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1 Peter 5

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Verse 1

1 Peter 5:1

5:1–14 Peter ends the letter with final exhortations to elders (1 Peter 5:1-4), to younger men (1 Peter 5:5), and to the church as a whole (1 Peter 5:5-11). These exhortations are followed by final greetings and a closing (1 Peter 5:12-14). - NLTSB

5:1–11 In this section, Peter gives parting instructions to the elders of the churches.

elders -- The “elder” is the same leader as the “shepherd” (i.e., pastor, v. 2), and “overseer” (i.e., bishop, v. 2; see note on Acts 20:28). The word “elder” emphasizes their spiritual maturity. As in almost all other uses of the word (with the exception of Peter’s reference to himself here and John’s in 2 John 1 and 3 John 1), Peter wrote in the plural, indicating it was usual to have a plurality of godly leaders who oversaw and fed the flock. - MSB

elders -- The most common NT term for church leaders is elders (see notes on Acts 14:23; 1 Timothy 3:1). Apparently elders served as leaders in all the churches, including those in the northern part of Asia Minor, showing that this was the typical form of leadership in NT churches. Peter, who is an apostle (1 Peter 1:1), also serves as a fellow elder and an authoritative witness of Christ’s ministry, especially his sufferings. - ESVSB

I exhort. Times of suffering and persecution in the church call for the noblest leadership. - MSB

Peter loaded this exhortation to the elders with some rich motivation. First, there was motivation by identification with Peter, who refers to himself as a fellow-elder. As such, he could give relevant exhortation to the spiritual leaders. Second, there was motivation by authority. By noting that he had been an eyewitness of Christ’s suffering, Peter was affirming his apostleship (cf. Luke 24:45; Acts 1:21-22). Third, there was the motivation by anticipation. The fact that Christian leaders will one day receive from the hand of Christ a reward for their service should be a stimulant to faithful duty. The basis of this anticipation was Peter’s experience in observing the transfiguration of Christ (cf. Matthew 17:1-8; 2 Peter 1:16). At that momentous event, he did partake of the Lord’s glory. - MSB

fellow elder -- Peter identifies with them in their responsibilities and with the charge that he gives them.

fellow elder -- Peter used a word that identified himself as one who held the same office (sympresbyteros, “fellow-presbyter”). As an elder, Peter was speaking from experience. - BKC

witness of the suffering of Christ -- This is an affirmation of Peter’s eyewitness recollection of the life of Jesus (cf. Acts 3:15; Acts 10:39). It may also reflect Peter’s memory of Jesus’ words in Acts 1:8. The term “suffering” refers to the crucifixion.

Verse 2

1 Peter 5:2

Shepherd -- This "shepherding" involves the feeding and protecting the flock, Acts 20:28-30.

shepherd the flock -- (Gk. poimainō, “to tend sheep; to act as a shepherd”; cf. John 21:16; Acts 20:28; Ephesians 4:11), from which the English verb and noun “pastor” is derived (Latin pastor means “shepherd”). - ESVSB

the flock of God -- It must be remembered that the flock belongs to God and not to the "shepherds".

serving as overseers -- (episkopountes) is the noun “overseer” (episkopos, used five other times: Philippians 1:1; 1 Timothy 3:1-2; Titus 1:7; 1 Peter 2:25). - BKC

elders -- shepherds -- overseers -- Peter first uses the term "elder" which is basically the Jewish tribal designation of leadership, while "overseer" (episcopos) was the Greek city-state designation for leadership. Peter uses both Jewish and Greek terms for leaders for his readers.

exercising oversight -- (translating Gk. episkopeō), which is the verb form of the noun “overseer” (Gk. episkopos), which is another title for those who serve as elders (cf. Acts 20:28). The terms “shepherd” and “exercising oversight” emphasize the function of elders (i.e., they are to feed and watch over “the flock”), while the title “elder” focuses on the office.

Peter now gives three exhortations to elders as to how they are to carry out the responsibilities entrusted to them: (1) elders are to “shepherd” the church gladly or willingly, in accord with God’s will, instead of doing it out of a sense of compulsion; (2) they are to do the work eagerly and not out of greed or for shameful gain (Gk. aischrokerdōs, “in fondness for dishonest gain, greedily”); (3) they are to serve as examples to the congregation, and not use their place of leadership as a means to be domineering. - ESVSB

not by compulsion but willingly -- Specifically, Peter may be warning the elders against a first danger—laziness. - MSB

not for dishonest gain -- False teachers are always motivated by a second danger, money, and use their power and position to rob people of their own wealth (2 Peter 2:1-3). - MSB

Not for filthy lucre -- Some elders of the first century were supported financially so they could give more time to the ministry.

