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Bible Commentaries
Acts 13

Garner-Howes Baptist CommentaryGarner-Howes

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Verse 1


1) "Now there were in the church that was at Antioch," (esan de dn Antiocheia kata ten ousan ekkiesian), -Now there were in Antioch, among the existing church, among the membership of the church that existed there in that locality. This begins the account of Paul’s three missionary journeys, directed by church authority.

2) "Certain prophets and teachers;" (prophetai kai didaskaloi ho te) "Certain, specific, or definite prophets and teachers," to be named or by names as follow: (all the prophets were teachers, but all teachers were riot prophets, Acts 11:27; 1 Corinthians 12:28.)

3) "As Barnabas and Simeon that was called Niger," (Barnabas kai Sumeon ho kaloumenos Niger) "Being called or personally identified as Barnabas and Simeon; Barnabas means "Son of consolation," or exhortation, Acts 4:36; while Niger means "black." He is thought to be an African.

4) "And Lucius of Cyrene and Manaen," (kai loukios ho kurenaios, Manaen te) "As well as Lucius the Cyrenian and Manaean. Lucius was perhaps a kinsman of Paul, Romans 16:21; or one who first preached the Gospel at Antioch, Acts 11:20.

5) "Which had been brought up with Herod the tetrarch, and Saul." (Herodou tou tetraarchou suntrophoS kat Saulos) "Educated or brought up with, a foster brother of Herod the tetrarch, and Saul." These five brethren were teachers and prophets in the church that had a Bible School that was very active in Antioch. Manean appears to have been a foster brother of Antipas the Governor of the region. And Saul was named last, of the five prophets and teachers in Antioch, though not least, 2 Corinthians 11:5; 1 Corinthians 15:9-10; 2 Corinthians 12:11; Galatians 2:6. This Herod Antipas was the son of Herod the Great, Matthew 14:1-12, and an uncle of Herod Agrippa, Acts 12:20-23.

Verse 2


1) "As they ministered to the Lord," (leitourgounton de auton to kurios "And as they ministered to the Lord,’’ or while they were ministering to the Lord, actively, diligently, in the church. Their ministry was ’’to the Lord,’’ but "in the church," where the greatest degree of glory may be given to the Lord, Acts 12:1; Ephesians 3:21.

2) "And fasted," (kai nesteuonton) "And as they fasted," were fasting, in devotion, resignation, and commitment of themselves to the Lord. The "they" specifically were the five brethren named above, as they directed a teaching and prophetic ministry, and fasted and prayed.

3) "The Holy Ghost said," (eipen to pneuma to hagion) "The Holy Spirit said," spoke to the church existing there, in which and to whom these brethren were preaching, teaching and prophesying.

4) "Separate me Barnabas and Saul," (aphorisate de mou ton Barnabas kai Saulon) "Now you all separate from yourselves, or set aside from your personal service, to me, Paul and Barnabas," Note that it was the church "ye’’ to whom the mission mandate and authority was given, not to the apostles or individuals, Matthew 28:16-20: John 20:21, Acts 1:8.

5) "For the work whereunto I have called them." (eis to ergon ho proskeklemai autous) "Unto, with reference to, the work to which I have called them.’’ Paul and Barnabas were called of the Holy Spirit to go preach "in regions beyond" that of Antioch; And the local congregation, (church) at Antioch, was just as specifically called to separate them from their church positions of teaching and prophesying, and release them to go in the power and with the prayers and support of the Antioch church to bear the Gospel afar, into Asia Minor, as He had called Barnabas and Saul.

Verse 3

1) "And when they had fasted and prayed," (tote nesteusantes kai proseuksamenoi) "Then when they (the church) had fasted and prayed, with regards to the voice and call of the Holy Spirit to them;" Preparation for sending forth missionaries must be accompanied by solemn prayer, fasting, and material support, Luke 18:1; James 5:16; Colossians 3:17; 1 Corinthians 3:9.

2) "And laid their hands on them," (kai epothentes tas cheiras autois) "And when they had laid their hands on them," on Paul and Barnabas, two of the five named prophets and teachers who labored in the church. The laying on of the hands was an expression of trust and assured them of their prayers and support, Acts 6:6.

3) "They sent them away." (apelusan) "They dismissed or released them," from their duties of service in the local congregation, to go with their expressed "laid on hands" sanction, approval, or mandate of the Holy Spirit, to do mission work in regions beyond- - "to the uttermost part of the earth," Acts 1:8; Luke 24:46-49; Mark 16:15; John 20:21; Paul and Barnabas respected the fasting, prayer, laying on of hands, and support of the Antioch church, to the extent that when they finished their first missionary journey they returned to Antioch to give their report (encouraging testimony) of the Holy Spirit’s work with and thru them in all their journey in winning Gentiles to the Lord, confirming disciples, and ordaining elders (mature leaders) in every church, Acts 14:22-27.

Verse 4

1) "So they being sent forth by the Holy Ghost," (autoi men oun ekpemphthentes) "So they therefore being sent out," (hupo tou hagiou pneumatos) "Released by the Holy Spirit-directed and empowered church," located and functioning in Antioch, Acts 13:1-2; Acts 14:26-27.

2) "Departed unto Seleucia;” (katelthon eis Seleukeian) "Went down to Seleucia," a seaport on the Mediterranean Sea, west of Antioch which is inland a short distance.

3) "And from thence they sailed to Cyprus," (ekeithen te apepleusan eis kupron) "And then (from there) sailed away into Cyprus," an Island some sixty miles from the coast of Syria, in the Mediterranean Sea. It is a large island some 140 miles long and fifty miles wide, fertile and beautiful, a part of the province of Cilicia in New Testament times. It was also the family estate and home-land of Barnabas and his kinsmen, Acts 4:36-37; Acts 11:19-20. Paul and Barnabas later parted in contention over whether or not John Mark, who "split," deserted them, on their first missionary journey, should be permitted to accompany them as an helper on their second journey. When the parting came Barnabas took John Mark, his nephew, and sailed from Antioch back to Cyprus, their native country, Acts 15:36-39; Colossians 4:10.

Verse 5

1) "And when they were at Salamis," (kai genomenoi en Salamini) "And being or having arrived in Salamis," a seaport on the east of Cyprus, known as the city of Famagusta today. The other chief city of Cyprus at that time was Paphos. The Antioch church perhaps owed its existence to brethren in Cyprus, Acts 11:19-23.

2) "They preached the word of God," (katenngellon ton logon tou theou) "They preached, heralded, or gave out the Word of God," witnessed, began to proclaim the word of God, concerning Jesus Christ, Acts 1:8. It is the word that all true ministers and witnesses must preach and bear, Psalms 119:160; 2 Timothy 4:1-2.

3) "In the synagogues of the Jews:" (en ta is sunagoga is ton louda ion) "In the Jewish synagogues," or synagogues of the Jews, belonging to the Jews. They were guest speakers, teachers, prophets in these foreign land synagogues. Both Jews and synagogues were numerous in Cyprus at that time, Acts 11:19-21.

4) "And they had also John to their minister." (eichon de kai loannen hupereten) "They also had John (Mark) as an attendant," as an assistant or helper, a nephew of Barnabas who started their journey with them, Colossians 4:10, then deserted, turned back at Pamphylia, Acts 13:13; Acts 15:36-38. He was not selected by the Holy Spirit or the church in the same solemn way that Paul and Barnabas were.

Where spirit-empowered church-sent missionaries labor, they bear fruit --- when these missionaries left the Island of Cyprus: 1) A sorcerer was vanquished, and 2) A governor was converted, Acts 13:8-13. God’s word never returns to Him void, Isaiah 55:10-11; Hebrews 4:12. To the soul winner, the missionary, the pastor, the layman, it returns benefits, Psalms 126:5-6.

Verse 6


1) "And when they had gone through the isle unto Paphos," (dielthontes de holen ten neson achri Paphou) "And passing through (traveling thru) all the island unto Paphos," having made a missionary preaching tour, an itinerary, thru all the Island of Cyprus, until they came to the city of Paphos, known today as the city of Baffa.

2) "They found a certain sorcerer," (huron andra tina magon) "They found a certain man (who was) a sorcerer, or fortune-teller, a deceiver. Such were held in high esteem among the heathen, but disapproved in the Scriptures, Jeremiah 27:9; Leviticus 19:31; Leviticus 20:6; Malachi 3:5; Revelation 21:8; Revelation 22:15.

