauda, a treacherous, well known shallow quicksand area of the Mediterranean Sea, known by sailors as Syrtis Major, off the coast of Africa southwest of Crete.

5) "Strake sail," (charasantes to skeuos) "Lowering the tackle," the gear, the things that had temporarily held the ship near the small island of Clauda," apparently lowering the mainsail a bit, to try to alter the course of the ship some, as they let loose the primary holds on the sails to drift with the winds, to avoid sinking.

6) "And so were driven." (houtos epheronto) "They were thus adrift," again in the winds, upon the reckless waves of the sea, hopelessly drifting, except by providential intervention of Him who rules the storms and waters of the sea, for "the Lord hath His way in the whirlwind and in the storm," Nahum 1:3.

Verse 18

1) "And we being exceedingly tossed with a tempest," (sphodos de cheimazomenon hemon) "Then as we were held exceedingly in the midst and grip of the storm," a tempestuous typhoon. "As we labored exceedingly with the storm," dipping water, tightening ropes to keep the ship from breaking up, stuffing leaky places in the ship, etc.

2) "The next day they lightened the ship;” (te hekses ekbolen epoiounto) "On the following day they (the shipmen) made a jettisoning," simply lightened the ship, dumping cargo into the sea, to keep the ship from sinking, perhaps inclusive of furniture of the ship, and even baggage not absolutely needed for their immediate survival; compare Jonah 1:4-5 where the shipmen bearing Jonah did the same in the midst of a storm.

Verse 19

1) "And the third day " (kai te trite) "And on the third day," after we left, cut loose from Fair Haven, Acts 27:8-13.

2) "We cast out with our own hands," (autocheires erripsan) "They threw out with their own hands," the sailors, those in charge of sailing the ship, perhaps even instructing some of the passengers (inclusive of Paul, Luke, and Aristarchus) Christian missionary companions, to cast out any possessions of their own that they could overboard, and assist them also in casting out,

3) "The tackling of the ship." (ten skeuen tou poliou) "The tackle of the ship," the broken sails, steering gear, and all controls that weighted down the ship, as a life-and-death effort for survival from the storm.

Verse 20

1) "And when neither sun nor stars," (mete de heliou mete astron) "Then when neither sun nor stars appeared," neither shined, was made manifest thru the storm clouds. They were as hunters or sailors without a compass, lost in darkness, tormented with fears and insecurity.

2) "In many days appeared," (epiphainonton epi pleiontas hemeras) "Had appeared (to them thru the storm) over a period of many days," some days had passed and others of the eleven were yet to come, Acts 27:27, as the typhoon raged; neither sun nor moon shined, the only visible compass then available for sailors, as they drifted fearful and forlorn at sea, for many days.

3) "And no small tempest lay on us," (cheimonoste ouk oligou epikeimenou) "And no little stormy weather was still pressing hard on us," overwhelming us, tossing us helplessly about, with no sense of direction at sea, like a sinner in life, without a compass or guide, Isaiah 57:20-21.

4) "All hope that we should be saved," (elpis pasa tou sozesthai) "All hope that we might be saved," from death in the storm at sea, that we might be rescued, so far as human effort was concerned, was gone. They had abandoned themselves to despair.

5) "Was then taken away." (loipon periereito humas) "Was now taken away," gone forever, so far as human calculation was concerned. They were adrift in a high storm, without paddle, tackle, or sail, gradually becoming without hope of living any longer, ever reaching home or friends again, and had now reached "the end of their rope," where the Lord intervenes when sinners cry to Him for salvation and help thru faith in Jesus Christ; Ephesians 2:12; John 6:37; Romans 10:13; Luke 19:10.

Verse 21

PAUL’S RISE TO RESPECT OF ALL ON BOARD V. 21-44

1) "But after long abstinence," (polles te asitias huparchouses) "Then there was a long time that those on the ship had eaten no food," by "want of appetite" and virtue of the storm; And little heart (desire) being left for food. Perhaps no opportunity was left for cooking food on board, by leakage of the ship.

