Lectionary Calendar
Sunday, October 1st, 2023
the Week of Proper 21 / Ordinary 26
Take our poll

Bible Commentaries
2 Samuel

Dr. Constable's Expository NotesConstable's Expository Notes

- 2 Samuel

by Thomas Constable

Second Samuel continues the history begun in 1 Samuel. Please see my comments regarding 2 Samuel’s title, date, authorship, scope, purpose, genre, and themes and characteristics, in the introductory section of the 1 Samuel notes.


(Continued from notes on 1 Samuel)

V.    David’s triumphs chs. 1-8

1.    David’s discovery of Saul and Jonathan’s deaths ch. 1

2.    David’s move to Hebron 2Sa_2:1-4 a

2.    David’s punishment of Ish-bosheth’s murderers ch. 4

2.    David’s relocation of the ark to Jerusalem ch. 6

3.    The giving of the Davidic Covenant ch. 7

4.    The security of David’s kingdom ch. 8

VI.    David’s troubles chs. 9-20

A.    David’s faithfulness ch. 9

B.    God’s faithfulness despite David’s unfaithfulness chs. 10-12

1.    The Ammonite rebellion ch. 10

2.    David’s unfaithfulness to God chs. 11-12

C.    David’s rejection and return chs. 13-20

1.    Events leading up to Absalom’s rebellion chs. 13-14

2.    Absalom’s attempt to usurp David’s throne chs. 15-20

VII.    Summary illustrations chs. 21-24

C.    David’s praise of Yahweh ch. 22

F.    Pestilence from David’s sin ch. 24

When 1 Samuel opened, Israel was a loosely connected affiliation of tribes with little unity and loyalty. The judges led her, many of whom were weak and ineffective. Her worship was in disrepute due to corruption in the priesthood and even among the judges. She was at the mercy of her surrounding enemies. She was weak in influence and was struggling economically.

By the end of David’s reign, 150 years later, Israel stood united as a nation behind a king who represented Yahweh’s will faithfully. She had a revived priesthood that enjoyed support from the throne, and the prospect for a permanent temple located in the capital city was bright. She was militarily strong, and she controlled her environment politically and geographically. She enjoyed an influence in the world that was already powerful and growing. Furthermore her economy was strong. Most importantly she was led by a king who was normally submissive to Yahweh’s authority.

David’s most important contribution was probably uniting the political and religious life of Israel. He symbolized this by setting up both the political capital and the worship center of Israel in one place: Jerusalem. This effectively united the covenant traditions of the patriarchs and Moses with the newer provision of a human monarchy. David realized that he was not only Israel’s political head but also her representative before God. He persuaded Israel of this dual role and so prepared her to function as the servant of the Lord in providing salvation for the other peoples of the world. [Note: Merrill, Kingdom of . . ., p. 286.]

These changes had taken place because Yahweh had brought fertility to Israel. When the Israelites followed the Mosaic Covenant, God’s revealed will for them, obedience resulted in blessing and life. When they did not obey, they experienced discipline and death.

The writer employed various literary devices to emphasize his main spiritual lessons. Primary among these was conflict and resolution. In every major section there is at least one conflict, and often there are several, in which God either exalted the faithful, or put down the arrogant, or both. Another device is the reversal-of-fortune motif by which he showed that Yahweh can and does change people’s lives as they respond to His Word, for good or for ill. A major chiasm, beginning with Hannah’s prayer and ending with David’s prayers, ties 1 and 2 Samuel together. Other frequent chiasms help the reader appreciate the writer’s emphasis, such as the one in 2 Samuel 21-24.

"The broad theology of 1 and 2 Samuel is that God rules justly in the affairs of men. Furthermore, He requires that men live justly under His rule. The leader (whether judge or king) must represent Yahweh’s justice in the rule of God’s people. Failure to follow the patterns of righteousness established by God led to chastisement of the ruler and the people he ruled. This message was usually presented by a prophet who stood between God and the king as well as the people." [Note: Heater, p. 146.]