3) "A false prophet, a Jew," (pseudopropheten loudion) "As well as a Jewish false prophet," one who pretended to be a wizard regarding the future and generally unknown things. Such as soothsayers, wizards, fortunetellers and those having familiar spirits were to be slain among the Jews, Leviticus 19:31; Leviticus 20:6; 1 Samuel 28:3; Micah 5:12.

4) "Whose name was Bar-Jesus:”- (ho onoma Bariesous) Who was named Bar-Jesus," the son or heir of Jesus, a name likely assumed to ape the super-natural miracles of Jesus Christ, to deceive the masses to follow him and give him lucrative gain, much as Simon the sorcerer had done, Acts 8:9-11; Acts 8:18-24; Certain Jews also later formed a confederation to practice miracle-working wizardry "by the name of Jesus," which they presumed to use for personal monetary gain, but they were brought to shame, Acts 19:13-19.

Verse 7

1) "Which was with the deputy of the country," (hos en sun to anthupato Sergio Paulo) "Who was with (in colleague with) Sergius Paulus the pro-consul," a political supporter of the governor of the country.

2) "Sergius Paulus, a prudent man;” (Sergio Paulo andri suneto) "Sergius Paulas who (was) an intelligent, prudent, or refined man," a Greek man who with prudence of judgement in making political decisions desired to determine the facts for himself regarding the doctrines preached by Paul and Barnabas regarding Jesus Christ. .

3) "Who called for Barnabas and Saul," (houtos proskalesamenos Barnaban kai Saulou) "This intelligent (prudent) man calling (of his own choice) Barnabas and Saul," to be his personal guests, invited them to meet in conference with him.

4) "And desired to hear the word of God." (epezetesen akousai ton logon tou theou) "Sought to hear the word of God," or desired to hear the word of God from them. Tho there was an interruption of their message, an insurrection of protest raised against them by another Sorcerer, called Elymas, the deputy (pro-consul, Governor) with the desire to hear the word of God, was saved, confirming the promise of the Holy Scriptures, Isaiah 55:10-11; John 7:17; Acts 13:12.

Verse 8

1 ) "But Elymas the sorcerer withstood them," (anthistato de autois Elumas ho magos) "But Elymas the sorcerer opposed them," stood up against them in protest, trying to preserve his lucrative business and political attachment to the governor.

2) "(For so is his name by interpretation)" (houtos gar methermeneuetai to onoma) "For this is (the) translation of his name," meaning a base deceiver, an heathen demagogue who "gave out," advertised that he was some great one, as a god, Acts 8:9-10; But such end up in hell if they do not repent of their sins of covetousness, lying, and deception, Revelation 21:8; Revelation 22:16; Matthew 7:22-23.

3) "Seeking to turn away the deputy from the faith." (zeton diastrepsai ton anthupaton apo tes pisteos) "Seeking or attempting, thru his opposition, to turn away (divert) the pro-consul (Sergius Paulus) from the faith," from hearing and receiving Jesus Christ and the Word of God which Paul and Barnabas preached, Acts 13:5; Acts 13:7. When one is saved his association with sorcerers, fortune tellers, wizards, false-miracle, workers, new-light prophecies and propheciers, is to be ended, cut off, or stopped. It is this disassociation from the governor, Sergius Paulus, that Elymas the sorcerer feared, if the governor believed in Jesus Christ; 2 Corinthians 6:14-18.

Verse 9

1) "Then Saul (who also is called Paul,)" (Saulos de ho kai Paulos) "Then Saul, the one also known as Paul," formerly known as Saul of Tarsus, Acts 9:11. On this first missionary journey Paul assumed his Gentile name, instead of Saul his Jewish name, perhaps to mark his

beginning ministry to the Gentiles, Acts 9:15; Acts 26:16-17.

2) "Filled with the Holy Ghost," (plestheis pneumatos hagiou) "Filled or controlled with (of the) Holy Spirit," as led of the Lord, Romans 8:14; Ephesians 5:18.

3) "Set his eyes on him," (atenisas eis auton eipen) "Gazing at him (eye-balling him) said," in direct rebuke to this adversary, Elymas the sorcerer, Acts 13:8. He openly proceeded to rebuke this public deceiver, 1 Timothy 5:20.

Verse 10

1) "And said, 0 full of all subtlety and all mischief," (o pleres pantos dolou kai pases hradiourgias) -0 (man) full of all deceit and all (kind of) fraud," as a sorcerer, deceiver, lying prophet, magic arts and prestidigitator. His occupation, and dishonesty - "mischief" refers to the, wickedness of his heart and very character, expressed in his deception for profit, Jeremiah 17:9; 1 Timothy 6:10.

2) "Thou child of the devil," (huie diabolou) "Thou son (heir) of (the) devil." This publicly popular profiteer from magic arts, posing as a miracle working prophet, was a base, dishonest, deceiving child of the devil, John 8:44; Matthew 7:22-23; 1 John 3:10.

3) "Wilt thou not cease to pervert," (ou pause diastrephon) "Wilt thou not cease (and desist) continually, repeatedly perverting, distorting," misrepresenting and maligning, opposing vehemently, Acts 13:8.

4) "The right ways of the Lord?" (tas hodous tou kuriou tas eutheias) "The ways of the Lord which are right?" exist as true and proper for all men, the Divine and holy ways set forth by Jesus Christ, the ways of repentance, faith, and obedience to Jesus Christ, Acts 19:13-20. To become a Christian means "to put away" deception and dishonesty in business affairs. Because of this, Elymas did not want to be saved or see the governor saved, See? 1 Timothy 6:10; Proverbs 29:1.

Verse 11

1) "And now, behold, the hand of the Lord is upon thee," (kai nun edou cheir kuriou epi se) "And now behold (take notice that) the hand of the Lord (is) upon thee," from this moment. It was a Divine hand of judgement, the hand of the Lord, not the hand of Paul. To illustrate, see Exodus 9:3; 1 Samuel 5:6.

2) "And thou shalt be blind," (kai ese tuphlos) "And thou shalt (wilt) be blind," in a state or condition of blindness, total physical darkness, as an act of Divine Judgement for his insurrection against, opposition to Paul’s witnessing to Sergius Paulus, the governor, Acts 13:7-8.

3) "Not seeing the sun for a season." (me blepon ton helion achri kairou) "Not even seeing (able to see) the sun for a season, or for some period of time," similar to Paul’s experience on the Damascus Road, Acts 9:8-9; Acts 9:17-18. For he, like Paul and false prophets, had "loved darkness rather than light," John 3:19-20.

4) "And immediately there fell on him a mist and a darkness," (parachrema de epesen ep’ auton achlus kai skotos) "Then at once there came over him a mist of total darkness," absolute blindness in a physical way; He was (became) stone-blind as a consequence of Divine punishment.

5) "And he went about seeking some to lead him by the hand." (kai perigon ezetei cheiragous) "And wherever he went he groped, sought (people) to lead him of or by the hand;" Even physically the blind can not safely lead the blind, much less spiritually, Matthew 15:14; Luke 6:39. This lasted "for a time" until it pleased the Lord to end his punishment and restore his sight, as he did that of Paul earlier, Acts 9:17-18.

Verse 12

1) "Then the deputy, when he saw what was done," (tote idon ho anthupatos to gegonos) "Right then the proconsul observing what occurred," to Elymas, the fraudulent sorcerer, false prophet, and opposer of God, right before his own eyes. The blindness that came upon Elymas helped open the eyes of the governor, 2 Corinthians 4:3-4.

2) "Believed," (episteusen) "Believed," trusted, or openly committed himself to the Lord, in the sense that he became a convert, 1 John 5:1; 1 John 5:10-11; John 3:18; John 5:24.

3) "Being astonished at the doctrine of the Lord." (ekplessomenos epi te didache tou kuriou) "Being astonished at the teaching (or doctrine) of the Lord," as presented in the faith, by Paul and Barnabas. He was astonished at the manifestation of their testimony, accompanied by this miraculous act of Divine Judgement inflicted by Paul upon Elymas the obstinate, opposing, obstructing sorcerer, deceiver, and false prophet. This miraculous deed confirmed the testimony of Barnabas and Paul as messengers of God, even as the miracles of Jesus confirmed to Nicodemus and the Sanhedrin that Jesus had come from God, John 3:1-2; Hebrews 2:4.