2) "Paul stood forth in the midst of them, and said," (tote statheis ho Paulos en meso auton eipen) "At that time Paul, while standing up in their midst, said," addressed the centurion and shipmen. At this juncture of the event Luke was recounting, while hunger, thirst, and soul-fainting gripped the hearts and emotions of those on board the ship. Paul stood up unmoved among the 276 on board, in the midst of the still raging storm and addressed them.

3) "Sirs, ye should have hearkened unto me," (edei men ho andres peitharchesanoas moi) "0 ye responsible men, you all should have given heed, obeyed, or paid attention to me;" Paul addressed those responsible for the safety of the passengers as responsible gentlemen, courteously, discreetly, yet firmly, as God’s witness in a trying hour, even as he had done on Mar’s Hill, Acts 17:24-33.

4) "And not have loosed from Crete," (me anagesthai apotes Kretes) "And not to have set sail from Crete," from Fair Haven harbor, on the Island of Crete, Acts 27:8-13. This was spoken in hope of their hearing him now.

5) "And to have gained this harm and loss." (kerdesai te ten hubrin tauten kai ten zemian) "And to have come by this injury and loss," already experienced of cargo, furniture, and ship-tackle, as well as bruises and cuts sustained by passengers in a fourteen day storm of this nature, Acts 27:10; Acts 27:33. He simply told them that they would have avoided or saved the loss and injury if they had listened or responded to his council, before they sailed from Crete.

Verse 22

1) "And now I exhort you," (kai ta nun paraino humas) "And now and hereafter (for the future) I exhort (advise) you all," all on board the ship, as the storm still raged.

2) "To be of good cheer:" (eutheimein) "To continually be of good cheer," of a cheerful disposition, not depressed; The word rendered "good cheer" is a medical term of a physician’s expressed optimism and faith of recovery of a patient who is down; Psalms 112:7; 2 Corinthians 1:4; 2 Corinthians 4:8-9.

3) "For there shall be no loss of any man’s life among you" (apobole gar psuches oudemia estai eks humon) "For there shall not be a life of you all, (even one) thrown away or lost," a prophetic disclosure, of both human and Divine hope and assurance, of eventual salvation for all passengers from death from the storm.

4) "But of the ship."(plen tou ploiou) "Except of the ship," but the ship would be eventually lost or destroyed by the storm. Had one life been lost and the ship saved, then Paul would have been found to be a false witness, and false prophet, by all on board the ship, but it happened as he prophesied, Acts 27:1-44. He spoke in confidence of revelation that had come to him as follows:

Verse 23

1) "For there stood by me this night," (pareste gar moi taute te muki) "For there stood alongside me (and motivated, encouraged) me this night," during the night then passing, as good angels of God have done, and yet do, for children of God, Luke 2:9-10; Luke 24:4-5; Acts 12:7-11; Acts 23:11.

2) "The angel of God, whose I am," (angelos tou theou hou eimi) "An angel of God to minister unto and help me," Psalms 34:7; Hebrews 1:14, such as had appeared to him, Acts 16:9. Paul gloried in witnessing to those skeptic sailors and shipmen, that he was a voluntary slave-like servant of Jesus Christ, belonging to Christ, 1 Corinthians 6:19-20.

3) "And whom I serve," (ho kai latreuo) "Whom also I serve," as they all knew, in physical and spiritual ways, as true preachers of God have always done, manifesting love and compassion for saved and unsaved alike, without respect of persons, 2 Corinthians 4:3-4; Romans 15:1-3; Romans 1:9; 2 Timothy 1:3.

Verse 24

1) "Saying, Fear not, Paul;” (legon me phobou Paule) "Saying repeatedly, courageously, fear not, Paul," or do not be of a fearful state or condition of emotions, Paul. For God does not give the spirit of fear to His surrendered children, to those who are following Him, Romans 8:14-15; 1 John 4:18; Acts 18:9-10.

2) "Thou must be brought before Caesar:” (kaisari se dei parastenai) "it is necessary that you stand up before, in the presence of, Caesar;" these words emphatically indicate that Paul would be spared thru the storm, to arrive and bear testimony to the Lord in Rome, Romans 1:14-16; Acts 23:11.

