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Victory in southern Canaan (10:1-43)
The five kings who between them controlled much of southern Canaan saw Joshua’s control of Gibeon as a threat to their security. They decided to conquer Gibeon and so stop any further move south by Israel (10:1-5).
Joshua faced his biggest battle thus far. He knew that it would be a life-or-death struggle, but God encouraged him with the assurance of victory (6-8). God then helped make victory possible by causing some unusual changes in the weather that were favourable to Israel but fatal to the enemy (9-15). The enemy armies were almost destroyed, though some people found refuge in the fortified Canaanite cities (16-21). The five kings were then killed in a public execution, which included symbolic actions to reassure Israel’s military leaders that no enemy could stand before them (22-27).
Encouraged by the victory, Joshua led his forces farther into the southern regions of Canaan, where he conquered the key cities. These included cities in the foothills leading down to the coast, such as Libnah, Lachish, Gezer and Eglon (28-35), and more elevated cities in the central tableland such as Hebron and Debir (36-39). The conquest continued till it reached as far south as Kadesh-barnea and as far west as Gaza on the Mediterranean coast. Israel now controlled almost the whole of southern Canaan (40-43).
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Flemming, Donald C. "Commentary on Joshua 10". "Fleming's Bridgeway Bible Commentary". https://studylight.org/
the Second Week of Advent