Verse 13

1) "Now when Paul and his company loosed from Paphos," (anachthentes de apo tes paphou hoi peri Paulon) "Then Paul and those around him (accompanying) setting sail from Paphos;" The company consisted of Paul, Barnabas, John Mark and perhaps certain other missionary helpers, named from time to time as accompanying Paul for a short period of time, sailed from Paphos in Cyprus to the next seaport on the coast of Pamphylia.

2) "They came to Perga in Pamphylia:” (elthon eis pergen tes Pamphulias) "Came to or arrived at Perga of Pamphylia," where Paul took charge of leadership, direction, and supervision in the work to which God had called and sent him in a very special way, as they began their inland travels in Asia Minor.

3) "And John departing from them," (loannes de apochoresas ap’ auton) "Then John (Mark) parting from them went not with them to the work," the field of labors (missions) before them, among the Gentiles in the territory of Asia Minor, eastward, Acts 15:38.

4) "Returned to Jerusalem," (hupestrepsen eis lerosoluma) "Turned back (returned) into Jerusalem," to his home and perhaps that of his mother, from where he had come with Paul and Barnabas, when they delivered alms to the Judean and Jerusalem brethren for the Antioch church, Acts 12:12; Acts 12:25. Paul later protested taking John Mark on the second missionary tour perhaps lest he turn back again and dishearten the workers, Luke 9:62; Acts 15:36-41. John was his Jewish and Mark his Gentile name.

Verse 14


1) "But when they departed from Perga," (autoi de diethontes apo tes Pergas) "Then they, Paul and Barnabas, passing (traveling) thru Perga," overland, across the country to Antioch of Pisidia where there were “perils of rivers and perils of robbers," 2 Corinthians 11:20. Some believe it was the report of these dangers that caused Mark to leave them there.

2) "They came to Antioch of Pisidia," (paregenonto eis

Antiocheian ten Pisidian) "Arrived in the Pisidian Antioch," or Antioch located in Pisidia, to distinguish it from the Antioch of Syria, the church from which they had gone out, Acts 13:1-4.

3) "And went into the synagogue," (kai elthontes eis ten sunagogen) "And entering into the Synagogue," of their own accord or volition. There was a large Jewish population in this city, perhaps many of them acquaintances of Paul from his days in Tarsus, Acts 11:25.

4) "On the sabbath day, and sat down." (te hemera ton sabbaton ekathisan) "On the day of the sabbath they sat down," to take part in the Sabbath devotions, reading of the Old Testament Scriptures, and exhortations regarding them, Acts 13:15. This was Paul’s practice to be where the people were on the Sabbath for prayer and to witness for Jesus Christ, Acts 1:8; Matthew 5:15-16; Acts 16:13; Acts 17:2; Acts 18:4; Acts 19:8.

Verse 15

1) "And after the reading of the law and the prophets," (meta de ten anagnosin tou nomou kai ton propheton) "And after (following) the order of the reading of the law and the prophets," the reading of a passage from each, usually as each related to the same subject, for purposes of discussion, relating the passages to their own lives, this they often misunderstood or failed to understand then, Acts 13:27; John 5:39.

2) "The rulers of the synagogue sent unto them, saying," (apesteilan hoi archisumagogoi pros autous legontes) "The synagogue rulers (leaders) sent to them saying," repeatedly insisting, appealing to them. Wherever the Jews dispersed from Judea they took with them the Scriptures and erected synagogues.

3) "Ye men and brethren," (andres adelphoi ei tis estin en humin) "You men, brethren if there is any (one) among you, among your company of visitors;" They recognized Paul and Barnabas to be Jews racially, but were not aware they were Christians, followers of Jesus Christ, Acts 11:26; Acts 1:8.

4) "If ye have any word of exhortation for the people, say on." (logos parakleseos pros ton laon legete) "Who has a word (or testimony) of exhortation, at this time." What greater opportunity would a true witness desire? Just to open the Scriptures and present Jesus as Phillip did to the eunuch, Peter did to the household of Cornelius, and Jesus did in Nazareth at the invitation and announcement of His public ministry, Acts 8:34-35; Acts 10:33-43; Luke 4:16-21.

Verse 16

1) "Then Paul stood up," (anastas de Paulos) "Then Paul arose," stood to his feet respectfully, in the synagogue of Pisidia where he was that day, to preach one of his greatest messages of his ministry, a powerful oration, Acts 13:16-41.

2) "And beckoning with his hand said," (kai kataseisas te cheiri) "And beckoning (gesturing) with his hand he said," spoke as follows, as an orator while gesturing, as Peter did, Acts 12:17; As Alexander did, Acts 19:33; and as Paul did again, Acts 21:40.

3) "Men of Israel," (andres Israelitai) "Ye responsible men, Jews by birth, Israelites;" Until this point of time, on their first missionary journey, Paul and Barnabas had preached "to the Jew first," Acts 13:5; Acts 13:14-15; Romans 1:16; Romans 2:9-10; Romans 3:1-2. It was about one week later in this same city of Pisidia that Paul and Barnabas turned to the Gentiles, Acts 13:46-49.

4) "And ye that fear God," (kai hoi phoboukenoi ton theon akousate) "Even (especially) those who fear God continually," Acts 10:35; you all who are devout, have respect for His existence and His law, who want to understand it, know more about it, Acts 13:26; Ecclesiastes 12:13; They had been taught from youth to "fear God," Deuteronomy 6:2; Deuteronomy 10:12; Psalms 19:9; Matthew 10:28.

5) "Give audience," (akousate) "You all give audience, earnest attention for the moment, to the Word of God and exhortations for their salvation, Deuteronomy 18:15; Deuteronomy 18:19; Acts 2:22-23; Paul sought not their mere hearing him, but hearing the Word of God concerning offered or promised redemption thru Jesus Christ; For faith comes by hearing, Romans 10:17; Luke 14:35.

Verse 17


1 ) "The God of this people of Israel chose our fathers," (ho theos tou laou toutou Israel ekseleksato tous pateras hemon) "The God of this people of Israel chose our fathers of His own accord," even as "He chose the church ye," John 15:16; John 15:27; Exodus 6:5-6; Exodus 33:12-17; Deuteronomy 4:37; Deuteronomy 7:6-8; Deuteronomy 10:15; He chose Israel first by calling Abraham, giving to him a covenant pledge effected in and thru Israel, his seed after him, Genesis 12:1-3; Galatians 3:8-9.

2) "And exalted the people," (kai ton laon hupsosen) "And He exalted the people of Israel," or lifted them up in honor, for a custodial or trust-nature people, to receive His laws of morals and ethics and an order of Divine service and worship. Exodus 20:1-17; Romans 3:1-2.

3) "When they dwelt as strangers in the land of Egypt

(en te paroikia enge Aiguptou) "In the sojourn (era of them) in the land of Egypt," before Pharaoh, while Joseph lived and interceded for them, Genesis 47:1-12; God exalted Israel in her wanderings even multiplying them in the land of Goshen in Egypt, Genesis 50:15-20.

4) "And with an high arm," (kai meta Brachionos hupselou) "And with an high arm," an arm of higher strength, an arm from on high, Exodus 14:19-31; Exodus 15:5-6; Exodus 15:13; Exodus 15:16.

5) "Brought He them out of it," (eksegagen autous eks autes) "He led them forth out of it," out of the land of Egypt later, in spite of Pharaoh’s oppression and disapproval, Psalms 78:53-54; Psalms 106:7-10; Psalms 107:1-3.

Verse 18

1) "And about the time of forty years," (kai hos tesserakontaete chronon) "And (for) about forty years of chronological time," of successive years, as also stated by Stephen, Acts 7:36; and Moses, Numbers 14:33-34. These forty years of wandering were judgement of a year for each day they searched out the promised land, then discouraged the hearts of the people from going in. David also confirmed this, Psalms 95:9-11.

2) "Suffered He their manners in the wilderness," (etropophoresen autous en te eremo) "He endured (tolerated) them in the desert, wilderness or uninhabited land," where they wandered after being led out of Egypt; He led and nourished, provided for them food and clothing, like a loving father for forty years, though they showed ingratitude to Him, again and again, Deuteronomy 1:31. This is mercy; This is grace, demonstrated by the God of all grace, who showed grace to Moses and Israel, whom He had chosen, in spite of their frequent ingratitude toward Him, Exodus 33:12; Exodus 33:17; Psalms 78:14-15; Psalms 78:24-27; Psalms 78:40-41; Psalms 78:56-58.

