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Bible Commentaries
Ephesians 1

Bell's Commentary on the BibleBell's Commentary

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Verses 1-6

  1. Intro: Status & Privilege in Christ
    1. Next week is Kelly & I celebrate our 34th anniv. But 4 1/2 years earlier when we started dating...I let her know early in our relationship that I had my eye on her for a long while. I was attracted to her before she knew it. I liked her before she liked me.
      1. God says the same to us, in this letter.
    2. Some parents have communicated to their children: You weren’t planned. You were an accident. You were a mistake. You’ll never amount to anything. When you’re 18 you’re out. But What does God communicate to us in this 1st section of Ephesians?
      1. Just the opposite: You were planned from the beginning. You were purchased at an expensive price. You will be with Me forever.
      2. And, each person of the Trinity was involved in these truths...in these family secrets.
        1. We were Planned by the Father. Purchased by the Son. And Preserved by the Spirit.
          1. Note the natural outline…in the phrase, praise of His glory in vs.6,12,14.
        2. I can’t fix your past if your parents uttered some of these things, but I can point you to our present truth & our future Hope.
      3. Paul’s Background w/Ephesus:
        1. On Paul’s 2nd missionary journey he visited Ephesus, & left Aquila & Priscilla behind. He returned 2 years later & ministered for 3 years. Years later while under house arrest in Rome he writes this letter to the believers in Ephesus [Other 3 prison epistles: Philippines, Colossians, Philemon]
        2. Ephesus was famous for its temple to Diana/Artemis (7th Wonder of the Ancient world). Ephesus emerged as the religious center of all Asia.
        3. They had a stadium that held 50,000 spectators. This is where the riot broke out regarding Paul & his friends. Extraordinary miracles took place there…
          1. Acts 19:11,12 And God was doing extraordinary miracles by the hands of Paul, so that even handkerchiefs or aprons that had touched his skin were carried away to the sick, and their diseases left them and the evil spirits came out of them.
        4. Paul reminds us we are rich beyond measure…yet living like beggars.
          1. Why? Because were ignorant of our wealth.
          2. Ch.1-3 is about us understanding our spiritual wealth (see 1:3) [our heavenly bank account] Ch.4-6 is about us understanding our spiritual walk [rooted in our sp wealth is our sp walk, or how we should behave ourselves] (see 4:1)
    1. Vs.3-14 form a single sentence in the Greek text. [longest in the bible]
    2. Every spiritual blessing – made available in Christ. [Like string of pearls, not just 1]
      1. The blessings listed in this passage should be understood in their entirety, rather than as individual blessings. Together, these blessings express the full scope of God’s redemptive activity.
        1. The great Scottish Bible expositor Alexander MacLaren wrote: We may have as much of God as we will. Christ puts the key of the treasure-chamber into our hand, and bids us take all that we want. If a man is admitted into the vault of a bank and told to help himself, & comes out with 1 cent, whose fault is it that he is poor?
          1. We are rich beyond measure Christians...but we often live like beggars.
        2. So you are not trying to get anything from God...because you have it already.
    3. And these spiritual blessings are where? In the heavenly places – because that’s where spiritual blessings are found (as opposed to earth).
    4. In Him - God found in Christ the all-sufficient merits for redeeming men w/o violating His righteousness. In Christ refers to the believer’s union and identification with Christ. [in Christ 12 x’s in Eph. 87x’s in NT]
    1. HE ELECTED US - He chose us in Him
    2. He chose us (Election) & Predestined us (destine beforehand, Paul uses 5x’s in epistles).
      1. The doctrine of Election is a Divine Revelation not human speculation.
        1. It was not dreamed up by Augustine, Luther, or Calvin, nor by Paul himself. It is revelation from God however mysterious it is.
      2. Why is he sharing this? This is a bedrock of confidence for the believer.
        1. He drew you, you didn’t draw Him (by anything you’ve said or done).
      3. What was this based on? His good pleasure & will (5b).
        1. This is the only Explanation! (we leave it there)
        2. There is a reason why He elects the chosen, but this reason is found in God & not in them.
        3. Of course He wasn’t obliged to save any…so the greater question, once you understand His holiness...is why did He save One???
      4. Election simply states, believers...your salvation wasn’t an afterthought.
    3. SO WHEN DID HE ELECT US? (4a) before the foundation of the world.
      1. Humanities story line does not go...That we were created. Then by sin we became ornery orphans. To which God came up w/a plan called adoption. NO!