3) "And, lo, God hath given thee," (kai idou kecharistai soi ho theos) "And behold (comprehend this) God has (granted) given into your hands," to your influence for good, as a favor to you, for your prayer and witnessing, this captive audience, Isaiah 55:10-11; 1 Corinthians 10:31; Psalms 46:1; Psalms 46:7.

4) "All them that sail with thee." (pantas tous pleiontas meta sou) "All those who are sailing with you," for Rome. Paul was not sailing "with" the crew and passengers. They were sailing "with" him. God’s minister, on God’s mission, is always the most important passenger, on plane or vehicle, on land, on sea, or in the air, 1 Timothy 5:17.

Verse 25

1) "Wherefore, sirs, be of good cheer:" (dio euthumeite andres) "Wherefore; ye responsible men, be cheerful," cheer up, be in a state of good cheer, in the light of hope and assurance that I have disclosed to you, as told to me by the angel of the Lord.

2) "For I believe God,"(pisteuogartotheo)"For I trust in (the testimony of) God," delivered by His angel to me, as His word (spoken and written) is "true from the beginning," and "can not be broken," Psalms 119:160; John 10:35. Oh that men would just receive, believe, His word for salvation, separation, and service!

3) "That it shall be," (hoti houtos estai) "That it shall be," or it shall exist, come to be, or come to pass. Note the noble simplicity of acceptance of what God had told him, John 8:24; John 12:47-50.

4) "Even as it was told me." (kath’ hon tropon lelaletai moi) "In the way or manner, just as, or precisely as, it was disclosed to me," God’s word is true, accurate, trustworthy, without error or contradiction, from the beginning to the end, when interpreted in its contextual setting, by men who are spiritually-minded, who have the mind and nature of Christ, who is the "Spirit of prophecy," Revelation 19:10; 2 Corinthians 2:11-16. Like David, "the man after God’s own heart," people of God affirm, "Thy word is true from the beginning," Psalms 119:160; 2 Timothy 3:16-17.

God’s word is always to be accepted by faith, without doubting, Acts 10:43; Romans 8:28; Hebrews 13:5.

Verse 26

1) "Howbeit we must be cast," (de dei hemas ekpesein) "Yet, it behooves (comes to) us to fall off," off the sinking ship. Note storms and shipwrecks are as important in maturity of Christian character as the sunshine and balmy days of life when children of God learn, like Paul, "whatsoever state or condition they are in therewith to be content," Hebrews 13:5; Philippians 4:11. Soldiers, sailors, and great leaders, are not made without hard discipline, even for God, 2 Timothy 2:3.

2) "Upon a certain island." (eis neson tina) "Onto a certain island," which came to be Melita, Acts 28:1; Paul had had this revealed to him; but he did not know what island it was or would be. God reveals His will to men for their lives, a little at a time, (after His call) saying, follow my will, the light I give you, one day at a time, and each day will be a day of communion with, and useful service to me, Luke 9:23; James 4:13-15. Discipleship and stewardship for Jesus Christ, is progressive, because the call of the gospel and the Great Commission are to salvation and progressive service for and toward our Lord and Master, Galatians 6:9; 1 Corinthians 15:58.

Verse 27

1) "But when the fourteenth night was come," (hos de tessareskaidekate nuks egeneto) "Now when the fourteenth night (of the storm-drifting) came," after they had sailed out of Fair Haven, in a soft breeze, in spite of Paul’s warning, Acts 27:8-13.

2) "As we were driven up and down in Adria," (diapheromenon hemon en to Adria) "While we were being carried about in Adria," known today as the Adriatic Sea, the greater Mediterranean between Greece, Italy, and Africa.

3) "About midnight," (kato meson tes nektos) "About the middle of the (fourteenth) night," since leaving Fair Haven, Acts 27:8-9.

4) "The shipmen deemed," (hupenooun hoi nautai) "The sailors supposed (hypothecated)," gave out their judgement.

5) "That they drew near to some country;” (prosagein tina autois choran) "That they were approaching some particular country," that some land was nearing them, a nautical term, perhaps because of the sound of the breakers, as if the waves were breaking on a rocky coast.

Verse 28

1) "And sounded, and found it twenty fathoms:” (kai boisantes huron orguias eikssi) "and when they had sounded they found it to be twenty fathoms," to the bottom of the sea, about one hundred to 120 feet in depth, calculating a fathom at from five to six feet.