5:2–3 This begins a series (cf. vv. 2–3) of contrasting qualifications for church leaders. - Utley

Positive Negative

1 voluntary not under compulsion

2 with eagerness not for sordid gain

3 as an example not lording it over

Verse 3

lording it over -- (katakyrieuontes) includes the idea of domineering as in the rule of a strong person over one who is weak (cf. Matthew 20:25; Mark 10:42; Acts 19:16). Ezekiel indicted false shepherds: “You have ruled them harshly and brutally. So they were scattered because there was no shepherd” (Ezekiel 34:4-5). - BKC

lords -- In this context, “lords” means to dominate someone or some situation. It implies leadership by manipulation and intimidation. See notes on Matthew 20:25-28. Rather, true spiritual leadership is by example (see 1 Timothy 4:12). - MSB

examples -- (typoi, “types or patterns”), to serve as models for the people to follow. They were not to drive God’s people, but to lead them by their examples of mature Christian character. - BKC

- See Journal Notes for July 30, 2020

Hebrews 13:17; Hebrews 13:7;

[1 Timothy 3:1-13 ; Titus 1:5-9 ]

2 Timothy 4:2 An inspired directive to the preacher.

(ASV) preach the word; be urgent in season, out of season;

(NASB) preach the word; be ready in season and out of season;

(NCV) Preach the Good News. Be ready at all times, and tell people what they need to do.

Acts 4:19; Acts 5:39-40;

1 Peter 5:3 See various translations;

(ESV) not domineering over those in your charge, but being examples to the flock.

(ASV) neither as lording it over the charge allotted to you,

(CEV) Don’t be bossy to those people who are in your care,

(NCV) Do not be like a ruler over people you are responsible for, but be good examples to them.

(NIV) not lording it over those entrusted to you, but being examples to the flock.

(NLT) Don’t lord it over the people assigned to your care, but lead them by your own good example.

Ezekiel 34:4-5 Speaking of the shepherd of Israel; [The danger when Leaders forget 1 Peter 5:3.]

ESV "... and with force and harshness you have ruled them. So they were scattered, ... "

KJV "... but with force and with cruelty have ye ruled them. And they were scattered, ..."

Verse 4

1 Peter 5:4

chief Shepherd appears -- Peter uses the metaphor of a shepherd to refer to Jesus at His return (see 1 Peter 1:7 ; compare John 10:11-18; - FSB

When He appears at the second coming, He will evaluate the ministry of pastors at the judgment seat of Christ (cf. 1 Corinthians 3:9-15; 4:5; 2 Corinthians 5:9-10). - MSB

Christ, the Chief Shepherd (archipoimenos), is “the True Shepherd” (Ezekiel 34:11-16), “the Good Shepherd” (John 10:11, John 10:14), and “the Great Shepherd” (Hebrews 13:20). When Christ returns, His faithful undershepherds will share in His glory (1 Peter 5:1) and receive unfading crowns (cf. 1 Peter 1:4). - BKC

crown -- here is stephanos, a garland of flowers given to those victorious in the athletic contests.

crown of glory -- Lit. "the crown which is eternal glory."

In the NT world, crowns were given as marks of victorious achievements (cf. 1 Corinthians 9:24-25). Believers are promised crowns of glory, life (James 1:12), righteousness (2 Timothy 4:8), and rejoicing (1 Thessalonians 2:19), and all are imperishable (1 Corinthians 9:25). All the crowns describe certain characteristics of eternal life. See 1 Thessalonians 2:19. - MSB

This unfading crown of glory may refer to the believer’s inheritance guarded by God in 1 Peter 1:4. It is parallel to Paul’s “crown of righteousness” in 2 Timothy 4:8, James’ “crown of life” in James 1:12, and Jesus’ “crown of life” in Revelation 2:10; Revelation 3:11. It is a symbol of the believer’s victory in the battle against sin, self, as well as their patient, faithful suffering for Christ’s sake. - Utley

that does not fade away -- The Gr. word for “not fade away” is the name of the Greek mythological flower, the amaranth, that never faded.