        1. No, there was a plan called predestination. We were predestined for adoption. When, before the foundation of the world. Before you existed. Before the universe existed.
        2. This phrase is found elsewhere in the NT: John speaks of the Father’s love for the Son before the foundation of the world (Jn.17:24). 1 Peter refers to God’s plan of salvation through the lamb being known before the foundation of the world (1Pt.1:20). Revelation describes the names in the book of life as written before the foundation of the world (Rev.13:8).
        3. * One false charge against the doctrine of Election is, If we are chosen, then we can do what we like, live like we want (Nothing further from the truth, read vs4b)
    4. SO WHY DID HE ELECT US? (4b)
    5. That we should be holy and w/o blame before him in love.
      1. So elections purpose is Sanctification. Election promotes & demands Holiness
      2. Holiness...the telltale evidence of being elected.
        1. If God has elected us, He has not elected us to remain sinners but to become holy.
        2. Jesus never saves us IN our sins, He saves us FROM our sins.
    6. In summary, Paul teaches that in all of God’s dealings with the created order He works according to a predetermined plan, as eternal as Himself (but not apart from Himself or Christ), in such a way that His own inner being and divine good will are satisfied.
    7. HE ADOPTED US (5)
    8. The bestowing of familial rights & privileges on a person born outside the family.
      1. Story: My wife and I waited 15 years for a child that never came by the natural way. However we were approached one day with a lead of a newborn not yet born. I remember standing in front of the judge on our day of adoption. He pointed his finger and asked of me, “Is anyone coercing you to adopt this little boy?” After we had assured him that we were doing so out of love for our son, he made this statement. “From today on, he is your son. He may disappoint you, even grieve you but he is your son. Everything you own one day will be his and he will bear your name.” Then he looked to the clerk and gave this command. “So order a change in this child’s birth certificate and may it reflect that these are the parents of this child.”
        1. It was then that I realized that my Heavenly Father loved me so much that, without coercion, He loved me and gave His all to me. On that day, He changed my name and I gladly bear His name and His image. Gerald Penix
      2. ​​​​​​​Adoption involves the placing of a family member into the privileges & blessings of adulthood.
      3. The adopted person had all the rights of a legitimate son in his new family, & completely lost all rights in his old family.
        1. In the eyes of the law he was a new person.
        2. Even all debts & obligations from his previous family were abolished.
      4. And God didn’t adopt cute lil kids, but instead He adopted enemies.
    9. (6) To the praise of His glory (vs. 6,12,14) – Wait, it’s not all about me?​​​​​​​ God saves sinners not to solve their problems but to bring glory to Himself. (say again)
      1. So, God gets the glory...you get the joy!
    10. God’s Fatherly relationship with Jesus implies 4 things: 1st it implies authority. The Father commands and disposes’. He calls his Son to exercise obedience to his will. 2nd, it implies affection. 3rd, fellowship. 4th, honor (God wills to exalt his Son).
      1. All this extends to us/God’s adopted children. In, thru, & under JC their Lord, we are ruled, loved, accompanied, and honored by our heavenly Father.
    11. HE ACCEPTED US (6)
    12. He made us accepted – made us or favored us. (like Mary, rejoice highly favored one in Lk1:28)
      1. In ourselves, we are not acceptable to God, but in Christ, we are made accepted. Read the Epistle to Philemon for a beautiful illustration of this truth. Paul wrote, Receive your slave Onesimus as you would receive me. Phile.17
    13. Recap: He Elected us. He Adopted us. He Accepted us.

Verses 7-14

  1. Intro:
    1. Story: When a timid older lady, approached the first desk she saw in an Insurance office, she was asked what she wanted. With trembling hand, she took from her well-worn purse an old policy and explained regretfully that she was unable to meet the current premium. She explained that it was hard for her to get work and what little she did get was hardly enough to clothe, feed her and keep a roof over her head.

      After quick investigation, the clerk recognized that the policy was very valuable. He warned the old lady that she was making an unwise move to stop payment. Did not her husband have anything to say? It was his policy made out to her benefit, he explained. “My husband? Oh, he has been dead for 3 years,” she remarked sadly.Immediately the company officials went into action. They soon discovered that she was indeed telling the truth. What she didn’t understand was that the policy was her husband’s and that she was the beneficiary at his death. They were thus obligated to refund the overpaid premiums plus the full amount for which the husband had insured his life in her favor. The money was sufficient to keep her in comfort the rest of her life.