Achtemeier, Paul J., and Elizabeth Achtemeier. The Old Testament Roots of Our Faith. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1979.

Ackerman, James S. "Knowing Good and Evil: A Literary Ananysis of the Court History in 2 Samuel 9-20 and 1 Kings 1-2." Journal of Biblical Literature 109:1 (Spring 1990):41-60.

Ackroyd, Peter R. "The Succession Narrative (so-called)." Interpretation 35:4 (1980):383-96.

Aharoni, Yohanan, and Michael Avi-Yonah. The Macmillan Bible Atlas. Revised ed., New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1977.

Albright, William F. The Archaeology of Palestine. 1949. Revised ed. Pelican Archaeology series. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, Eng.: Penguin Books, 1956.

Alter, Robert. The Art of Biblical Narrative. New York: Basic, 1981.

Anderson, Arnold A. 2 Samuel. Word Biblical Commentary series. Dallas: Word Books, 1989.

Archer, Gleason L., Jr. Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties. Regency Reference Library series. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1982.

_____. A Survey of Old Testament Introduction. Revised ed. Chicago: Moody Press, 1974.

Armerding, Carl Edwin. "Were David’s Sons Really Priests?" In Current Issues in Biblical and Patristic Interpretation: Studies in Honor of Merrill C. Tenney Presented by His Former Students, pp. 75-86. Ed. Gerald F. Hawthorne. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1975.

Arnold, Bill T. "The Amalekite’s Report of Saul’s Death: Political Intrigue or Incompatible Sources?" Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 32:3 (1989):289-98.

Bailey, Randall C. David in Love and War: The Pursuit of Power in 2 Samuel 10-12. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement 75. Sheffield, Eng.: JSOT, 1990.

Baldwin, Joyce G. 1 & 2 Samuel. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries series. Leicester, Eng., and Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1988.

Battenhouse, Roy. "The Tragedy of Absalom: A Literary Analysis." Christianity and Literature 31:3 (Spring 1982):53-57.

Baxter, J. Sidlow. Explore the Book. 6 vols. London: Marshall, Morgan, and Scott, 1965.

Beal, Richard H. "The Hittites After the Empire’s Fall." Biblical Illustrator 10:1 (Fall 1983):72-81.

Bellefontaine, Elizabeth. "Customary Law and Chieftanship: Judicial Aspects of 2Sa_14:4-21." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 38 (1987):47-72.

Bendavid, Abba. Parallels in the Bible. Jerusalem: Carta, 1972.

Bentzen, Aage. "The Cultic Use of the Story of the Ark in Samuel." Journal of Biblical Literature 67 (1948):37-53.

Berlin, Adele. "Characterization in Biblical Narrative: David’s Wives." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 23 (July 1982):69-85.

Blaikie, William G. The Second Book of Samuel. 1893; reprint ed. Minneapolis: Klock and Klock, 1978.

Blenkinsopp, Joseph. "Did Saul Make Gibeon His Capital?" Vetus Testamentum 24:1 (January 1974):1-7.

_____. "Kiriath-jearim and the Ark." Journal of Biblical Literature 88 (1969):143-56.

Bright, John A. A History of Israel. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1959.

Brueggemann, Walter. "2 Samuel 21-24 : An Appendix of Deconstruction?" Catholic Biblical Quarterly 50:3 (July 1988):383-97.

_____. First and Second Samuel. Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching series. Louisville: John Knox Press, 1990.

_____. "Of the Same Flesh and Bone (Genesis 2, 23 a)." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 32:4 (September 1970):532-42.

Bury, J. B.; S. A. Cook; and F. E. Adcock, eds. The Cambridge Ancient History. 12 vols. 2nd ed. reprinted. Cambridge, Eng.: University Press, 1928.

Calderone, Philip J. Dynastic Oracle and Suzerainty Treaty. Manila: Ateneo University, 1966.

Camp, Claudia V. "The Wise Women of 2 Samuel: A Role Model for Women in Early Israel." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43:1 (January 1981):14-29.