[This crown] is probably not a material but a metaphorical crown (as is the crown of righteousness in 2 Timothy 4:8, the crown of life in James 1:12 and Revelation 2:10, and the crown of joy in Philippians 4:1 and 1 Thessalonians 2:19-20).188 The reason for this conclusion is that the biblical writers described the crowns in figurative language (glory, righteousness, etc.), not in literal language (gold, silver, etc.; cf. Hebrews 2:9) - Constable

Verse 5

1 Peter 5:5

you younger men -- In Jewish society a man was considered young until forty years of age. - Utley

Younger men -- is literally “younger ones” and includes females as well as males. Nevertheless younger men were probably in Peter’s mind since the contrast is with older men in verses 1–4.

“In the ancient world the division of society into older people and younger -- . was just as much taken for granted as the division into men and women, free men and slaves, etc." - Constable

You who are younger probably means younger members of the congregation, who are more likely to be headstrong and resistant to leadership. They are to subject themselves to the elders. - ESVSB

Young men … be submissive (hypotagēte; cf. 3:1) to those who are older. Church leaders were usually older members. The younger members were to place themselves willingly under the authority of those who had been given the responsibility of leadership. - BKC

be clothed with humility. To “be clothed” lit. means to tie something on oneself with a knot or a bow. This term was often used of a slave putting on an apron over his clothes in order to keep his clothes clean.

“Humility” is lit. “lowly mindedness,” an attitude that one is not too good to serve. Humility was not considered a virtue by the ancient world, any more than it is today (but cf. John 13:3-17; Philippians 2:3-4; see also Proverbs 6:16; Proverbs 8:13; Isaiah 57:15). - MSB

Peter again quotes Proverbs 3:34.

Verse 6

1 Peter 5:6

humble yourselves -- (tapeinōthēte) could be translated “allow yourselves to be humbled.” - BKC

In their suffering, God’s people are to give themselves entirely to him, submitting to his wise ordering of their lives. - ESVSB

under the mighty hand of God -- This is an OT symbol of the power of God working in the experience of men, always accomplishing His sovereign purpose (cf. Exodus 3:19-20; Job 30:20-21; Ezekiel 20:33, Ezekiel 20:37; Micah 6:8). - MSB

One of the evidences of lack of submission and humility is impatience with God in His work of humbling believers (2 Corinthians 12:7-10). - MSB

Mighty hand of God -- brings to mind the exodus, where the Lord delivered Israel from Egypt “by a mighty hand” (e.g., Exodus 3:19; Exodus 32:11; Deuteronomy 4:34; Deuteronomy 5:15; Daniel 9:15). - ESVSB

exalt you in due time -- Cf. Matthew 23:12; Luke 14:11; God will lift up the suffering, submissive believers in His wisely appointed time. - MSB

Verse 7

1 Peter 5:7

casting all your care upon Him -- “Casting” means “to throw something on something,” as to throw a blanket on a donkey (Luke 19:35).

Christians are to cast all of their discontent, discouragement, despair, and suffering on the Lord, and trust Him for knowing what He’s doing with their lives (cf. 1 Samuel 1:10-18). Along with submission (1 Peter 5:5) and humility (1 Peter 5:5-6), trust in God is the third attitude necessary for victorious Christian living.- MSB

casting all -- The may be an allusion to Psalms 55:22 in the LXX. This is an idiom of mentally placing our concerns on Christ (cf. Matthew 6:25). He carries them for us even amidst persecution and suffering. He bore our sin and now He bears our anxiety and fear! - Utley

He cares -- Believers can trust God because, as their Father, he cares for them. - ESVSB

A Christian’s confidence rests in the fact that Christ is genuinely concerned for his welfare. - BKC

Peter encourages believers to pray and trust God’s love for them in the present. - IVPBBCNT

Verse 8

1 Peter 5:8

be sober . .Be self-controlled -- (nēpsate; cf. 1 Peter 1:13; 1 Peter 4:7) and alert (grēgorēsate; cf. 1 Thessalonians 5:6, 1 Thessalonians 5:10).

be vigilant -- Strong confidence in God’s sovereign care does not mean that the believer may live carelessly. The outside evil forces which come against the Christian demand that the Christian stay alert. - MSB

Christians need to be spiritually vigilant, watching for attacks from the devil, their great enemy and opponent. - ESVSB

your adversary -- Greek (antidikos, “adversary”) for a legal opponent in a lawsuit.

your adversary the devil -- The nt uses both “Satan” and “devil” as terms for the chief figure of evil in the Bible. The Hebrew term satan used in the ot means “adversary” (e.g., Job 1:6, Job 1:12; Job 2:1; Zechariah 3:1-2) - FSB

the devil The Gr. word for “devil” (diabolos) means “slanderer”; thus a malicious enemy who maligns believers.