      1. Listen: The greatest life insurance policy of all time became due when Jesus Christ died on the cross.
        1. Thousands of people continue trying to make payments on their own salvation while all they need to do is accept the immeasurable gift that is theirs through the death and resurrection of Jesus.
        2. To become the beneficiary of God’s Life Insurance Policy, we need simply to acknowledge our need as sinners and thank Him for the gift of His only begotten Son who died on the cross and rose again, that we might have God’s forgiveness.
      2. Last week: looked at what was Planned by the Father (we were Elected, Adopted, Accepted). This week we’ll look at how the rest of the Trinity was at work.
        1. Purchased & Preserved. Purchased by the Son & Preserved by the Spirit.
      3. Here Paul drew past, present, and future together. And he looked at the work of each of the Persons of the Godhead as it relates to you and me.
        1. God the Father, in eternity past, chose us in Christ to be holy and blameless. He predestined us to be adopted as sons, pouring out His grace on us in Christ.
        2. God the Son, in history past, redeemed us through His blood, bringing us forgiveness and lavishing on us gifts of wisdom and understanding. Even now we are included in Christ, and looking forward to the complete fulfillment of God’s plan and the glory that fulfillment holds for us.
        3. Now too we have been sealed by God’s gift of the Holy Spirit, the living guarantee of our inheritance to come.
    2. 3 main words in NT for redemption:
    3. Agorazo - buy in the market. [Gk Marketplace Acts 17:17 = agora]
      1. 1 Cor. 6:20 For you were bought at a price; therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God’s. [emphasizes the price paid for us/the slave]
    4. Exagorazo - buy out of the market. [ex = out of]
      1. Gal.3:13 Christ has redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become a curse for us for it is written, Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree.
    5. Lutroo - to set free never to be bought again. [luo = loose, set free, deliver, release]
      1. Titus 2:14 (Jesus) who gave Himself for us, that He might redeem us from every lawless deed and purify for Himself His own special people.
        1. But the Greek word used here for redemption is apolutrōsis, full redemption. Referring to the act of paying to free a slave for good.
    6. So remember, we were slaves to sin. Then Christ purchased us, delivering us, loosing us & setting us completely free from the penalty and power of sin.
      1. And one day we shall have a future redemption (vs.14 until the redemption of the purchased possession) when Christ delivers us from even the very presence of sin...at His return.
    7. JESUS FORGAVE US (7b)
    8. Forgive literally means to send away.
      1. Sin is a terrible burden that is sent away when a sinner turns to Christ.
      2. Christ carried/bore the burden of our sins on the cross.
      3. This is also pictured in Lev.16 by the scapegoat on the Day of Atonement, when it was taken into the wilderness (after the high priest had placed his hands on the head of the goat, conferring Israel’s sin upon it).
    9. Forgiveness is the divine miracle of grace. The cost to God was the Cross of Christ. (Oswald Chambers, My Utmost For His Highest, 11/20)
      1. Slide13 Oswald Chambers said, Once you realize all that it cost God to forgive you, you will be held as in a vise, constrained by the love of God [beautiful tension]
        1. A vise having 2 parallel jaws (1 fixed, the other movable). [on the fixed side...His grace, on the other arm His cost]
    11. (9) Mystery - all the details weren’t given in the OT on redemption.
      1. Christ was seen in the OT as: The woman’s seed. The Passover lamb. The atoning sac. The Bronze serpent. The promised Prophet. The deliverer. The kinsman redeemer, etc.
      2. But the NT is a quantum leap in the redemptive picture…John pointing to Jesus & saying, behold the lamb, was very clear.
        1. Jn.4:25,26 The woman (at the well) said to Him, I know that Messiah is coming who is called Christ. When He comes, He will tell us all things. Jesus said to her, I who speak to you am He...was very clear.
      3. Mystery then refers to God’s plan of salvation, which was formerly kept secret but is now revealed in Christ. This plan also includes the unification of Jews & Gentiles into one new people of God.
    12. (10) Gather together in one - 1 word in the orig language. To bring together.
      1. ​​​​​​​It was a word pregnant with meaning. It referred to the process of gathering something together to present as a whole.