Campbell, Anthony F. Of Prophets and Kings: A Late Ninth-Century Document (1 Samuel 1 -2 Kings 10). Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph 17. Washington: Catholic Biblical Association of America, 1986.

Carlson, R. A. David the Chosen King. Translated by Eric J. Sharpe and Stanley Rudman (notes). Stockholm: Almquist and Wiksell, 1964.

Carter, Leslie. Warring Faith. London: Victory Press, 1961.

Chafin, Kenneth L. 1, 2 Samuel. The Communicator’s Commentary series. Dallas: Word Books, 1989.

Childs, Brevard S. Introduction to the Old Testament as Scripture. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1979.

Chisholm, Robert B., Jr. "Does God Deceive?" Bibliotheca Sacra 155:617 (January-March 1998):11-28.

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. "Youth and Age." In Poems That Live Forever. Selected by Hazel Fellman. New York: Doubleday, 1965.

Conroy, Charles. Absalom Absalom! Narrative and Language in 2 Samuel 13-20. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1978.

Cooke, Gerald. "The Israelite King as Son of God." Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 73:2 (June 1961):202-25.

Coxon, Peter W. "A Note on ’Bathsheba’ in 2 Samuel 12, 1-6." Biblica 62:2 (1981):247-50.

Crockett, William Day. A Harmony of the Books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1973.

Cross, Frank M., Jr. Canaanite Myth and the Hebrew Bible. Cambridge and London: Harvard University Press, 1973.

_____. "An Interpretation of the Nora Stone." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 208 (December 1972):13-19.

Cross, Frank Moore, Jr., and David Noel Freedman. "A Royal Song of Thanksgiving-2 Samuel 22 = Psalms 18." Journal of Biblical Literature 72:1 (1953):15-34.

Curtis, John Briggs. "’East is East . . ..’" Journal of Biblical Literature 80:4 (1961):356-63.

Damrosch, David. The Narrative Covenant: Transformations of Genre in the Growth of Biblical Literature. San Francisco: Harper, 1987.

Darby, John Nelson. Synopsis of the Books of the Bible. 5 vols. Revised ed. New York: Loizeaux Brothers Publishers, 1942.

Davis, John J., and John C Whitcomb. A History of Israel. Reprint ed., Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1980.

Day, Peggy L. "Abishai and satan in 2Sa_19:17-22." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 49:4 (October 1987):543-47.

de Vaux, Roland. Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions. 2 vols. Translated by John McHugh. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961.

DeVries, LaMoine. "The Forest of Ephraim." Biblical Illustrator 10:1 (1983):82-85.

Dillard, Raymond B. "David’s Census: Perspectives on 2 Samuel 24 and 1 Chronicles 21." In Through Christ’s Word: A Festschrift for Dr. Philip E. Hughes, pp. 94-107. Edited by Robert W. Godfrey and Jesse L. Boyd III. Phillipsburg, N.J.: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co., 1985.

Driver, S. R. Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Books of Samuel. 1913; 2nd ed. revised, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966.

Dumbrell, William J. Covenants and Creation. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1984.

Dyer, Charles H., and Eugene H. Merrill. The Old Testament Explorer. Nashville: Word Publishing, 2001. Reissued as Nelson’s Old Testament Survey. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 2001.

Eskhult, Mats. Studies in Verbal Aspect and Narrative Technique in Biblical Hebrew Prose. Uppsala, Sweden: Uppsala University, 1990.

Fensham, F. Charles. "The Battle Between the Men of Joab and Abner as a Possible Ordeal by Battle?" Vetus Testamentum 20:3 (July 1970):356-57.

_____. "Clauses of Protection in Hittite Vassal-Treaties and the Old Testament." Vetus Testamentum 13 (1963):133-43.

_____. "The Treaty between Israel and the Gibeonites." Biblical Archaeologist 27:3 (1964):96-100.

Flanagan, James W. "Court History or Succession Document? A Study of 2 Samuel 9-20; 1 Kings 1-2." Journal of Biblical Literature 91:2 (1972):172-81.