Verse 19

1) "And when He had destroyed seven nations," (kai kathelon ethne hepte) "And when He had destroyed, scattered, or dispersed seven nations," of the idolatrous Canaanites who dwelt in the promised land territory west of the Jordan River. They were the: 1) Hittites, 2) Girgashites, 3) Amorites, 4) Canaanites, 5) Perizzites, 6) Hivites, and 7) Jebusites, They were seven heathen nations, Deuteronomy 7:1.

2) "In the land of Canaan," (en ge chanaan) "in the land (territory) of Canaan," that portion of the Abrahamic covenant land grant laying west of the Jordan River, Genesis 15:18; Genesis 17:8. The legal or survey for the land division is recounted, Numbers 26:52-55; Numbers 34:1-29.

3) "He divided their land to them by lot." (katekleronomesen ten gen auton) "He gave to them (Israel) the land as their inheritance," the land called Canaan, also known as Palestine, with a partial inheritance having been extended east of the Jordan River, for two tribes and an half tribe, while the Levites had no land-grant inheritance or estate, Joshua 13:7; Joshua 14:1-5.

Verse 20

1) "And after that," (kai meta tauta) "And after these things occurred," "He gave unto them judges," (edoken kritas) "He gave (to them) judges," gave over to Israel judges, after the division of the land grant estate, Judges 2:16; Judges 3:9-11; Judges 3:15.

2) "About the space of four hundred and fifty years," (hos etesin tetrakosiois kai pentekonta) "For about a four hundred and fifty year period;" to be compared with 1) Four hundred years the promised seed was in Egypt, Genesis 15:13; Genesis 2) Forty years they wandered in the wilderness, Acts 13:18; Acts , 3) There was a conquest of about ten years in the driving our of the heathen nations, surveying and dividing the land when the first judge, Othniel was appointed or given, Judges 3:8-9.

3) "Until Samuel the prophet," (heos Samuel prophetou) "Until the time of Samuel, a prophet," 1 Samuel 12:11; This is the termination of the period of judges in Israel when "every man did that which was right in his own eyes," when they had no judge, Judges 21:25. Samuel, last of God’s judges in Israel, anointed both Saul and later David to be kings of Israel, 1 Samuel 9:27; 1 Samuel 10:1; 1 Samuel 16:13.

Verse 21

1) "And afterward they desired a king:" (kakeithen etesanto basilea) "And at that time they asked (for) a king," they cried to Samuel for a king, like the heathen nations about them, much as a child cries for a razor blade or an open pocket knife, or a needle, 1 Samuel 8:4-5; 1 Samuel 8:19-20.

2) "And God gave unto them Saul the son of Cis," (kai edoken autois ho theos ton Saoul huion Kis) "And God gave over to them Saul, son of Cis," 1 Samuel 9:15-17; 1 Samuel 10:1.

3) "A man of the tribe of Benjamin," (andra ek phules Beniamin) "A man out of the family line of Benjamin," 1 Samuel 9:1-3; 1 Samuel 9:21; 1 Samuel 10:1.

4) "By the space of forty years," (ete tesserakonta) "For a period of forty years," until rejected of the Lord and by Samuel, 1 Samuel 15:22-23; 1 Samuel 15:34-35; 1 Samuel 31:8-13. Saul’s sin "found him out," so that he not only died a suicide’s death but also was beheaded, then his body and that of his three sons were nailed to the wall of Bethshan, that housed idol gods, after which they were later recovered by some valiant Jewish brethren, burned in Jabesh, then buried their bones under a tree in Jabesh; thus ends the judgement story of Israel’s first king of forty years, 1 Samuel 31:1-13.

Verse 22

1) "And when he had removed him," (kai metastesas auton) "And (upon) removing him," 1 Samuel 13:13-14; 1 Samuel 15:26; 1 Samuel 15:28; 1 Samuel 15:35; 1 Samuel 31:8-13. After Samuel announced to Saul that God had rejected him as king of Israel, though they had been near as close as brothers, Samuel visited Saul no more until the day of his death.

2) "He raised up unto them David to be their king;”(egeiren ton David autois eis Basilea) "He raised David up to them to be their king," 1 Samuel 16:1; 1 Samuel 16:13; Psalms 89:20.

3) "To whom also he gave testimony, and said,"(hos kai eipen marturesas) "To whom also giving witness he said," gave testimony, or certified, not as to his character as perfect but upright in comparison with Saul, 1 Samuel 13:14.

4) "I have found David the son of Jesse," (huron David ton tou lessai) "I found David, the son of Jesse," 1 Samuel 16:1; 1 Samuel 16:11-12; Psalms 78:70; 2 Samuel 7:8.

5) "A man after mine own heart," (andra ta kardia mou) "A man according to (in harmony with) my own heart or affections," a man of affections. Tho he was a great sinner he was also a penitent sinner, Psalms 51:1-17; 1 John 1:8-9.

6) "Which shall fulfill all my will." (hos poiesei panta ta thelemata mou) "Who will do all my will." or do my complete will --- as a type of Christ. David was a man of God’s choice while Saul was a man of the people’s choice, apart from God’s will, 2 Samuel 7:10-17.

Verse 23


1) "Of this man’s seed hath God according to His promise," (toutou ho theos apo tou spermatos) "From the seed (offspring) or lineage of this man (David)," (kat’ epangelian) "According to, on the basis of, or in fulfillment of promise has God;" The seed-line or Davidic covenant is recounted as established, 2 Samuel 7:10-13; and further confirmed, Psalms 89:27-37; Psalms 132:10-12; Isaiah 11:1; Luke 1:32-33.

2) "Raised unto Israel a Saviour, Jesus:" (egagen to Israel sotera lesoun) "Brought forth to Israel Jesus, a Saviour or deliverer;" He is called the "horn of salvation," the good news report of salvation, as the savior of the house of David, and for all men in a particular sense, Psalms 132:17; Luke 1:69; Luke 1:77; Luke 2:4; Luke 2:10-11; Luke 2:38; Matthew 1:21; Luke 19:10; Romans 11:26.

Verse 24

1) "When John had first preached," (prokeruksantos loannou) "When (after) John had previously preached or proclaimed;- This proclaimer was John the Baptist who was the herald and, forerunner of the coming of the messiah-Redeemer, Jesus Christ. The people ’regarded him as a prophet of God and went to hear him in great numbers, Matthew 3:1-3.

2) "Before His coming," (pro prosopou tes eishodou autou) "Prior to His entrance," His coming as Saviour or deliverer, in fulfillment of prophecy, Isaiah 40:3; Mal 31; Matthew 11:10; Luke 7:27; Mark 1:1-3; John 1:15-18; John 1:26-34.

3) "The baptism of repentance," (baptisma melanoias) "A baptism of repentance," that required or called for repentance for sin, before John, sent from God to baptize, in preparing a people for the Lord, would baptize them, Matthew 3:5-12; Mark 1:4-8; Luke 3:3-8.

4) "To all the people of Israel, " (panti to lao Israel) "To or incumbent upon all the people of Israel;" All were required to repent, before they were heaven-approved candidates, or proper subjects for baptism, See? Neither an unsaved person, an infant, nor a mentally and emotionally incompetent person, is a proper subject for baptism. Proper subjects for heaven approved baptism must be old enough, and mentally and emotionally competent enough, to repent of their sins and believe on Jesus Christ for themselves. This has always been God’s order for salvation and any other order is out of order, Luke 13:3; Luke 13:5; Matthew 28:19-20; John 4:1-2; Acts 2:38; Acts 10:43; Acts 20:20-21; Romans 1:16; Romans 10:9-13; 2 Corinthians 7:10.

Verse 25

1) "And as John fulfilled his course, he said," (hos de eplerou loannes ton dromon elegen) "Now as John completed the course (of his ministry) he said," or inquired as an herald prophet who had announced or was announcing the long-promised and awaited Redeemer; Even John did not know what living human being was the Christ, until he baptized Him, Matthew 3:15-17; John 1:31-34.

2) "Whom think ye that I am?" (ti eme huponoiet einai) "What do you all (of Israel) suppose me to be?" or "Whom do you think, suppose, suspect, me to be?" As he apparently engaged in cross-question combat with the unbelieving, Christ-rejecting Jews, John 1:6-9; John 1:19-30.