He and his forces are always active, looking for opportunities to overwhelm the believer with temptation, persecution, and discouragement (cf. Psalms 22:13; Psalms 104:21; Ezekiel 22:25).

Satan sows discord, accuses God to men, men to God, and men to men. He will do what he can to drag the Christian out of fellowship with Christ and out of Christian service (cf. Job 1; Luke 22:3; John 13:27; 2 Corinthians 4:3-4; Rev. 12).

And he constantly accuses believers before God’s throne, attempting to convince God to abandon them (Job 1:6-12; Revelation 12:10) - MSB

Roaring lion -- Not a serpent, or angel of light, because here he doesn’t have to be sneaky; also one method of persecution of Christians by the Romans involved being thrown to the lions.

This verse could also be a veiled allusion to the horrors of the Neronian persecution in the Roman Coliseum, in which lions mauled and devoured Christians. Satan desired to do the same thing spiritually, to defeat believers’ testimonies. - BKC

Roaring -- A lion roars as he ponces; the roar for a split second freezes the prey, just long enough for the lion to make his kill.

devour -- 2 Corinthians 2:11; devour, swallow, destroy. Used literally and figuratively.

Verse 9

Resist him, steadfast in the faith -- Cf. James 4:7. “Resist” means “to stand up against.”

The way to resist the devil is not with special formulas, or words directed at him and his demons, but by remaining firm in the Christian faith. This means to continue to live in accord with the truth of God’s Word ( 2 Corinthians 10:3-5). As the believer knows sound doctrine and obeys God’s truth, Satan is withstood ( Ephesians 6:17). - MSB

same suffering -- experienced -- Believers throughout the Roman empire were suffering both localized persecution as well as opposition from the devil. - FSB

your brotherhood -- Literally your brothers, a generic term often used to refer to both male and female believers. - NLTSB

all over the world -- Persecution was not confined to the churches of Asia Minor.

In various forms and with varying intensity, Christians were persecuted almost everywhere the Good News about Jesus Christ was preached.

Peter reminds his readers of this to console them and encourage them to emulate those who had successfully endured the test of suffering. - NLTSB

Verse 10

glory in Christ -- to which they were called, will be eternal (cf. Romans 8:17-18; 2 Corinthians 4:16-18). (This is Peter’s last of eight uses of “glory” in this epistle: 1 Peter 1:7 1 Peter 1:11; 1 Peter 1:21; 1 Peter 1:24; 1 Peter 2:20; 1 Peter 4:14; 1 Peter 5:1; 1 Peter 5:10.) - BKC

after you have suffered for a little while -- This refers to this life (cf. 1 Peter 1:6). - Utley

In comparsion to the eternal glory, their present suffering was but for a little while. - WG

The context, contrasting the transient suffering with the eternal glory, as well as the use of the same adverb in 1 Peter 1:6, justifies us in taking the word of time rather than degree. - CBSC

a little while -- Sufferings on this earth—while sometimes appearing to be endless—are in fact only momentary compared with the glorious eternity that believers will spend with God (cp. 1 Peter 1:6; Romans 8:18; 2 Corinthians 4:16-18). - NLTSB

restore, confirm, strengthen, and establish you -- Peter offers his audience a final word of comfort. He reminds them that God will empower and ultimately glorify those who remain steadfast in their faith under the weight of their present suffering. - FSB

perfect, establish, strengthen, and settle -- These 4 words all speak of strength and resoluteness. God is working through the Christian’s struggles to produce strength of character. - MSB

strong -- stērixei; cf. 2 Thessalonians 2:17

firm -- sthenōsei, used only here in the NT.

and steadfast -- themeliosei, “established”; cf. Ephesians 3:17; Colossians 1:23.

Verse 11

To Him be the power (kratos, “might”) forever and ever. Amen. In this benediction, similar to the one in 1 Peter 4:11, Peter praised Christ who has all power for all time (cf. Romans 11:36; 1 Timothy 6:16). Certainly He has the power to strengthen His own as they undergo persecution. - BKC

To him be glory and dominion -- The doxology is repeated in identical terms from 1 Peter 4:11. Here, as there, it comes as the natural sequel to the thought of what God is and what He has done for His people; and forms the conclusion to the consecutive teaching of the Epistle. It remained only to add a few words of the nature of more personal messages. - CBSC

Verse 12

Silvanus -- Peter’s secretary (or amanuensis) and an associate of Paul.