Fokkelman, J. P. Narrative Art and Poetry in the Books of Samuel. Vol. 1: King David. Assen: Von Gorcum & Co., 1981.

Freedman, David Noel. "The Refrain in David’s Lament Over Saul and Jonathan." In Ex Orbe Religionum: Studia Geo Widengren Oblata. pp. 115-26. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 1972.

Gaebelein, Arno C. The Annotated Bible. 4 vols. Reprint ed. Chicago: Moody Press, and New York: Loizeaux Brothers, Inc., 1970.

Garnet, Paul. "Atonement Constructions in the Old Testament and the Qumran Scrolls." Evangelical Quarterly 46:3 (July-September 1974):131-63.

Garsiel, Moshe. The First Book of Samuel: A Literary Study of Comparative Structures, Analogies, and Parallels. Ramat-Gan: Revivim, 1985.

Gehrke, R. O. I and II Samuel. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1968.

Gevirtz, Stanley. "David’s Lament Over Saul and Jonathan." In Patterns in the Early Poetry of Israel, pp. 72-96. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization series, number 32. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963.

Gileadi, Avraham. "The Davidic Covenant: A Theological Basis for Corporate Protection." In Israel’s Apostasy and Restoration: Essays in Honor of Roland K. Harrison, pp. 157-63. Edited by Avraham Gileadi. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1988.

Goldingay, John. Theological Diversity and the Authority of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1987.

Goldman, S. Samuel. London: Soncino Press, 1951.

Gordon, Robert P. I & II Samuel: A Commentary. Library of Biblical Interpretation series. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, Regency Reference Library, 1986.

Gunn, David M. "David and the Gift of the Kingdom (2 Samuel 2-4, 9-20, 1 Kings 1-2)." Semeia 3 (1975):14-45.

_____. "From Jerusalem to the Jordan and Back: Symmetry in 2 Samuel XV-XX." Vetus Testamentum 30:1 (January 1980):109-13.

_____. The Story of King David: Genre and Interpretation. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement 6. Sheffield, Eng.: JSOT, 1978.

_____. "Traditional Composition in the ’Succession Narrative’." Vetus Testamentum 26:2 (April 1976):214-29.

Harton, George M. "Fulfillment of Deuteronomy 28-30 in History and in Eschatology." ThD dissertation, Dallas Theological Seminary, 1981.

Hays, J. Daniel. "The Cushites: A Black Nation in the Bible." Bibliotheca Sacra 153:612 (October-December 1996):396-409.

Heater, Homer, Jr. "A Theology of Samuel and Kings." In A Biblical Theology of the Old Testament, pp. 115-55. Edited by Roy B. Zuck. Chicago: Moody Press, 1991.

Hertzberg, Hans Wilhelm. I & II Samuel: A Commentary. Translated by J. S. Bowden. Old Testament Library series. London: SCM, 1964; Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1976.

Hill, Andrew E. "A Jonadab Connection in the Absalom Conspiracy?" Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 30:4 (December 1987):387-90.

Hillers, Delbert R. "A Note on Some Treaty Terminology in the Old Testament." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 176 (1964):46-47.

Hodges, Zane C. "Conflicts in the Biblical Account of the Ammonite-Syrian War." Bibliotheca Sacra 119:475 (July-September 1962):238-43.

Hoftijzer, J. "David and the Tekoite Woman." Vetus Testamentum 20:4 (October 1970):419-44.

Holladay, William L. "Form and Word-Play in David’s Lament over Saul and Jonathan." Vetus Testamentum 20:2 (April 1970):153-89.

Holloway, Steven W. "Distaff, Crutch or Chain Gang: The Curse of the House of Joab in 2 Samuel III 29." Vetus Testamentum 37:3 (July 1987):370-75.

Horn, Siegfried H. "The Crown of the King of the Ammonites." Andrews University Seminary Bulletin 11:2 (1973):170-80.

Horner, T. Jonathan Loved David: Homosexuality in Biblical Times. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1978.

Howard, David M., Jr. An Introduction to the Old Testament Historical Books. Chicago: Moody Press, 1993.