3) ”I am not Heb" (ouk eimi ego) -I, I am not self-existing or the self-existing one," the Messiah, the Promised One, John 1:20. But he claimed to be sent before the Christ, John 3:28.

4) "But behold, there cometh one after me," (all’ idou erchetai met’ eme) "But behold (watch closely, intently) He comes after (follows) me," of His own accord, will, or self-existing being, John 1:27; John 1:29-34.

5) "Whose shoes of His feet I am not worthy to loose." (ou ouk eimi haksios to hupodema ton podo lusai) "He is one of whom I am not (I exist not even) worthy to loosen the sandals of His feet," as recounted, Matthew 3:11; Mark 1:7; Luke 3:15-18.

Verse 26

1) "Men and brethren," (andres adelphoi) "Ye responsible men, brethren," of Israel, in the flesh brethren of John. This is the case of direct address, direct appeal.

2) "Children of the stock of Abraham," (huioi genous Abraam) "Sons or heirs of (the) race, lineage of Abraham," of the stem or family tree of Abraham, to whom Jesus first came, John 1:11-12; Matthew 10:6; Romans 1:16.

3) "And whosoever among you feareth God," (kai hoi en humin phoboumenoi ton theon) "Even, (especially) those among you all who fear God," those who have devout respect for God and His care for you. For it is to such the Word of God is sent in Holy Spirit convicting power, as to the eunuch, to the household of Cornelius, and Phillipian jailer and his household, Acts 8:29-38; Acts 10:35.

4)"To you is the word of this salvation sent." (hemin ho logos tes soterias toutes eksapestale) "To us the word of this salvation (this deliverance) was sent forth, commissioned, or mandated," to the Jew first, Acts 13:46; Matthew 10:5-6; Matthew 15:24; John 1:11-12; Romans 1:16; Acts 3:26.

Verse 27

1) "For they that dwell in Jerusalem," (hoi gar katoikountes in lerousalem) "For those continually residing in Jerusalem," or having their regular residence, their homes in Jerusalem.

2) "And their rulers because they knew Him not," (kai hoi archontes auton touton agnoesantes) "Even their rulers have not and are not knowing or recognizing this’ man," do not recognize Jesus Christ, for or with respect to, His person and the proof that He was the predicted Messiah, 1 Corinthians 2:8. Jesus prayed for them, even in their murderous derision against Him, for their lack of understanding the gravity of their sin, Luke 23:34; 1 Timothy 1:13.

3) "Nor yet the voices of the prophets," (kai tas phonas ton propeton) "And (even) the voice (message) of the prophets," they do not recognize, know, or comprehend, Acts 15:21; Acts 10:43.

4) "Which are read every sabbath day," (tas kata pan sabbaton anaginoskomenas) "Which are being repeatedly read every sabbath day," Acts 15:21; Luke 4:15; Luke 4:24.

5) "They have fulfilled them in condemning Him," (krinantes eplerosan) "They fulfilled (while) they were judging (Him)," condemning Him to be crucified, Luke 24:20; Luke 24:44; Acts 2:23; Acts 2:36; Acts 3:12-15. Again and again Israel and the Jews were Divinely charged with the premeditated death of Jesus Christ, 1 Thessalonians 2:14-15.

Verse 28

1) "And though they found no cause of death in Him," (kai medemian aitian thanatou heurontes) "And finding not even one cause (legal, moral, ethical, or religious-use) of (or justification for) His death," in Him, in His attitude or conduct, Mark 15:13-14; John 19:4; John 19:6. Tho judicially declared innocent by Pilate, Jesus was still released to the Jewish mob for crucifixion in a most illegal manner; Why? the answer is that an acquitted man, one found by a judge to be innocent, is no subject for punishment as a criminal.

2) "Yet desired they Pilate that He should be slain," (etesanto Pilaton anairethenai auton) "They still petitioned, requested, or appealed to Pilate to destroy Him, put Him away, to crucify Him;" The "they" who did this were the Jews, Israelites, including the religious rulers, leaders, and elders among them, Matthew 27:1-2; Matthew 27:20; Matthew 27:26; John 19:12; John 19:15-16; John 19:18.

Verse 29

1) "And when they had fulfilled," (hos de etelesan) "And when they had fulfilled, finished, or completed," John 19:28; John 19:30; John 19:36-37. The "they" refers to the Jews, His own people who crucified Him, John 1:11-12; 1 Thessalonians 2:14-15; So that He "bear our sins in His body on the tree," 1 Peter 2:24.

2) "All that was written of Him," (panta ta peri autou gegrammena) "All things that had been prophetically written concerning Him," with regards to His earthly ministry or work during His first coming, especially regarding His suffering, humiliation, and death, Luke 18:31; Luke 24:44; Isaiah 53:1-12.

3) "They took Him down from the tree," (kathelontes apo tou ksulou) "Taking Him down from the tree (of Calvary)," or when they had taken Him down from the cross of Calvary. The "they" who took Him down were Christian Jews, not the murderous ones, to be specific, it was Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, two converted members of the Sanhedrin council, Matthew 27:57-60.

4) "And laid Him in a sepulchre." (ethekan eis mnemeion) "They placed Him (laid Him) in a tomb," in the garden, John 19:38-42; Romans 8:11.

Verse 30

1) "But God raised Him," (ho de theos egeiren auton) "Then God raised Him," and left incontestable evidence that He did so, Acts 2:24; Acts 4:10; Acts 10:40; Acts 13:30-31; Acts 17:31; 1 Corinthians 15:15.

2) "From the dead:" (ek nekron) "Out of the dead," out of (from among) dead bodies, corpses; Romans 8:11 states that it was by the Spirit of God that He was raised up and became the first fruit of them that slept in physical bodies of death, 1 Corinthians 15:20; 1 Corinthians 15:23. Thus God set His seal, approval on both the Sonship and Messiahship of Jesus Christ.

Verse 31

1) "And He was seen many days," (ho ophthe epi hemeras pleious) "Who appeared over a period (of many days)," for, forty days after His resurrection, before His ascension or rapture into heaven, Acts 1:2-3; Luke 24:49.

2) "Of them which came up with Him," (tois sunanabasin auto) "To those who had come up in colleague with Him," in close association or affinity with Him, His church, His bride-people, those chosen people who had companied With Him from the beginning of His ministry, John 15:16; John 15:27; Acts 1:10-11.

3) "From Galilee to Jerusalem," (apo tes Galilaias eis lerousalem) "From the area or region (of) Galilee to (into) Jerusalem," from the place of His beginning ministry, until His ascension, Acts 10:37; Acts 10:39-41.

4) "Who are His witnesses unto the people," (oitines nun eisin martures autou pros ton laon) "Who are now (and hereafter progressively forever, as His church) witnesses of Him to the people, "the masses, Acts 1:8; Acts 1:22; Acts 2:32; 1 Corinthians 15:5-7. This resurrection of Jesus’ testimony was not a mere matter of tradition, but a fact that could at the writing of both this book of Acts and of First Corinthians, still be attested by many living witnesses.

Verse 32

1) "And we declare unto you glad tidings," (kai hemeis humas euangelizometha) "And we declare or announce to you all the good tidings;" Recall this was addressed to the masses in the synagogue in Antioch at Pisidia, Acts 13:14. The "glad tidings" were those announced by angels at the birth of Jesus, Luke 2:11-12. He had come, completed His redemption mission on earth, and returned to heaven. This is what brethren, living witnesses were then declaring in the Judean area, while Paul and Barnabas bare the same message to these brethren in Asia Minor.

2) "How that the promise which was made unto the fathers," (ten pros tous pateras epangelian genomenen) "That the promise which has come to the fathers," especially from the days of Abraham, as well as back to Adam, Genesis 3:15; Genesis 12:3; Romans 4:13; Galatians 3:16; Deuteronomy 18:15-18; Acts 10:43. The promise was that the remission of sins would be made available to each and every responsible human being thru faith or personal trust in Him, Isaiah 45:22; Isaiah 53:1-12; Isaiah 55:6-7.

Verse 33

1 ) "God, hath fulfilled the same unto us their children," (hoti tauten ho theos ekpepleroken tois teknois hemin) "That very same promise God has fulfilled to us, the children of the promise," and the children or heirs of the fathers to whom the promises were given, to the Jew first, Acts 13:46; John 1:11-12; Romans 1:16.