2) "And when they had gone a little further," (brachu de diastesantes) "Then having moved a little more toward land," after a small interval of time.

3) "They sounded again," (kai palin bolisantes) "They again sounded," for the depth of the water.

4) "And found it fifteen fathoms." (heuron orguias dekapente) "They found or determined it to be fifteen fathoms," to the bottom, indicating that they were rapidly drifting upon some shore or shoals, with the depth of water at 75 to 90 feet.

Verse 29

1) "Then fearing," (phobou me noi te) "Then having fear," or holding fear because the water was becoming more shallow, endangering the ship’s failing upon a reef or rocks that would dash it to pieces.

2) "Lest we should have fallen upon rocks," (me pou kata tracheis topous ekpesomen) "Lest we might somewhere nearby ground upon rocky bottom," that would sink the ship on rocks and reefs, as ships were often wrecked. Fear is often a premonition, a Divine call, to seek security from eternal destruction, Isaiah 55:6-7; Proverbs 1:22-30; Hebrews 4:7; Ecclesiastes 12:13-14.

3) "They cast four anchors out of the stern," (ek prumnes hripsantes agikuras tessaras) "They threw four anchors out of the stern," to make the vessel more secure and manageable. Ancient vessels carried more anchors. The casting of these anchors was often their only security from being blown off course or upon rocky reefs in times of storms. Let it be noted that believers have many anchors for every storm of life to keep them from fear and death. The word, the Spirit, the church, and the Christian brethren, etc. These are four true anchors today.

4) "And wished for the day (euchonto hemeran genesthai) "Praying that the day would soon be," soon come. They devoutly wished for the day, so that they might see or pick out a safe spot to run the ship ashore, and at least save their lives.

SHADOWS OF NIGHT AND SUNBEAMS OF DAY

I, The night shadows, that lend uncertainty to the voyage. The clouds of the moral heavens are either - 1. Formed from above; or 2. Exhaled from beneath. These are - 1) Fear, 2) Spiritual despondency, 3) Unbelief, 4) Natural sorrow, 5) Shame. II. The morning sunbeams, which, by dispersing the darkness, reveal to us our prospects. Rays of - - - 1. Truth; 2. Mercy. Ill. Our duty in relation to the night and the day: 1. We should understand that the night has its purposes of mercy; 2. We should also learn to prize the day more highly while we have it.

Verse 30

1) "And as the shipmen were about," (ton de nauton zetounton) "Then the sailors attempted," or "as the sailors were seeking or planning a way to escape the ship," at the earliest possible moment, to save their own lives. The heart is deceitful, treacherous, desperately covetously wicked, Jeremiah 17:9.

2) "To flee out of the ship," (phugein ek tou ploiou) "To flee out of (get away from) the ship," leaving the passengers and soldiers to their own fate.

3) "When they had let down the boat into the sea," (kai charasanton ten skaphen eis ten thalassan) "And they lowered the life-boat into the sea," to prepare for their own early escape from the ship.

4) "Under colour," (prophasei) "Under pretense," or pretending, under sham, a plot detected by Luke and known to Paul, who were familiar with riggings of the ship, 2 Corinthians 11:25.

5) "As though they would have cast anchors out of the foreship," (hos ek prores agkuras mellonton ektienein) "As if they were intending to cast anchors out of the prow," the forepart (nose) of the ship. Pretending to prepare to lay out or pull in the anchors at daylight, as if to steady the ship and determine the depth of water closer to the land they approached.

Verse 31

1) "Paul said to the centurion," (eipen ho Paulos to hekatontarche) "Paul (then) said to the centurion," upon recognizing the covert or concealed intent of the sailors, knowing the authority of the centurion, Roman captain over the soldiers,

2) "And to the soldiers,"(kai tois stratiotais) "And to the soldiers;" It appears that the officers of the ship were either in on the plot, or could not command obedience of the sailors. It also appears that the centurion had much to do with law aboard the ship, Acts 27:11.

3) "Except these abide in the ship," (ean me houtoi meinosin en to ploio) "Unless these (sailors) remain in (and on board) the ship;- Skilled seamen were needed to manage the ship at the critical moment of landing, It was no time to "jump ship," except one be a base traitor. It is always proper to exercise sound judgement in the midst of danger.