      2. Used only 1 other time by Paul in Rom.13:9 For the commandments, You shall not commit adultery, You shall not murder, You shall not steal, You shall not bear false witness, You shall not covet, and if there is any other commandment, are all summed up in this saying, namely, You shall love your neighbor as yourself.
    14. Inheritance - refers to our complete experience of our salvation that God promises to us but which we have yet to receive in full.
      1. This experience culminates in our completed redemption, upon Jesus’ return.
    1. ​​​​​​​THE HOLY SPIRIT SEALED US (13)
    2. First note, this verse outlines “the way of salvation”. [read & note: heard, believed, sealed]
      1. The sinner hears the Word of Truth, believes/trusts in Christ, receives the Holy Spirit, and is sealed forever.
      2. He becomes a special seal on our heart at the moment of our salvation.
    3. Sealed - used only few times in the NT [It was an indelible mark, representing a promise]
      1. Slide17b 3 meanings in the NT: to seal shut (the tomb). A sign of authenticity (Ab circumcision was a sign & seal of the rt he had by faith). Being protected (144,000 sealed/protected from harm from the wrath coming on the world).
        1. I think all 3 can refer to us. The HS seals us shut...He seals in faith and seals out unbelief/apostasy. The HS owns us...if we have the HS we are sealed w/God’s trademark, real & authentic. The HS protects us...and nobody can break Gods seal.
      2. A true believer, losing their salvation? How? The seal, that is sealed on our soul, is an indelible mark that reads…Child of God.
    5. My guarantee is on Him (God)…not me.
      1. When you seal a package, the seal guarantees the product inside.
      2. So it not only indicates ownership, but also guarantees correctness of the contents.
    6. The Holy Spirit who seals is a deposit guaranteeing our inheritance.
      1. The deposit is more than a pledge which could be returned; it is a down payment with a guarantee of more to come.
        1. It’s as if God dropped a million dollars into your account & said, though you can’t spend it now…you can enjoy the interest.
    7. The Holy Spirit Himself is the guarantee the arrabōn. He guarantees the believers inheritance of salvation and heaven 1 Pet.1:4 to an inheritance incorruptible & undefiled & that does not fade away, reserved in heaven for you.
      1. In essence, the deposit of the Holy Spirit is a little bit of heaven in believers’ lives, with a guarantee of much more yet to come.
    8. Slide18c What stunning truths…
      1. Somehow you and I, with all God’s people, have been the focus of His concern from before the Creation of the universe.
      2. Each person of the Godhead - Father, Son, and Holy Spirit - has been involved in bringing us the grace in which we now stand.
      3. In view of all this, there is no way that a Christian can see himself or herself as insignificant, unimportant, or ineffectual.
      4. The focused energies of God have been spent on our redemption because in Christ we are so significant to Him. We are important. And, with God’s Spirit present in us, we have the power to live to the praise of His glory.
    9. Well believers, we have more pearls on our necklace, answering, what are a few of our every spiritual blessings?
      1. Chose us (4); adopted us (5); graciously favored us (6); redeemed us (7); forgiven us (7); His will was revealed to us (9); made us an inheritance (11); sealed us (13); and gave us His HS as a deposit (14).
      2. When peace like a river attendeth your way, When sorrows like sea billows roll, Whatever your lot - I have taught you to say, It is well, it is well, with your soul.

Verses 15-23

  1. Intro: Holy Heartburn
    1. Last week Paul completed his 203 word sentence of blessing. It included being: Chosen; adopted; graciously favored; redeemed; forgiven; His revealed will to us; made us an inheritance; sealed; gave the H.S. as a deposit.
      1. Now Paul’s thanksgiving for God’s plan of salvation in Christ (last section) overflows into prayer (vs.15-23).
      2. As vs.3-14 was 1 long run on sentence in the orig, here we have another.
        1. 1st preaches to them...now prays for them.
    2. Paul shares 2 prayers in Ephesians. Here in 1:15-23 That you may know (1:18) It’s a prayer for Enlightenment [knowing what God has done for you in Christ]. And, in 3:13-21 That you may be (3:19) Enablement [experiencing His blessings].
    3. (15,16) His prayer starts out with thanksgiving over the saints faith & love.