2) "In that He hath raised up Jesus again," (anastesas lesoun) "In the raising up (resurrection) of Jesus," from the dead, from among dead bodies of the tombs, Matthew 26:32; Matthew 28:6; Acts 2:24; Acts 4:10; Acts 4:33; Romans 8:11.

3) "As it is also written in the second psalm,"(hos kai en to psalmo gegraptai to deutero) "Even as or just as it has been recorded in the second psalm," as follows: Psalms 2:7; Hebrews 1:5; Hebrews 5:5.

4) "Thou art my son," (huios mou ei see) "Thou art (dost exist as) my Son," 2 Samuel 7:14-15, Jesus was God’s Son, not only by virgin birth when He came into the world, but also by the Holy Spirit begettal from the Dead, Romans 8:11, to be heir of all things in their restitution to the Father, Acts 3:20-26; 1 Corinthians 15:20-28.

5) "This day have I begotten thee." (ego semeron gegenneka se) "I have begotten you today," this very day, brought forth, as the first born or begotten from the city of the dead, from the graves, from out of the tombs; This was and is the ultimate manifestation of the Sonship or heir-ship of Jesus Christ over all the universe, 1 Corinthians 15:20; 1 Corinthians 15:23; Romans 8:17-23.

Verse 34

1 ) "And as concerning that He raised Him up from the dead," (hoti de anestesen auton ek nekron) "Because He raised Him up out of (from among) the dead," from the tombs, from among dead bodies, up into glory, which He did, 1 Timothy 3:16; Hebrews 1:3; Ephesians 1:20; Colossians 3:1; Romans 8:34.

2) "Now no more to return to corruption," (meketi mellonta hupstrephein eis diaphtoran) "He is no more at all about to return to, with reference to, corruption," to return to a corruptible state, or state of death condition any more at all, Acts 2:31.

3) "He said on this wise," (houtos eireken) "He (God) has said it like this," declared it as follows: as also related or alluded to, Isaiah 55:1-3; Isaiah 55:6-11.

4) "I will give you the sure mercies of David." (hoti doso humin ta hosia David ta posta) "I will give (dole outto you) the holy things of David, the faithful one," the objects of holy promises of an heirsetting in glory, as He promised to the Davidic people, 2 Samuel 7:8; Psalms 89:28, realized in Christ and restored Israel one day, Luke 1:32-33.

Verse 35

1) "Wherefore He saith," (dioti legei) "On account of this He says, Concerning the Promised One, the seed of David, Jesus Christ, Luke 1:27; Luke 1:32-33; Luke 2:4. Thru David He says or yet speaks concerning the Messiah, the Redeemer.

2) "Also in another psalm," (kai en hetero) "Also in another place," in another psalm from that of Psalms 2:7, quoted above, Acts 13:33; as Psalms 16:8-11.

3) "Thou shalt not suffer thine Holy One to see corruption." (ou doseis ton hosion sou idein diaphthoran) "Thou wilt not give (deliver over) go so far in giving, thy Holy One (Jesus Christ) to see corruption," to experience corruption, bodily putrefication or decay, Psalms 16:10; Acts 2:30-31; Psalms 16:8-11.

Verse 36

1 ) "For David after he had served his own generation," (David men gar idia genea huperetesas) "For indeed when David had served his own generation;" Note, in order to serve a future generation, one must serve the generation in which he lives well, that the fruit of his labors may follow him; John 8:38; Isaiah 55:10-11; Revelation 14:13.

2) "By the will of God," (te tou theou boule) "By the counsel of God," as God had given him direction and guidance. 0 that man might serve God and their fellow-man today "by the will of God," even as our Lord served His Father, John 4:34; Psalms 40:8; As Isaiah said, thy will shall be my will, Isaiah 6:8, and Paul asked "Lord what wilt thou have me to do?" so let us as His children seek His will in our labors always, Acts 9:5-7; Ephesians 5:17; Philippians 2:5-9.

3) "Fell on sleep, and was laid unto his fathers," (ekoimethe kai prosetethe pros tous pateras autou) "He fell asleep (in death) and was placed with, added to, or buried as his fathers," his family fathers of the line of faith had died before him, and as death and judgement await each earthly pilgrim, Hebrews 9:27-28.

4) "And saw corruption:" (kai eiden diaphthoran) "And he saw perceived (experienced) corruption," decay or putrefaction in his body, in the grave, 1 Kings 2:10; 1 Chronicles 29:26-28; Acts 2:29.

Verse 37

1) "But He whom God raised again," (hon de ho theos egeiren) "But He whom (the one) God raised up, "from the dead, from among the tombs, dead bodies. God not only raised up His Son from poverty in Bethlehem and Nazareth, but also from the very abject experience of a murderous death, and an earthly burial; This is the heart of the gospel. Without the literal resurrection there was, is, or can be no salvation or blessed resurrection hope or assurance for any person, 1 Corinthians 15:12-20; Romans 8:11; Titus 2:11-14.

2) "Saw no corruption." (ouk eiden diaphthoran) "Did not see or experience corruption, decay, or putrefaction," in His body. This is emphatically repeated in the Scriptures, Psalms 16:10; Acts 2:31.

Verse 38

1 ) "Be it known unto you therefore," (gnoston oun esto humin) "Let it therefore be recognized (known) to you all," to all of you, as a grand and glorious result or consequence of His being the Messiah, Redeemer, or Deliverer, Luke 1:68-79; Luke 2:29-32; Luke 2:38.

2) "Men and brethren," (andres adelphoi) "Brethren as responsible men," or brethren-, men of my own flesh, Jews, for whom He prayed, for whose salvation He also yearned, Romans 9:1-3; Romans 10:1-4.

3) "That through this man," (hoti dia toutou) "That thru the person of this man," thru Jesus Christ, the resurrected, ascended, interceding Son of God, who presides as High Priest now in heaven, Luke 19:10; Acts 10:43; Hebrews 7:25; 1 John 2:1-2.

4) "Is preached unto you the forgiveness of sins:”(humin aphesis hamartion katagelletai) "Is announced, proclaimed, or preached, to you all the forgiveness or pardon of sins," thru faith in His name, John 1:8-9; Isaiah 53:11; Acts 4:12.

Verse 39

1) "And by Him all that believe," (en touto pas ho pisteuon) "in this one (Jesus) everyone who believes," or all who trust in Him, 1 John 5:1; Romans 4:3; Romans 4:5.

2) "Are justified from all things," (dikaiothenai kai apo panton) "Even from all things (are) to be justified," acquitted from the consequence of all kind of charges or accounted as just, Romans 3:24; Romans 3:26; Romans 3:28; Romans 3:30; Romans 4:5; Romans 4:25; Romans 5:1. For He (Jesus) gave Himself to redeem us from all iniquity, Titus 2:13.

3) "From which ye could not be justified," (hon ouk edunethete) "From which ye could not be (or exist as) justified," from sins that render a man unjust before God, under the law, Romans 3:19-20; Galatians 3:24. Every man has broken the moral and ethical principles of the law of right and wrong and subsequently and consequently can not obey it in letter and in spirit, Ecclesiastes 7:20; Romans 3:23.

4) "By the law of Moses." (en nomo Mauseos) "By means of a law of Moses," by the means, instrument or agency of the Law of Moses, in part or in whole, at all. The Law of Moses could condemn, but not justify a guilty sinful lawbreaker. The Law could not justify in that it was weak (impotent) through the flesh, through the carnal, depraved weakened nature of man, Romans 8:3; Galatians 2:16; Galatians 3:10-12; Romans 3:28; Romans 10:4; Galatians 3:22.

Verse 40

1 ) "Beware therefore," (blepete oun) "Look ye therefore," or be ye therefore very cautious, lest by rejecting the Christ of glory, as the sacrificial atonement, you remain sinners exposed to the penalty of eternal death, John 8:24; Acts 4:12.

2) "Lest that come upon you," (me epelthe to) "Lest the thing come upon or overtake you all," in your rebellion, lest that measure of God’s judgement come upon you, Proverbs 1:22-28; Proverbs 29:1.

3) "Which is spoken of in the prophets;" (eiremenon en tois prophetais) "Which has been spoken in the testimony of the prophets," expressed especially in Hebrews 1:5. This refers to specific judgement for persistence in known sins and rebellion against God. Men can not defy the word, will, and call of God without experiencing or facing divine judgement, Acts 17:30-31; Hebrews 9:27-28; Romans 2:4-8.