Jackson, Jared J. "David’s Throne: Patterns in the Succession Story." Canadian Journal of Theology 11:3 (July 1965):183-95.

Jones, Gwilym H. The Nathan Narratives. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement 80. Sheffield, Eng.: JSOT, 1990.

Josephus, Flavius. The Works of Flavius Josephus. Translated by William Whiston. Antiquities of the Jews. London: T. Nelson and Sons, 1866.

Kaiser, Walter C., Jr. Toward an Old Testament Theology. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1978.

Kallai, Zechariah. "Judah and Israel-A Study in Israelite Historiography." Israel Exploration Journal 28:4 (1978):251-61.

Keil, C. F. and Franz Delitzsch. Biblical Commentary on the Books of Samuel. Translated by James Martin. Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament. Reprint ed., Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1960.

Kennedy, A. R. S. Samuel. The Century Bible series. London: Caxton, 1905.

Kennedy, James. "David’s Lament over Saul and Jonathan: 2Sa_1:19-27." American Journal of Semitic Languages 32 (1916):118-25.

Kirkpatrick, A. F. The Second Book of Samuel. Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges series. Cambridge, Eng.: University Press, 1886.

Kitchen, K. A. The Bible In Its World. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1977.

Laney, J. Carl. First and Second Samuel. Everyman’s Bible Commentary series. Chicago: Moody Press, 1982.

Lange, John Peter, ed. Commentary on the Holy Scriptures. 12 vols. Reprint ed., Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1960. Vol. 3: Samuel-Kings, by Chr. Fr. David Erdmann and Karl Chr. W. T. Bahr. Translated, enlarged, and edited by C. H. Toy, John A. Broadus, Edwin Harwood, and W. G. Sumner.

Lasine, Stuart. "Melodrama as Parable: The Story of the Poor Man’s Ewe-Lamb and the Unmasking of David’s Topsy-Turvy Emotions." Hebrew Annual Review 8 (1984):101-24.

LaSor, William Sanford. "The Prophets during the Monarchy: Turning Points in Israel’s Decline." In Israel’s Apostasy and Restoration, pp. 59-70. Edited by Avraham Gileadi. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1988.

Lawlor, John I. "Theology and Art in the Narrative of the Ammonite War (2 Samuel 10-12)." Grace Theological Journal 3:2 (1982):193-205.

Lawrence, John W. Life’s Choices. Portland: Multnomah Press, 1975.

Lemche, Niels Peter. "David’s Rise." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 10 (November 1978):2-25.

Levenson, Jon D. "The Davidic Covenant and Its Modern Interpreters." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 41:2 (1979):205-19.

Levenson, Jon D., and Baruch Halpern. "The Political Import of David’s Marriages." Journal of Biblical Literature 99:4 (1980):507-18.

Longman, Tremper, III and Raymond B. Dillard. An Introduction to the Old Testament. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2006.

Mabee, Charles. "David’s Judicial Exoneration." Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 92:1 (1980):92-107.

Malamat, Abraham. "Aspects of the Foreign Policies of David and Solomon." Journal of Near Eastern Studies 22:1 (January 1963):1-17.

_____. "The Kingdom of David & Solomon in Its Contact With Egypt and Aram Naharaim." Biblical Archaeologist 21:4 (1958):96-102.

Malone, Andrew S. "God the Illeist: Third-Person Self-References and Trinitarian Hints in the Old Testament." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 52:3 (September 2009):499-518.

Mare, W. Harold. The Archaeology of the Jerusalem Area. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1987.

Martin, John A. "Studies in 1 and 2 Samuel." Bibliotheca Sacra 141:561 (January-March 1984):28-42; 562 (April-June 1984):131-45; 563 (July-September):209-22; 564 (October-December):303-14.

Mazar, B. "The Military Elite of King David." Vetus Testamentum 13 (1963):310-20.

McCarter, P. Kyle, Jr. II Samuel. Anchor Bible series. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Co., 1984.