    4. After demonstrating that believers have all spiritual blessings (3-14), Paul now prays that believers would come to know God intimately (17) in order that they might know 3 facts:
  2. KNOW GOD INTIMATELY (17,18a) that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give to you the spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of Him, the eyes of your understanding(heart) being enlightened;
    1. 1st step to Knowing God is saving faith. 2nd step is knowing Him better which is meant here.
      1. It involves more than knowing just facts about Him. Facts are helpful...but not enough.
    2. The eyes of your understanding(heart) being enlightened –
      1. Remember the song by Paul Baloche wrote, Open the eyes of my heart Lord.
      2. This is done by opening our spiritual eyes. Jn.9:39 For judgment I have come into this world, that those who do not see may see, and that those who see may be made blind. (obviously speaking spiritually, not physically)
      3. Many Christians have learned a lot about God, but what about experiencing Him? [it’s using our other eyes]
        1. Our spiritual eyes absorb reality at the innermost level of our being. The eyes of our heart are like an instrument that is used to perceive and understand deep truth and deep reality.
        2. 1st truth comes to our minds, but for truth to truly take hold of us, it must penetrate all the way to the heart. Only when this happens can our will be properly energized and motivated. It’s Holy Heart-burn!
          1. ​​​​​​​Remember in Lk.24. Jesus (post res) meets up w/2 disciples on the road to Emmaus. They didn’t know it was Him. They converse. He stays w/them for the evening, has supper, took/blessed/broke bread, then vanished. They said, Didn’t our heart burn w/in us while He talked w/us on the road & while He opened the Scriptures to us. Holy Heart-burn!
      4. Jeremiah said, let him who glories glory in this, That he understands and knows Me (9:24). [cognitive & acquaintance]
        1. The word know (yada) means far more than intellectual knowledge.
        2. It conveyed the sense of a close personal relationship; and protection. It was even used of the intimate relations experienced by a husband and wife.
    3. Illus: They say there are 2500 dating web sites in US & 5000 worldwide. 25 major one’s (1 million current/active/unique users...like match, eHarmony, okCupid, christianmingle, plenty of fish, etc.)
      1. Let’s say you find a number of people that seem interesting. Would you run out & marry the person who had the best written profile?
        1. We need to spend some time with the person & get to know them before we decide that we love them.
      2. The same is true of God. His word should warm our hearts, & intrigue our minds as we read about the miraculous, & His loving nature, but we fall in love with Him by starting a relationship with Him & having our own personal interaction with Him.
      3. That’s what we do when we open the eyes of our heart.
        1. ​​​​​​​We move beyond just seeing Him with our physical eyes, by reading & learning about Him through the bible, & we see Him for who He truly is…a loving God, who wants a love relationship w/us that moves beyond head knowledge.
    4. Let’s look at some more illustrations logically & analytically.
      1. Slide14 Music – A sheet of music is only a mathematical representation of it, only sticks & dots on a lined page. Or, I can show you my sound level meter app, which measures the decibel of the music. [But this isn’t experiencing music!]
        1. You really need to hear/feel music to experience it. [Give me my iPod, w/my Bose 2 headphones]
      2. Slide15,16 Sunset – You can even describe color mathematically. [But this isn’t experiencing a sunset]
        1. You really need to see orange to know how it looks.
      3. Slide17a/b Steak – You can describe a steak anatomically (phys structure).
        1. But you’ll never experience your taste buds dancing from the wonderful explosion of a BBQ’d steak (medium rare) in your mouth, until you enjoy one yourself.
      4. Slide18a/b You can describe God theologically (& list out his attributes, creation, redemption & such) but unless we experience God ourselves we will never truly know him.
        1. Taste & see that the Lord is good. Ps.34:8. We must open the eyes of our heart to see & know Him more.
    5. We must not see with only our regular eyes because…
      1. Trials will never make sense. Hard times will never make sense. Death will never make sense. Pain & illness will never make sense. Spiritual warfare will never make sense.
        1. We must see past our current situation, & know our loving God is on our side & looking out for our good.
    6. How did Paul do it? Sounds like, in prayer, in communion with Him.
      1. Not with new knowledge to the brain, but changing the disposition of the heart.
      2. The whole Christian life involves an unfolding & enlarging of the hearts openness to the things of God.
      3. We don’t need more truth, or better truth, we just need our spiritual eyes open to the truths.
    7. After praying they would know God intimately (17) he prays they would know 3 facts:​​​​​​​ (1) the past call of salvation that produced hope (18a). (2) the future inheritance that God has in His saints (18b). (3) the present power of God that’s available to believers (19-23)
  3. KNOW ABOUT THE PAST (18b) what is the hope of his calling.
    1. ​​​​​​​Fact #1 pertains to our past. A believer’s present hope has its source in the past, when he/ she was called to salvation.