[amanuensis A secretary or scribe who wrote at the dictation of another. Many of Paul’s letters were likely written by a secretary (Romans 16:22).] - FSB

with the help of -- [NLT] This phrase identifies Silas as the amanuensis, the person who wrote the words as Peter directed. • Silas (Greek Silvanus): Silas is the shortened form of Silvanus; both names refer to the same individual. Silas was Paul’s constant colleague after the time of the council in Jerusalem (Acts 15:40; Acts 16:19; Acts 17:10, Acts 17:14-15; Acts 18:5; 2 Corinthians 1:19; 1 Thessalonians 1:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:1). We are not sure how Silas ended up with Peter in Rome, but he may have traveled with or followed Paul (Acts 27–28). - NLTSB

Silvanus -- This is the Silas who traveled with Paul and is often mentioned in his epistles. He was a prophet (Acts 15:32) and a Roman citizen (Acts 16:37); he was apparently the one who wrote down Peter’s words and later took this letter to its intended recipients - MSB

In any case the way in which Silvanus is mentioned implies that he was already known to the readers of the Epistle. There is no ground for questioning his identity with the “Silas” of Acts 15:22, Acts 15:32, Acts 15:40, the “Silvanus” of 1 Thessalonians 1:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:1; 2 Corinthians 1:19, the second name having probably been taken, after the manner common among Jews. - CBSC

He sends this letter “by Silvanus.” - PNT

There has been much speculation concerning this phrase’s relationship to the authorship of I Peter. I think there is no doubt Peter used a scribe, but was it Silvanus? An interesting article in Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, Vol. 43 No. 3, pp.417–432, entitled “Silvanus Was Not Peter’s Secretary” by E. Randolph Richards, has convinced me that this phrase probably refers to Silvanus bearing the letter to its readers, not necessarily penning it for Peter. - Utley

encouraging you and testifying … the true grace of God -- The letter exhorts its readers to begin to or continue to live faithfully for Jesus Christ, and it also provides the theological basis in which a life of obedience must be grounded. This letter sets forth the true grace that God offers through Jesus Christ. Because there is no other source of grace, forgiveness, and eternal life, Peter exhorts his readers to stand fast in it. - NIVZSB

Verse 13

Babylon -- The same "Babylon" of Revelation? If so, then it means Jerusalem, which like Babylon of the O.T. persecuted God’s people. Some who take the late date for the book of Revelation would say this means Rome. But the term "Babylon" here could also be as the literal where Peter was at this time.

She who is in Babylon -- Some scholars suggest that she who is in Babylon refers to Peter’s wife (cf. 1 Corinthians 9:5). However, since Peter was writing to churches and said she is chosen together with you, probably “she” refers to the church (which is a feminine noun ekklēsia). If so, Peter was sending greetings from the church in “Babylon” to the churches in Asia Minor.

According to historical evidence, Peter was in Rome during the final years of his life. “Babylon” here might be a disguised reference to Rome, used in order to protect both the Roman church and Peter from the Neronian persecution. (Others suggest, however, that he wrote from the literal city of Babylon on the Euphrates River.) - BKC

She who is in Babylon -- Likely the Christian community in the location from which Peter writes. “Babylon” is probably a veiled reference to Rome. - NIBZSB

Mark -- also called John Mark, was another co-worker of the apostle Paul (see “John Mark” at Acts 13:4-5, Acts 13:13, ). Mark wrote the Gospel of Mark, which is generally thought to be based on Peter’s teachings. - NLTSB

Mark my son -- Mark, called John Mark, was the spiritual son of Peter. Tradition indicates that Peter helped him write the Gospel of Mark (cf. Acts 12:12). This is the same Mark who once failed Paul (Acts 13:13; Acts 15:38, Acts 15:39; Colossians 4:10), but later became useful again for ministry (2 Timothy 4:11). - MSB

“Mark” This refers to John Mark. The early church met in his family’s house in Jerusalem (cf. Acts 12:12). It was also the site of the Lord’s three post resurrection appearances and the coming of the Spirit.