4) "Ye cannot be saved." (humeis sothenai ou dunasthe) "You all can not be saved from death," from drowning, based on human experience. Paul appealed to the instinct of self-preservation, for the centurion and his soldiers on board, who were not themselves sailors. Tho God had pledged the security of their lives, Paul believed that all man’s reasonable means of first caring for himself, in times of danger, should first be used. Good judgement is in harmony (not conflict) with the will of God, always.

Verse 32

1) "Then the soldiers cut off," (tote apekopsan hoi stratiotai) "Then the soldiers cut away," cut off, stepped into the fray and commotion, simply cut off,

2) "The ropes of the boat," (ta skoimia tes skaphes) "The ropes of the boat," that the sailors were about to escape in, the smaller life boat.

3) "And let her fall off." (kai easan auten ekpeisein) "And let it (the life boat) fall off the ship," and drift away; whether it was lost, or simply left to drift at the end of a lower rope attached to the ship, is not certain, but it is certain that it was cut off from where it had been let down by the sailors, Acts 27:30.

Verse 33

1) "And while the day was coming on," (achri de hou hemera emellen ginesthai) "Then as the day (daylight) was about to arrive," to come, as day was breaking, the interval of time after the cutting off of the boat in which the sailors had planned to escape first, and when day light arrived.

2) "Paul besought them all to take meat, saying (parekalei ho Paulos hapantas metablein trophes legon) "Paul appealed to all on board the ship to partake of food, saying," explaining, announcing. He was now looked up to, by all aboard the ship. God’s people never stand taller, or shine more brightly, than in the midst of life’s midnight storms, Matthew 5:15-16.

3) "This day is the fourteenth day," (tessareskaidekaten semeron hemeran) "Today is the fourteenth day,” in a row, in succession, since the storm set in, Acts 27:14-15.

4) "That ye have tarried and continued fasting," (prasdokontes asitoi diateleite) "That you all have been waiting, you have continued without food," you have been fasting. It was quite a breathing time from the normalcy of life.

5) "Having taken nothing." (methen peoslabomenoi) "Taking comparatively not one thing to eat," not a regular meal, nothing sufficient to sustain their vigorous needs.

Verse 34

1) "Wherefore I pray you to take some meat:" (dio parakalo humas metalabein trophes) "Wherefore I beseech you all to take some food," I appeal to you all to eat a full, regular meal, as we are now anchored here, perhaps near a safe landing place.

2) "For this is for your health:" (touto gar pros tes humeteros soterias huparchei) "For this is (important) to your health or safety," your salvation from death by drowning, as they were soon to be shipwrecked and would have to swim ashore, and would need new physical strength for the final ordeal in reaching land safely.

3) "For there shall not an hair," (oudenos gar humon thriks) "For not one hair of you all," or any one of you. Effort on their part was godly and necessary, though the Divine pledge was that not one hair was to fall from an head in death; The figure of speech may be found 1 Kings 1:52; Matthew 10:30.

4) "Fall from the head of any of you." (apo tes kephales apoleitai) "Shall fall or perish, from anyone of you all." This indicates that faith in God and good works, obedience to God, should exist harmoniously and continually together, James 1:22; James 2:15-20. This is a providential assurance of perfect safety from the danger at hand.

Verse 35

1) "And when he had thus spoken," (eipas de tauta) "Then as he was saying these things," making these remarks.

2) "He took bread and gave thanks to God," (kai labon arton eucharistesen to theo) "He also took bread and gave thanks to God," assuming the lead, he took a loaf and gave a prayer of triumphant thanks, as if deliverance had already come, the deliverance God had promised, Acts 27:24. Prayer is always appropriate, before partaking of food, Matthew 15:36.

3) "In presence of them all:” (enopion panton) "in the presence or (before the face) of them all;- Aboard the ship in the midst of the still raging storm, he openly prayed aloud in a prayer of thanksgiving for the prevailing, over ruling mercy and goodness of God, John 6:11.