      1. Hope in Scripture is the absolute certainty of a believer’s victory in God.
      2. So we have this blessed hope for all eternity that depends not on our goodness but on His grace.
  4. KNOW ABOUT THE FUTURE (18c) what are the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints.
    1. ​​​​​​​Fact #2 pertains to our future. Out into the future, at the time of the great resurrection of the saints, those set apart by God to God. God will inherit those whom He has purchased at a great price according to the riches of His grace.
    2. This isn’t a reference to our inheritance we receive in him (11) but to His inheritance in us!
    3. We are His treasure in the field He bought. We are His expensive pearl He bought.
      1. Mt.13:44-46nlt The Kingdom of Heaven is like a treasure that a man discovered hidden in a field. In his excitement, he hid it again and sold everything he owned to get enough money to buy the field. 45 Again, the Kingdom of Heaven is like a merchant on the lookout for choice pearls. 46 When he discovered a pearl of great value, he sold everything he owned and bought it!
    4. And all because of His glorious grace (6) of our glorious Father (17), He will receive His glorious inheritance (18) you & me :)
  5. KNOW ABOUT THE PRESENT (19-23) what is the exceeding greatness of His power toward us who believe, according to the working of His mighty power.
    1. ​​​​​​​Fact #3 pertains to our present. His incomparably great power for us who believe.
      1. Power/dunamis - means a spiritually dynamic and living force.
      2. This power of God is directed toward believers.
    2. Paul then used 3 additional words to describe God’s power: according to the working of His mighty power.
      1. ​​​​​​​Working - energeia(energay-a) energetic power, where we get our word energy.
      2. Mighty - ischys (esKuse), God’s inherent strength which He provides.
      3. Power - kratous (kratos) power that overcomes resistance, as in Christ’s miracles; this word is used only of God, never of believers.
        1. This magnificent accumulation of words for power underscores the magnitude of God’s great power available to Christians, available now for our daily lives.
        2. Oh, that you would have experiential knowledge, the realization & confidence that as believers we possess divine power.
        3. Christ has already won the victory over sin, death, the world, and Satan.
        4. So we do not fight for victory but from victory. We are seated with Him in the heavenly places, where there is power, peace, and victory. (wow!)
          1. (2:6) Not only has God made us alive and raised us with Christ, but He has also seated us with Him in the heavenly places.
            1. We are positioned spiritually in heaven, where Christ is. [standing/state positional/exp]
            2. We are no longer mere earthlings; our citizenship is in heaven (Phil.3:20).
            3. Jesus is the exalted Son of God, and we are exalted sons/daughters of God.
    3. Next, Paul mentioned 3 manifestations of God’s power which are seen in Christ (20-23).
    4. The present power of God that is available to believers (1) was manifested in the past in Christ’s resurrection and Ascension (2) will be manifested in the future in Christ’s headship over Creation (3) is presently manifested in Christ’s headship over the church.
      1. Past - God’s energetic power which resurrected & exalted Christ in the past.
        1. This power is the same power available to believers in the present.
        2. What an amazing source of spiritual vitality, power, and strength for living the Christian life.
        3. Christ’s Ascension to the right hand of God involves His being exalted above every order of authority, human and superhuman, whether present, or in the future.
      2. Future - will be manifested in the future in Christ’s headship over Creation.
        1. Whereas Adam lost his headship over Creation when he sinned, Christ was made Head over all Creation (vs.10). This will be fully realized in the future.
      3. Present - presently manifested in Christ’s headship over the church.
        1. He is now Head over the fellowship of believers.
        2. The church is His body, the universal church consisting of all believers, which is the fullness of Him who fills all in all, or everything in every way.
    5. Pray this prayer for yourself, for your spouse, your friends, your church, your church leaders.
Bibliographical Information
Bell, Brian. "Commentary on Ephesians 1". "Bell's Commentary". https://studylight.org/commentaries/eng/cbb/ephesians-1.html. 2017.
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