John Mark accompanied Paul and his cousin Barnabas (cf. Colossians 4:10) on the first missionary journey (cf. Acts 12:25–13:13). For some reason he deserted the team and returned home (cf. Acts 15:38). Barnabas wanted to include him on the second missionary journey, but Paul refused (cf. Acts 15:36-41). This resulted in Paul and Barnabas separating. Barnabas took John Mark to Cyprus (cf. Acts 15:39). Later, while Paul was in prison, he mentions John Mark in a positive way (cf. Colossians 4:10) and still later in Paul’s second imprisonment at Rome, just before his death, he mentions John Mark again (cf. 2 Timothy 4:11).

Apparently John Mark became part of Peter’s missionary team (cf. 1 Peter 5:13). Eusebius’ Eccl. His. 3:39:12 gives us an interesting account of John Mark’s relation to Peter.

“In his own book Papias gives us accounts of the Lord’s sayings obtained from Aristion or learnt direct from the presbyter John. Having brought these to the attention of scholars, I must now follow up the statements already quoted from him with a piece of information which he sets out regarding Mark, the writer of the gospel:

This, too, the presbyter used to say. ‘Mark, who had been Peter’s interpreter, wrote down carefully, but not in order, all that he remembered of the Lord’s sayings and doings. For he had not heard the Lord or been one of His followers, but later, as I said, one of Peter’s. Peter used to adapt his teaching to the occasion, without making a systematic arrangement of the Lord’s sayings, so that Mark was quite justified in writing down some things just as he remembered them. For he had one purpose only—to leave out nothing that he had heard, and to make no misstatement about it’ ” (p. 152).

In this quote Papias refers to “John the elder,” in Against Heresies 5:33:4, Irenaeus says “and these things are borne witness to in writing by Papias, the hearer of John, and a companion of Polycarp.” This implies Papias heard it from John the Apostle. John Mark reworded Peter’s memories and sermons about Jesus into a Gospel. - Utley

Verse 14

kiss of love -- See note on 1 Corinthians 16:20; cf. also Romans 16:16; 1 Corinthians 16:20; 2 Corinthians 13:12; 1 Thessalonians 5:26. Peter closes his letter with a final prayer that his readers will know peace, which will be their portion because they are in Christ. - ESVSB

kiss of love -- The number of New Testament references to a kiss indicate that it was a common sign of fellowship and Christian love (cf. Romans 16:16; 1 Corinthians 16:20; 2 Corinthians 13:12; 1 Thessalonians 5:26). - BKC

Peter closed as he began (1 Peter 1:2), encouraging Christians in the midst of persecution by praying for peace (eirēnē), which is abundantly available to all who are in Christ, the Prince of Peace.

kiss of love. See 1 Corinthians 16:20. This gesture of mutual love and respect was apparently a practice of the early church that had been carried over from the synagogue. - NIVZSB

a kiss of love -- This was the typical cultural greeting among family members. It was initially adopted by the family of God (cf. Romans 16:16; 1 Corinthians 16:20; 2 Corinthians 13:12; 1 Thessalonians 5:26). By the fourth century a.d. this kiss was limited to the same sex because of the abuses within the church and misunderstandings from outside the church. - Utley

“In the ancient world kisses were normally exchanged among family members (parents and children; brothers and sisters; servants and masters) and at times between rulers and their clients. ... The familial kiss probably forms the background to the NT practice, for all fellow-Christians were considered brothers and sisters. This affectionate kissing was normally on the cheeks, forehead, or hands. We can assume such to be the practice here. -- . In calling it the ‘kiss of love’ Peter not only brings out the meaning of kiss (‘kiss,’ philema in Greek, comes from phileo, a verb indicating familial and friendly as opposed to erotic love), but also expresses the proper relationship among the members of the Christian community (‘love’ here is the typical Christian term for love, agape, used also in 1 Peter 1:22; 1 Peter 4:8)." - Constable

. The separation of the sexes when the Church met for worship, which was probably inherited from the Jewish synagogue, was a safeguard against the scandal which the practice might otherwise have occasioned. - CBSC

Peace be with you all that are in Christ Jesus -- There is something, perhaps, significant in the fact that while the final benediction of the Apostle of the Gentiles is “Grace be with you all” (Romans 16:24; 1 Corinthians 16:23; 2 Corinthians 13:14; and in all his Epistles), that of the Apostle of the Circumcision is the old Hebrew “peace,” as in Matthew 10:13, in all the fulness of its meaning. - CBSC

Bibliographical Information
Gann, Windell. "Commentary on 1 Peter 5". Gann's Commentary on the Bible. 2021.