_____. "The Apology of David." Journal of Biblical Literature 99:4 (1980):489-504.

_____. "’Plots, True or False’: The Succession Narrative as Court Apologetic." Interpretation 35:4 ( October 1981):355-67.

_____. "The Ritual Dedication of the City of David in 2 Samuel 6." In The Word of the Lord Shall Go Forth: Essays in Honor of David Noel Freedman in Celebration of His Sixtieth Birthday, pp. 273-78. Edited by Carol L. Meyers and M. O’Connor. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1983.

McCarthy, Dennis J. "2 Samuel 7 and the Structure of the Deuteronomic History." Journal of Biblical Literature 84 (1965):136.

McKane, William. I and II Samuel. London: SCM Press, 1963.

Merrill, Eugene H. "2 Samuel." In The Bible Knowledge Commentary: Old Testament, pp. 457-82. Edited by John F. Walvoord and Roy B. Zuck. Wheaton: Scripture Press Publications, Victor Books, 1985.

_____. Kingdom of Priests. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1987.

_____. "Royal Priesthood: An Old Testament Messianic Motif." Bibliotheca Sacra 150:597 (January-March 1993):50-61.

_____. "The Veracity of the Word: A Summary of Major Archaeological Finds." Kindred Spirit 34:3 (Winter 2010):13.

Meyer, F. B. David: Shepherd and King. Condensed Christian Books series. Westchester, Ill.: Good News Publishers, 1960.

_____. Samuel the Prophet. Chicago: Fleming H. Revell, n.d.

Millard, A. R. "Saul’s Shield Not Anointed With Oil." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 230 (April 1978):70.

Monson, James M. The Land Between. Jerusalem: By the author, P.O. Box 1276, 1983.

Morgan, G. Campbell. Living Messages of the Books of the Bible. 2 vols. New York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1912.

Murray, Donald. "Once Again ’t ’hd Sbty Ysr’l in 2Sa_7:7." Revue Biblique 94:3 (July 1987):389-96.

Na’aman, Nadav. "The List of David’s Officers (Salisim)." Vetus Testamentum 38:1 (1988):71-79.

Neiderhiser, Edward A. "2Sa_20:8-10 : A Note for a Commentary." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 24:3 (September 1981):209-10.

The NET (New English Translation) Bible. First beta printing. Spokane, Wash.: Biblical Studies Press, 2001.

The New Bible Dictionary. 1962 ed. S. v. "Cherethites," by T. C. Mitchell.

New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology. Edited by C. Brown. 1975, 1976 and 1978 ed. S. v. "Shepherd," by E. Beyreuther.

Newsome, James D., Jr. ed. A Synoptic Harmony of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1986.

Nicol, George G. "The Wisdom of Joab and the Wise Woman of Tekoa." Studia Theologica 36 (1982):97-104.

North, Robert. "Social Dynamics From Saul to Jehu." Biblical Theology Bulletin 12:4 (1982):109-19.

O’Ceallaigh, G. C. "’And So David Did to All the Cities of Ammon.’" Vetus Testamentum 12 (1962):179-89.

Ockinga, Boyu G. "A Note on 2Sa_18:18." Biblische Notizen 31 (1986):31-34.

Oppenheim, A. Leo. Ancient Mesopotamia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964.

Ota, Michiko. "A Note on 2 Samuel 7." In A Light Unto My Path: Old Testament Studies in Honor of Jacob M. Myers, pp. 403-7. Edited by Howard N. Bream, Ralph D. Heim, and Carey A. Moore. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1974.

Patrick, Symon. A Commentary Upon the Two Books of Samuel. London: Chiswell, 1703.

Payne, David F. I & II Samuel. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1982.

Payne, J. Barton. "1, 2 Chronicles." In I Kings-Job. Vol. 4 of The Expositor’s Bible Commentary. 12 vols. Edited by Frank E. Gaebelein and Richard D. Polcyn. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1988.

Pentecost, J. Dwight. Things to Come. Findlay, Ohio: Dunham Publishing Co., 1958.