Verse 41

1 ) "Behold ye despisers," (idete hoi kataphronetai) "Behold or perceive ye, ye who are despisers," those who took lightly, who counted as a trifling or frivolous matter the word of Jesus Christ and His witness, Romans 2:4-5. Those who despise the church of the Lord and people of the Lord thereby and therein also despise the Lord, Luke 10:16; 1 Corinthians 11:22; 1 Thessalonians 4:8.

2) "And wonder and perish:" (kai thaumasate kai aphanisthete) "Ye marvel and ye perish," marvel but do not respond to, or obey, the call and claim of Jesus Christ to them, over their lives. Often called and convicted, and convicted and reproved, they turned away, Proverbs 1:22-29; Proverbs 29:1; Matthew 7:22-23.

3) "For I work a work in your days," (hoti ergon ergazomai ego en tais hemerais humon) "Because I work a work of my own accord in your days," God has always taken the initiative in bringing men to salvation. This is mercy, compassion, and grace, apart from which none could be saved, John 4:34; John 5:36.

4) "A work which ye shaII in no wise believe," (ergon ho ou me pisteuste) "A work which you alI believe not, by any means," as they believed not the works of Jesus Christ, that He was the Son of God, the Son of man, and the Redeemer of lost men, John 17:4. Jesus finished the work that God gave Him to do, as a man, yet men believed not, John 1:11-12.

5) "Though a man declare it unto you," (ean tis ekdiegetai humin) "No matter who declares (it) to you," as John the Baptist, a man sent from God, John 1:6; as God -sent Jesus Christ as a man, the Son of man to seek and to save the lost, Luke 19:10.

Verse 42

1) "And when the Jews were gone out of the synagogue," (eksionton de auton) "Then as they went out," out of the synagogue, as they vacated the building, or after they departed, and before the following sabbath day.

2) "The Gentiles besought the next sabbath," (parekaloun eisto metaksu sabbaton) "They (the Gentiles) besought in the intervening time, that the next sabbath," apparently after the Jews were out of ear-shot, out of range of hearing their request, they earnestly appealed to Paul and Barnabas that the same message might be preached again the following sabbath day. God promised that those who willed to know Him would find His way of salvation, Jeremiah 29:13; John 7:17; John 7:37.

3) "That these words might be preached to them." (lalethenai autois ta hremata tauta) "That these rhetoric words (of the prophets concerning Jesus) be spoken to them," as Gentiles, who like Cornelius, feared and believed in God, but did not know enough about Him to be saved, Isaiah 55:6-7; Acts 10:33-34; Acts 11:14. They desired words whereby they might themselves be saved, as others before them had done, Acts 10:43.

Verse 43

1) "Now when the congregation was broken up," (lutheises de tes sunagoges) "Then the assembly being broken up, dispersed, or scattered," with many going back to their homes, from the synagogue, Acts 13:42.

2) "Many of the Jews and religious proselytes followed," (ekolouthesan polloi ton loudaion kai ton sebomenon) "Many of the worshipping Jews and of the proselytes followed," conversing with, discussing the word of the Law, prophets, and psalms, as Jesus had done with the disciples after His resurrection, Luke 24:44-45.

3) "Paul and Barnabas,"(to Paulo kai to Barnaba)"To or toward Paul and Barnabas," inclined in conviction toward the preaching and teaching of Paul and Barnabas, John 7:17; Like Philip guided the eunuch, so did Paul and Barnabas guide these Jewish brethren, Acts 8:30-35.

4) "Who speaking to them persuaded them," (oitines proslaloutes autois epeithon autous) "Who (while) speaking to them persuaded them;" This is the duty of every missionary, to make disciples, baptize, then teach them- - -one must persuade men to obedience of repentance toward God and faith in Jesus Christ, that they may be saved, Acts 20:20-21; Acts 17:30-31; Ephesians 2:10; James 1:22; Matthew 5:15-16.

5) "To continue in the grace of God." (prosmenein te chariti tou theou) "To continue, persevere, or go on in the grace of God," as Barnabas had once admonished the brethren at Antioch in Syria, Acts 11:23; Acts 14:22; Titus 2:11-14; Hebrews 12:15. The idea is that they persuaded the following Jewish disciples to pursue the call of Grace to service, in harmony with the church of Jesus Christ, not the Law of Moses, as Paul admonished, Titus op. cit.

Verse 44


1) "And the next sabbath day," (to de erchomeno sabbaton) "And on the coming sabbath," after Paul and Barnabas had been requested by the Gentiles to speak to them, Acts 13:42.

2) "Came almost the whole city together," (schedon pasa he polis sunechthe) "Almost all city was assembled or congregated - come together;- Those who had already heard evidently went witnessing "in the highways and hedges," bringing others, Acts 1:8; Luke 14:21-24; John 1:41-42; John 1:45-46; John 4:15-19; John 4:39-42.

3) "To hear the word of God," (akousai ton logon tou theou) "To hear or give heed to the word of God;" As Cornelius influenced his family, relatives, intimate friends, and servants to come together "to hear the word of God," that they might be saved and pursue a life of service thru grace, so did Paul and Barnabas, and so do true disciples of Jesus Christ today, seek to influence lost men to seek salvation, and the saved to follow a program of worship, witnessing, and service thru the church that Jesus built, (His house), 1 Timothy 3:15; Mark 13:34-35; Hebrews 3:1-6; Romans 10:17; Ephesians 2:10; Ephesians 3:21; Acts 10:33-35; Acts 10:43; Acts 10:47-48.

Today whole cities seem to come together only to hear or see political, state, sport, or pleasure events, rather than to hear the word of God.

Verse 45

1) "But when the Jews saw the multitudes," (idontes de hoi loudaioi tous ochlous) "Then the Jews beholding the crowds," the masses of the population of the area of Antioch in Pisidia, Acts 13:14.

2) "They were filled with envy," (eplesthesan zelou) "They were filled of (with) jealousy," because they were not able to attract such crowds with their ceremonial and ritualistic preaching. See also Acts 18:6; 1 Peter 4:4-5; Judges 1:10. This is a description of unregenerate Jewish jealousy, of the same disposition as Gentile envy, malice, or spite, at the success of another, James 3:14; James 3:16; Proverbs 14:20.

3) "And spake against those things which were spoken by Paul," (kai antelegon tois hupo Paulou laloumenois) "And contradicted (spoke against) the things being repeatedly spoken by Paul," who taught that Jesus was the Messiah of whom Moses in the Law and the prophets and the psalms did speak, Acts 13:30; Acts 13:38-39; Luke 24:44-45; Acts 10:43.

4) "Contradicting and blaspheming," (blasphemounies) "Repeatedly blaspheming," speaking in a deriding and derogatory manner against Paul. They contradicted and blasphemed, without proofs, Biblical, or factual evidences. With impudence and ridicule they resisted the Holy Spirit empowered preaching of Paul and Barnabas, because that was the best they could do in their carnal, obstinate state of enmity against Jesus Christ and His church, Judges 1:10. Their religion was bogus, without further Divine sanction, Luke 16:16; Colossians 2:14-17; Matthew 5:20; Romans 9:31; Romans 10:3.

Verse 46


1) "Then Paul and Barnabas waxed bold and said," (parreseasamenoi te ho Paulos kai ho Barnabas eipon) "And Paul and Barnabas repeatedly speaking boldly said," witnessed the gospel as good ambassadors, Acts 4:12; Romans 1:16; 2 Corinthians 5:14-15; 2 Corinthians 5:19-20; 1 Timothy 3:16.

2) "It was necessary that the word of God should first be spoken to you:”(humin en anagkaion proton lalethenai ton logon tou theou) "it was necessary that the word of God was spoken to you all first, in priority," to the Jews first, in accordance with the Divine purpose of God, Luke 24:47; Acts 3:26; Romans 1:16.

3) "But seeing ye put it from you," (epeide apothesisthe auton) "Since you all (because you all) put it away, resist, or reject it," thrust it from you, as if it were unclean, obnoxious, poison to you; you turn up your nose at the word of God, Proverbs 1:22-29; Proverbs 29:1; As Felix did, Acts 24:25.