4) "And when he had broken it, he began to eat." (kai klasas erksato esthiein) "And breaking the bread (for all) having blessed it, he began to eat," with joy or good cheer. This was a common meal in which Paul took the lead to resuscitate, to re-strengthen all physically, this was in no way to be intended as a mass partaking of the Lord’s Supper, which is always restricted to a local congregation of baptized, fellowshipping-believers, in church colleague, in some special locality, 1 Corinthians 11:17-34.

Verse 36

1) "Then were they all of good cheer," (euthumoi de genomenoi pantes) "Then they all became (were) in good spirits," were of a good, cheerful, courageous disposition. Faith, optimism, and good cheer, are contagious for good, Philippians 4:4; 1 Thessalonians 5:16; 2 Corinthians 6:10. They were all made cheerful, as a result of Paul’s faith and radiant good hope and cheer, Matthew 5:15-16.

2) "And they also took some meat." (kai autoi proselabonto trophes) "Then they also took (some) food," the first full meal to give them full renewed strength since the gale, then typhoon had arisen, fourteen days earlier, Acts 27:14; Acts 27:33.

Verse 37

1) "And we were in all in the ship," (emetha de hai pasai en to ploio) "Now there were (in all) in the ship," by number of us all. This was made up of Julius, the centurion, over one hundred Roman soldiers, the shipmaster and the owner of the ship, and officers of the ship, a crew of sailors, Luke, and Aristarchus, companions in travel with Paul, Acts 27:1-2; Acts 27:11; Acts 27:27; Acts 27:30.

2) "Two hundred threescore and sixteen souls." (diakosia hebdomekonta heks) "Two hundred and seventy six," in number on board the ship of Alexandria, Acts 27:6. These corn ships (or wheat ships) were large, noble, vessels, often carrying more than 1,000 tons of grain. The number on board may have been given, at this time in the narrative, when food was distributed to each.

Verse 38

1) "And when they had eaten enough," (koresthentes de trophes) "Then when they had become satisfied with food," when all had eaten enough food to satisfy them, to give them renewed strength.

2) "They lightened the ship," (ekouphison to ploion) "They lightened (made lighter) the ship," as follows, by following means; This is the third effort they made to lighten the ship, to make it safer for landing, which they hoped was soon at hand, Acts 27:8; Acts 27:19; Acts 27:38. Thus, on the second, third, and fourteenth days of the storm, they spent part of each day dumping things like furniture, ship tackling, cargo, and wheat into the sea to save the ship.

3) "And cast out the wheat into the sea."(ekballomenoi ton siton eis ten thalassan) "Throwing out the wheat (remaining) into the sea," They not only pumped or dipped water from the ship and threw every other obstructing thing aboard overboard into the sea, but also threw containers of wheat overboard into the boiling, foaming, raging, storm whipped waters of the briny sea. It is a Divine truth that one must also cut loose from anything of life that may cause him to lose his soul, or life in hell, or become useless to God, such as the rich young ruler, or the successful barn builder, Mark 10:17-23; Luke 12:13-21. The most valued human possession may hinder either one’s salvation or his usefulness to God, unless it is put away, Mark 10:24-31.

Verse 39

1) "And when it was day," (hote de hemera egeneto) "Then when the daylight came," when day arrived, following the realization that they were nearing land, when hope of landing safely had revived, Acts 27:27-36.

2) "They knew not the land," (ten gen ouk epeginoskon) "They did not recognize the land," neither the veteran shipmaster, ship owner, sailors, nor any passenger, knew where they were about to land. They could not recognize any landmarks. But immediately on landing they knew where they were, Acts 28:1.

3) "But they discovered a certain creek with a shore," (de kolpon tina katenooun echonta aigialon) "But they noticed that there was a certain bay that had a shore," an inlet to the island, a shore with a beach suitable for landing, in contrast with a rocky coast, such as the ship eventually came upon to break up, Acts 27:41.

4) "Into which they were minded," (eis hon ebouleuonto) "Into which they were inclined, intended," set their minds to run the ship for their own safety, if possible. They took council among themselves, and concluded that they would attempt a beach landing at this place.