_____. Thy Kingdom Come. Wheaton: Scripture Press Publications, Victor Books, 1990.

Perdue, Leo G. "’Is There Anyone Left of the House of Saul . . . ?’ Ambiguity and the Characterization of David in the Succession Narrative." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 30 (October 1984):67-84.

Peters, F. E. Jerusalem. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985.

Pfeiffer, Charles F., and Howard F Vos. The Wycliffe Historical Geography of Bible Lands. Chicago: Moody Press, 1967.

Pfeiffer, Robert H. Introduction to the Old Testament. Revised ed. New York: Harper, 1948.

Phillips, Anthony. "David’s Linen Ephod." Vetus Testamentum 19:4 (October 1967):485-87.

_____. "The Interpretation of 2 Samuel xii 5-6." Vetus Testamentum 16 (1966):242-44.

_____. "NEBALAH-a term for serious disorderly and unruly conduct." Vetus Testamentum 25:2 (April 1975):237-41.

Porter, J. R. "The Interpretation of 2 Samuel VI and Psalm CXXXII." Journal of Theological Studies N.S. 5 (1954):161-73.

Pritchard, James B., ed. Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. 3rd ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969.

Rasmussen, Carl G. Zondervan NIV Atlas of the Bible. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1989.

Reid, Patrick V. "Sbty in 2Sa_7:7." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 37:1 (January 1975):17-20.

Richardson, H. Neil. "The Last Words of David: Some Notes on 2Sa_23:1-7." Journal of Biblical Literature 90:3 (1971):257-66.

Ridout, George P. Prose Compositional Techniques in the Succession Narrative [2 Samuel 7, 9-20; 1 Kings 1-2]. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, 1985.

Rogers, Cleon L., Jr. "The Davidic Covenant in the New Testament." Bibliotheca Sacra 150:600 (October-December 1993):458-78; and 150:601 (January-March 1994):71-84.

_____. "The Promises to David in Early Judaism." Bibliotheca Sacra 150:599 (July-September 1993:285-302.

Rosenberg, Joel. King and Kin: Political Allegory in the Hebrew Bible. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.

Rost, Leonhard. The Succession to the Throne of David. Sheffield. Eng.: Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Press, 1982.

Roth, Wolfgang. "The Deuteronomic Rest Theology: A Redaction-Critical Study." Biblical Research 21 (1976):5-14.

____. "You Are the Man! Structural Interaction in 2 Samuel 10-12." Semeia 8 (1977):1-13.

Sanders, J. Oswald. Spiritual Leadership. Chicago: Moody Press, 1969.

Saucy, Robert L. The Case for Progressive Dispensationalism. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1993.

Schwantes, Siegfried J. A Short History of the Ancient Near East. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1965.

Segal, M. H. "The Composition of the Books of Samuel." Jewish Quarterly Review 55 (1964-65):318-39; 56 (1965-66):32-50.

Shea, William H. "Chiasmus and the Structure of David’s Lament." Journal of Biblical Literature 105:1 (1986):13-25.

_____. "David’s Lament." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 221 (February 1976):141-44.

Simon, Uriel. "The Poor Man’s Ewe-Lamb." Biblica 48 (1967):207-42.

Skehan, Patrick W. "Joab’s Census: How Far North (2 Samuel 24, 6)?" Catholic Biblical Quarterly 31:1 (January 1969):42-49.

Smith, George Adam. The Historical Geography of the Holy Land. 22nd ed. London: Hodder and Stoughton, n.d.

Smith, H. P. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Books of Samuel. International Critical Commentary series. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1904.

Smith, J. M. P. "The Character of King David." Journal of Biblical Literature 52 (1933):1-11.

Smith, Morton. "The So-Called ’Biography of David’ in the Books of Samuel and Kings." Harvard Theological Review 44 (1951):167-69.

Smith, Sidney. "The Practice of Kingship in Early Semitic Kingdoms." In Myth, Ritual, and Kingship, pp. 22-73. Edited by Samuel H. Hooke. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1958.

Sternberg, Meir. The Poetics of Biblical Narrative: Ideological Literature and the Drama of Reading. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.

