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Moses’ victory song (15:1-21)
The song that Moses and the people sang was more than just a song of rejoicing over a fallen enemy. It was above all a song of praise to God, whose character the people had come to know better in the events of their deliverance from Egypt. He was a God of power who saved his people and overthrew their enemies, a God of terrible majesty and holiness who so directed the forces of nature that arrogant, rebellious people were destroyed (15:1-10). Yahweh executed his judgment on Egypt’s gods and proved to his people that he was the only God. Moreover, he was their covenant Redeemer, and was faithful to his promises (11-13; cf. 6:6; 12:12).
In addition the victory gave Israel confidence for the future. As God overthrew mighty Egypt, so he would overthrow less powerful nations that Israel would meet on the journey ahead. Having redeemed his people from bondage, God would surely bring them into the land he had promised them (14-18). Miriam then led the women in a victory celebration of music, dancing and singing (19-21).
15:22-18:27 JOURNEY TO SINAI
Complaints about water (15:22-27)
Having spent all their lives in Egypt, the Israelite people were not prepared for the hardships of life in the barren wilderness regions. Their joyous feelings of faith, so confidently displayed in their song of victory at the Red Sea, did not last long. When, after three days thirsty travel, they found that the only water available was undrinkable, they complained bitterly (22-24).
God had to teach the people that his presence among them did not mean they would be free of the problems of daily living. Nevertheless, if they lived each day in obedience to him, he would help them survive in the desert amid hardship and disease. He could teach them bushcraft so that undrinkable water could be made drinkable; or he could guide their journeyings so that they came to places where good water was available (25-27).
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Flemming, Donald C. "Commentary on Exodus 15". "Fleming's Bridgeway Bible Commentary". https://studylight.org/
the Second Week of Advent