5) "If it were possible to thrust in the ship." (ei dunainto eksosai to ploion) "If they were able (at all) to drive the ship," by man power, by rowing and pushing, if possible, to get out of the sea’s fury. This inlet is now known as Paul’s Bay, located south of the west end of the isle of Salmonetta, a few miles north of Valetta.

Verse 40

1) "And when they had taken up the anchors," (kai tas agkuras perielontes) "And when they had cast off the anchors," taken them up and cast them overboard, or simply let the anchors drop to the bottom of the sea.

2) "They committed themselves unto the sea," (eion eis ten thalassan) "They left them in the sea," left the anchors at the bottom of the sea, as the last weight that was cut off that might help lighten the ship as they attempted to pull the ship to the beach.

3) "And loosed the rudder bands," (haima anantes tas zeukterias ton pedalion) "At the same time they loosed the fastenings (bands) that had held the rudders," they loosed the paddle rudders on each side of the ship for rowing, with which both Greek and Roman ships were supplied.

4) "And hoised up the mainsail to the wind," (kai eparanteston artemona te pneouse) "And they raised the foresail to the breeze," to secure all the help possible to move the ship toward the shore. The foresail was on the prow of the bowsprit, to head the nose of the ship toward shore.

5) "And made toward shore." (kateichon eis to agialon) "They held the ship in direction toward the shore," for a safe landing, as they bore down on the beach. They did all they could to save themselves from the long raging storm -how about you? Mark 8:34-38.

Verse 41

1) "And falling into a place where two seas met," (peripesontes de eis topon kethalasson) "Then coming to rest upon a place where two seas met," where two currents met, from each side of the islet.

2) "They ran the ship aground; and the forepart stuck fast," (epekeilan ten naun kai he men prora epeisasa) "They drove the vessel (ship) hard, and the prow (fore-part) stuck fast aground;- They ran the ship aground at the front of the ship, while the stern was whipped by wind and waves, some distance yet from the beach.

3) "And remained unmoveable," (emeinen asaleutos) "And it remained immovable," it settled hard upon the bottom in the mud, so that it could not be moved by sail or rowing any further or closer toward the beach-shore.

4) "But the hinder part was broken," (he de prumna elueto) "Yet the stern (the back part) was broken off, torn away, so that the ship began to sink." This is one of three shipwreck experiences that Paul encountered and related, 2 Corinthians 11:25.

5) "With the violence of the waves." (hupotes bias) "By the force," of the violent waves yet raging from the typhoon (Euroclydon) Acts 27:14-15.

The sea is still a theatre of God’s Holy Acts today:

1 . Of His creative power.

2. Of His retributive judgement for wrong, a) As in the flood, Genesis 7:4-24. b) As in Jonah’s rebellion, Jonah 1:1 to Jonah 2:10. c) As in Pharaoh’s rebellion, Exodus 14:10-31.

3. Of His delivering power of Noah and his family, Israel at the Red Sea, and Jonah --- when he cried to God, Jonah 2:1-10.

A VISIT TO ST. PAUL’S BAY

We had advanced some eight or ten miles in our excursion, when the bright and broad Mediterranean broke upon our view upon the right. Having ascended another range of hills, we came in sight of an object that riveted my eyes to the spot, with an emotion I cannot well describe- - -what is called St. Paul’s Bay. When I reached the shores of this bay, where tradition has located the place of landing of the wrecked mariners of that ill-fated ship, I felt I was treading on sacred ground. The waters now were all calm and radiant with the beams of a resplendent sun. But I could imagine the darkness of the heavens, the fury of the storm, the boisterousness of the sea, lashed by fierce winds into unbridled rage, and the sail-rent, dismasted vessel, with its stern already "broken by the violence of the waves," so graphically depicted by St. Luke. I could imagine the dispersed and sinking crew, "some on boards, and some on broken pieces of the ship," making their way to the land. Perhaps, on the very spot where I stood, chilled and dripping from the waters, they assembled, while the rude, barbarous people, inhabitants of the island, gathered around, touched with feelings of kindness, kindled for them a fire, and received everyone of them, "because of the present rain, and because of the cold." As I tried to picture to myself the Apostle of the Gentiles, standing before that fire kindled on the shore, his apparel dripping with the briny waters of the sea, I thought of the perils of his eventful life, and of all he endured for the love of Christ, and the salvation of a dying world.