Student Map Manual. Jerusalem: Pictorial Archive (Near Eastern History) Est., 1979.

Swindoll, Charles R. David: A Man of Passion and Destiny. Great Lives from God’s Word series. Dallas: Word Publishing, 1997.

Tadmor, Hayim. "Traditional Institutions and the Monarchy: Social and Political Tensions in the Time of David and Solomon." In Studies in the Period of David and Solomon and Other Essays, pp. 237-57. Edited by Tomoo Ishida. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1982.

Talmon, Shemaryahu. King, Cult, and Calendar in Ancient Israel: Collected Studies. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1986.

Thenius. O. Die Bücher Samuels. Kurzgefasstes exegetisches Handbuch zum Alten Testament 4. 2nd ed. Leipzig: S. Hirzel, 1864.

Thiele, Edwin R. The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1965.

Thompson, J. A. 1, 2 Chronicles. New American Commentary series. N.c.: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1994.

Tidwell, N. L. "The Linen Ephod: 1 Sam. II 18 and 2 Sam. VI 14." Vetus Testamentum 24:4 (October l974):505-7.

Tsevat, Matitiahu. "The House of David in Nathan’s Prophecy." Biblica 46 (1965):353-56.

_____. "Studies in the Book of Samuel," Hebrew Union College Annual 34 (1963):71-82; 36 (1965):49-58.

Tucker, Stanley D. "The Theology of the Book of Samuel: A Study of God’s Humiliation or Exaltation of Leaders." Biblical Viewpoint 12:2 (1978):152-59.

Vanderkam, James C. "Davidic Complicity in the Deaths of Abner and Eshbaal: A Historical and Redactional Study." Journal of Biblical Literature 99:4 (1980):521-39.

Vogels, Walter. "David’s Greatness in His Sin and Repentance." The Way 15:4 (1975):243-54.

Waltke, Bruce K. "The Phenomenon of Conditionality Within Unconditional Covenants." In Israel’s Apostasy and Restoration: Essays in Honor of Roland K. Harrison, pp. 123-39. Edited by Avraham Gileadi. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1988.

Walvoord, John F. "The New Covenant." In Integrity of Heart, Skillfulness of Hands, pp. 186-200. Edited by Charles H. Dyer and Roy B. Zuck. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1994.

Weinfeld, Moshe. "The Covenant of Grant in the Old Testament and in the Ancient Near East." Journal of the American Oriental Society 90:2 (1970):184-203.

Wenham, G. J. "Were David’s Sons Priests?" Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 87:1 (1975):79-82.

Wharton, James A. "A Plausible Tale: Story and Theology in 2 Samuel 9-20, 1 Kings 1-2." Interpretation 35:4 (October 1981):341-54.

Whitelam, Keith W. "The Defence of David." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 29 (June 1984):61-87.

Whyte, Alexander. Bible Characters. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1952.

Wood, Leon J. Israel’s United Monarchy. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1979.

_____. The Prophets of Israel. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1979.

_____. A Survey of Israel’s History. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1970.

Yadin, Yigael. The Art of Warfare in Biblical Lands in the Light of Archaeological Discovery. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1963.

Yee, Gale A. "The Anatomy of Biblical Parody: The Dirge Form in 2 Samuel 1 and Isaiah 14." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 50:4 (October 1988):565-86.

_____. "’Fraught With Background’: Literary Ambiguity in 2 Samuel 11." Interpretation 42:3 (July 1988):240-53.

Young, Fred E. "First and Second Samuel." In The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, pp. 273-305. Edited by Charles F. Pfeiffer and Everett F. Harrison. Chicago: Moody Press, 1962.

Youngblood, Ronald F. "1, 2 Samuel." In Deuteronomy-2 Samuel. Vol. 3 of The Expositor’s Bible Commentary. 12 vols. Edited by Frank E. Gaebelein and Richard P. Polcyn. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1992.

Zapf, David L. "How Are the Mighty Fallen! A Study of 2Sa_1:17-27." Grace Theological Journal 5:1 (1984):95-126.

adsFree icon
Ads FreeProfile