4) "And judge yourselves unworthy of everlasting life," (kai ouk aksious krinete heautous tes aioniou zoes) "And you all judge yourselves not (to be) worthy of eternal life," in turning away from the word of God and call of His spirit, John 1:11-12; Acts 18:6.

5) "Lo, we turn to the Gentiles." (idou strepometha eis ta ethne) "Behold, (watch us) we turn to the heathen, races, or nations," to all people, the masses of humanity of all races, not as the church was first mandated, to the Jews only; Matthew 28:18-20; Mark 16:15; John 20:21; Luke 24:46-52; Acts 1:8; Acts 18:6; Romans 1:14-16.

Verse 47

1) "For so hath the Lord commanded us, saying,

(houtos gar entetaltai hemin ho kurios) "For thus has the Lord commanded (mandated) us," or this is the very thing the Lord commanded us to do, as alluded to and specifically related, Isaiah 42:6; Isaiah 49:6; Luke 2:30-32; Jesus was that light and He commissioned the church to be His light-bearer to all nations, Matthew 4:12-16; John 8:12; Matthew 5:13-16; Revelation 1:20.

2) "I have set thee to be a light of the Gentiles," (tetheika se eis phos ethon tou) "(Saying), I have set, put, or placed you for the purpose of being a light of (to) the Gentiles or nations;" Christ is that true light, John 1:9; John 8:12; John 9:5. His church is the chosen, commissioned, mandated lighthouse or light bearer of the gospel to all nations, Matthew 5:15-16; Revelation 1:20; John 15:16; John 15:27; John 20:21; and Paul was the Apostle to blaze the trail of missions among the Gentiles, Acts 9:15; Acts 26:16-23; in regions beyond that of Judea.

3) "That thou shouldest be for salvation," (einai se eis esoterian) "That you should be for salvation, for deliverance," for the purpose of bearing the salvation message; This was the heart of God’s love for all men, manifest in His marching orders to His church, which He had chosen and called, John 15:16; John 15:27; Acts 1:20-21; John 20:21; Acts 1:8.

4) "Unto the ends of the earth." (heos oschatou tes ges) "Even to the end of the earth, the inhabited land," in regions beyond Jerusalem, Judea, and Samaria, to the uttermost part of the earth, Romans 10:17-21; Mark 16:15; Luke 24:46-48.

Verse 48

1) "And when the Gentiles heard this," (akounta de ta ethne) "Then (as) the Gentiles heard," were understanding, grasping what was said, as the household of Cornelius had done, Acts 10:43-48.

2) "They were glad and glorified the word of the Lord:”(echairon kai edoksazon ton logon tou kuriou) "They expressed joy, (broke forth with joy) and glorified the word of the Lord," that His word would not return to Him void, seed sown would bear fruit, and the reaper would receive wages, Isaiah 55:10-11; Ecclesiastes 11:1-6; John 4:34-38; Psalms 126:5-6.

3) "And as many as were ordained to eternal life," (kai hosoi esan tetagmenoi eis zoen aionion) "And as many as were (had been) convicted deeply, inclined, or inclined to eternal life;" As many as had been prepared by the message and the spirit, at the message just delivered by Paul, of their own volition, accord, or choice, Proverbs 1:22-23; John 1:11-12.

4) "Believed." (episteusan) "They believed," trusted, or were saved, when they believed, after the word was preached, Mark 1:15; Acts 16:31; Romans 1:15-16. This passage emphatically indicates that as many as had been "inclined, disposed, or deeply convicted with reference to" (Gk. eis) eternal life, believed. It does not indicate that these "as many as" were "prefixed," "predestined" or "pre- regenerated" in eternity, believed on that day as some erroneously teach. It indicates and affirms that only such as were convicted by the Holy Spirit that accompanied the apostles’ preaching that day were convicted and believed "that day" unto eternal life, 1 John 5:13.

Verse 49

1) "And the word of the Lord was published," (diephereto de ho logos tou kuriou) "And the word of the Lord was carried steadily, gently," accompanied with power of the Holy Spirit, as a ferry moves gently but powerfully thru mighty waters; Likely this was thru the testimony of new converts of the region who took the witness and work of their newfound faith with sincerity to others, Matthew 5:15-16; Ecclesiastes 11:1-2; Acts 1:8.

2) "Throughout all the region." (di’ holes tes charas) "The whole country," all through that "region, area, or country," the land area of Pisidia, around this Antioch, Acts 13:14. They went into the highways and byways witnessing of the salvation of Jesus, as newborn souls with burdens for others; This is the way of fruit bearing for the Lord, Luke 14:21-24; John 4:35-38; John 15:2; John 15:5; John 15:26; Ecclesiastes 11:1-7; Psalms 126:5-6; Romans 1:14-16.

Verse 50


1) "But the Jews stirred up," (hoi de ioudaioi parotrunan) "Then the Jews agitated, egged, or urged on, " incited the masses against God’s men; Perhaps they were approaching the chief elders of the city thru their wives.

2) "The devout and honourable women," (tas sebomenas gunaikas) "The worshipping or (devout) women," those who were morally and ethically honorable women of rank, respectability, honorable estate, Gentile women who had embraced Judaism, Acts 17:12; perhaps wives of the chief men of the city, Mark 15:43, such as Joseph of Arimathea, an honorable counsellor.

3) "And the chief men of the city," (tas euschemonas kai tous protous tes poleos) "As well as the honorable and chief (leading) men of the city;" They also stirred up the leading men, rulers of the city, out of hatred, Proverbs 10:12; As in Acts 6:12; Acts 14:2; Acts 17:13; Acts 18:6; Acts 21:27.

4) "And raised persecution against Paul and Barnabas," (kai epegeiran diogmon epi ton Paulon kai Barnaban) "And they raised up (stirred up, incited, or instigated) persecution against Paul and Barnabas;" This was the pattern of conduct of unbelieving Jews in every country and on each continent where Paul preached the gospel. In Asia and Europe, as well as in the Holy Land, as cited above, Acts 13:45.

5) "And expelled them out of their coasts." (kai eksebalon autous apo ton horion auton) "And expelled them from their borders," legally barred them from their country as undesirables, much as the withdrawal of a passport or visa, referred to later, 2 Timothy 3:11.

Verse 51

1) "But they shook off," (hoi de ektinaksumenoi) "Then they (Paul and Barnabas) shaking off," dusting, brushing off, a symbol of their also rejecting, bidding goodbye to them, to their own chosen destiny of unbelief and damnation, as taught by the Lord, Matthew 10:14; Mark 6:11-12; Luke 10:10-16.

2) "The dust of their feet against them," (ton korionton ton podon ep’ autous) "The dust of their feet on them," as a judgement against them, as an indication that they would not trouble them further, "cast their pearls before the swine," the selfish, covetous, hoggish, obstinate, religious, Christ rejecting Jews or proselytes of this city of Antioch in Pisidia any more, Matthew 7:6; as admonished of the Lord, Luke 9:5.

3) "And came into lconium." (elthon eis Ikonion) "They came of their own accord, will, or volition into lconium," a Roman colony nearby, a frontier city of uncertain annexation, to Lycaonia, Phrygia, or Pisidia. It is now known as Knoich, with a population of near 50,000, frequently referred to thereafter, Acts 14:1; Acts 14:19; Acts 16:2; 2 Timothy 3:11. Some of the Jews from this city later followed him to Lystra and helped incite a mob to stone Paul, Acts 14:19.

Verse 52

1) "And the disciples were filled with joy," (hoi te mathetai eplerounto charas) "And the disciples (at lconium) were filled with joy," exuberant when Paul and Barnabas came to them in lconium; They rejoiced to see them. In spite of persecutions they had they experienced joy and great consolation, one with the other; It is also certain that disciples left behind in Antioch were sustained with this joy in the Lord, Matthew 5:12; John 16:22.

2) "And with the Holy Ghost," (kai pneumatos hagiou) "Even controlled by the Holy Spirit," in the midst of afflictions, as declared in the blessed benediction of the Lord, Matthew 5:11-12; John 15:11; 1 Thessalonians 1:6.


When is it time for a servant of Christ to shake off the dust from his feet? - - 1. When he has not only knocked in a friendly manner, but also boldly kept his ground. 2. When he has been called upon to proceed, not only by men, but also by the Lord. 3. When not only the door here is closed, but when he also sees it opened elsewhere for successful work.


Bibliographical Information
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Acts 13". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghb/acts-13.html. 1985.
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