- J. A. Clark.

Verse 42

1) "And the soldier’s counsel was," (ton de stratioton boule egeneto) "Now the soldier’s mind (intention or counsel) was," their purpose and intention was.

2) "To kill the prisoners," (hina tous desmotas apokteinosin) "That they were to kill the prisoners," everyone of them, including Paul. This was the advice of the soldiers guarding (in charge of the prisoners), because Roman law made the prison guards answerable, with their own lives, for prisoners under their charge, as certified Acts 12:19; Acts 16:27.

3) "Lest any of them should swim out, and escape," (me tis ekkolumbesas diaphuge) "Lest anyone should swim out or away, and escape," get away from their charge, leaving the soldiers in jeopardy of their own lives before Caesar, by reason of neglect of duty. Roman selfishness and cruelty are also reflected in this heartless proposal.

Verse 43

1) "But the centurion, willing to save Paul," (ho de hekatontarches) "Then the centurion," (boulomenos diasosai ton Paulon) "Being disposed (minded) to save Paul from death," willing, if possible, to save Paul from death. He had affection, respect, and good will for Paul, to whom he apparently now believed he may have owed his own life, because of Paul’s testimony and self composure thru the storm, Acts 27:10; Acts 27:21-25; Acts 27:33-36.

2) "Kept them from their purpose;” (ekolusen autous tou boulematos) "Forbid them from doing what they intended," to kill all the prisoners. Thus, one man of God, stood by reputation and good will, for the salvation of the lives of all prisoners upon the sinking ship. What an influence for good one person can be, wholly separated unto God, Romans 12:1-2; 1 Corinthians 9:22-23. Moses also stood in the breach lest all Israel be slain, at one time, Psalms 106:23,

3) "And commanded that they which could swim," (ekeleusen te yous dunamenos kolubou) "He then commanded those who were able to swim;" The centurion gave abandon ship orders, at least to the prisoners, including Paul, resolving to save their lives from drowning by shipwreck, if possible.

4) "Should cast themselves first," (aporipsantas protous) "Should first cast themselves overboard," swimming out to test the depth and distance to where they might safely return, to help others out, who could not swim.

5) "Into the sea, and get to land:” (epi ten gen eksienai) "To go out upon the land," to swim to shore first, where they might later be able to help others to safety, those who would try to reach shore by holding on to some floating object and paddle against the waves, struggling to reach shore.

Verse 44

1) "And the rest," (kai tous loipous) "And those remaining," who could not swim.

2) "Some on boards," (ous men epi sanisin) "Some upon planks," planks used on board the ship for shelving, to keep the cargo of the ship from shifting, etc.

3) "And some on broken pieces of the ship." (dus de epi tiono ton apo tou ploiou) "Then others upon some of the floating things from the ship," pieces of the hull of the back of the ship, that was breaking up and sinking.

4) "And so it came to pass," (kai hautos egeneto) "And thus it became," came to pass, happened, or occurred. God’s promises and decrees always come to pass; let this be firmly fixed and faithfully accepted by each of us, Acts 27:22; Acts 27:24; not one of God’s promises has ever failed, or ever will, 1 Kings 8:56; Hebrews 10:23.

5) "That they escaped all safe to land," (pantas diasothenai epi ten gen) "All were saved (escaped safely) on the land," from the sinking ship, as Paul had assured them, God had disclosed to him, that they would, Acts 27:33-37. This was by Divine providence, promise, and decree, not by a miracle.

The Doubts and Obstacles They Overcame

I. Their fears - of the power of the evil one, of their own hearts.

II. The fury of the elements - 1)The breath of flattery, 2) That continual contrary wind of the world, flesh, Devil, and 3) the chilling blast of Eurocludon of poverty, sickness, business reveres.

III. The poor helps they had - each had to shift for himself

IV. Their diverse character - a centurion, Julius, sailors, soldiers, business men, prisoners, a Dr. Luke, and a preacher man, Paul.

V. Yet they all escaped safely - were you among them? Have you reached the safe land, yet? Planted your feet on the rock? Psalms 40:1-3.

Bibliographical Information
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Acts 27". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghb/acts-27.html. 1985.
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