the Week of Proper 3 / Ordinary 8
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #8674 - תַּתְּנַי
Tatnai = “gift”
1) a Persian governor in Syria who opposed the rebuilding of Jerusalem
ב, בּ, Bêth, 2nd letter; post Biblical Hebrew = numeral 2 (and so in margin of printed MT); ב֟ = 2000; no evidence of this usage in OT times.
preposition in (Moabite בּ, Syriac , Arabic , Ethiopic ) before tone-syllables in certain cases (Ges§ 102. 2) בָּ, with suffix בִּי; בְּךָ ( Exodus 7:29; 2 Samuel 22:30; Psalm 141:8 בְּכָה), in pause and feminine בָּךְ; בּוֺ (once, Jeremiah 17:24 Kt בֹּה), בָּהּ; בָּנוּ; בָּכֶם, [בָּכֶן]; בָּהֶם, בָּם [also בָּהֵ֫מָּה Exodus 30:4; Exodus 36:1; Habakkuk 1:16], בָּהֶן 1 Samuel 31:7; Isaiah 38:16; Ezekiel 42:14 [15 times בָּהֵן (Fr MM 235), and thrice, Leviticus 5:22; Numbers 13:19; Jeremiah 5:17, בָּהֵ֫נָּה]. Preposition denoting properly in, Greek ἐν, but applied in many derived and figurative significations. The senses expressed by בְּ are grouped by the Rabbis in three classes, בֵּית הַכְּלִי Beth vasculi, בֵּית הַדִּיבִּוּק וְהַנְּגִיעָה Beth coniunctionis et viciniae, בֵּית הָעֵזֶר Beth auxilii; and the same arrangement may be followed here, though the limits between the three classes are not clearly defined, and they sometimes overlap one another.
1 strictly, of position in a place (which often is expressed more precisely by בְּקֶרֶב, בְּתוֺךְ), as בַּבַּיִת in the house, בָּעִיר in the city, בַּדּוּד in the pot, בָּאָרֶץ in the land, etc. constantly. Hebrew idiom also says בָּהָר in the mountain Exodus 24:18 etc., even in cases where we could hardly avoid saying on, as 1 Kings 11:7; 1 Kings 19:11: so בְּחֹרֵב Deuteronomy 1:16 and elsewhere; בְּראֹשׁ הָהָר Exodus 24:17; Psalm 72:16. Preceded by a verb of motion (especially עָבַר) בְּ = through, as Genesis 12:6 and Abram passed through בָּאָרֶץ in the land = passed through it, Genesis 13:17; 2 Samuel 24:2 +; in (= through) a gate, Isaiah 62:10; Jeremiah 17:19; Micah 2:13. Figurative to speak בְּאָזְנֵי in the ears of ...; to be good ( or evil, etc.) בְּעֵינֵי in the eyes of ...
2 of presence in the midst of a multitude, among, Exodus 14:28 there was not left בָּהֶם among them even one, Leviticus 26:36; 2 Samuel 15:31 Ahitophel בַּקֹּשְׁרִים is among the conspirators, 2 Kings 18:5 בְּכֹל מַלְכֵי יְהוּדָה. So בְּךָ in thee (of Israel, collective) Deuteronomy 7:14; Deuteronomy 15:4,7; Deuteronomy 18:10; Deuteronomy 23:11; Deuteronomy 28:54 (different from עִמָּ֑ח beside thee Leviticus 25:35). — Specifically
a. of an individual, implying eminency among: Joshua 14:15; Jeremiah 46:18 Tabor among the mountains, Jeremiah 49:15; Proverbs 30:30; Song of Solomon 1:8 הַיָּפָה בַנָּשִׁים the fair one (= the fairest) among women, Lamentations 1:1: compare Luke 1:42. On 1 Samuel 17:12 see Dr.
b. hence with some verbs, when the action refers to only a part of the object, as הִכָּהַ בְּ to smite among... i.e. to smite some of... (different from הִכָּה with accusative); הָרַג בְּ Psalm 78:31; נָשָׂא בְּ to bear in, i.e. to share in bearing, Numbers 11:17 and elsewhere; בָּנָה בְּ to build in or at Zechariah 6:15; Nehemiah 4:4; עָשָׂה בְּ Exodus 5:9; עָמֵל בְּ to labour on Jonah 4:10; אָכַל בְּ, שָׁתָה בְּ to eat or drink of Judges 13:16; Proverbs 9:5; חָלַק בְּ to give a share in Job 39:17.
c. specifying the parts of which a whole consists (especially in P) Genesis 7:21; Genesis 8:17; Genesis 9:10,16; Genesis 17:23; Exodus 12:19; Numbers 31:11,26; Hosea 4:3.
3 with reference to the limits enclosing a space, within: Exodus 20:10 בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ within thy gates, Isaiah 56:5 בְּחוֺמוֺתַי within my walls.
4 often pregn. with verbs of motion, when the movement to a place results in rest in it, into: after בָּא Genesis 19:8; Isaiah 19:23; נָתַן Genesis 27:17; שָׁלַח to send Leviticus 16:22; in among Joshua 23:7,12; 1 Kings 11:2. — Hosea 12:7 (an extreme case) שׁוּב בְּ to return (and rest) in thy God, 1 Samuel 16:3 (unless לַזָּבַ֑ח should be read, as 1 Samuel 16:7). — עַיִן בְּעַיִן (with) eye (looking) into eye Numbers 14:14; Isaiah 52:8; מָּנִים בְּפָנִים Deuteronomy 5:4; בְּ׳עֵינֵי פְ the eyes of ... are upon, both in favourable ( Deuteronomy 11:12; Psalm 101:6) and hostile ( Amos 9:8; Job 7:8) sense.
5 applied to time, as Genesis 1:1 בְּרֵאשִׁית in the beginning; Genesis 2:2 בַּיּוֺם הַשְּׁבִיעִי on the seventh day; Judges 10:8 בַּשָּׁנָה הַהִיא in that year; & constantly.
6 of a state or condition, whether material or mental, in which an action takes place: so often, בְּשָׁלוֺם in peace Genesis 15:15; בַּצָּרָה in distress Psalm 91:15; הָלַךְ בְּתֻמּוֺ to walk in his integrity; Exodus 5:19 בְּרָע in evil case.
7בְּ introduces the predicate, denoting it as that in which the subject consists, or in which it shews itself (the Beth essentiae, — common in Arabic, especially with a participle or adjective and in a negative sentence: Qor 2:79 and God (appears) not as one remiss; 2:7 and they are not believers [compare French en — en honnête homme]; see W AG ii. § 56 a): namely
a. a primary predicate, Exodus 18:4 the God of my fathers בְּעֶזְרִי was my help, Psalm 146:5; Hosea 13:9 (read כִּי מִי בְעֶזְֶרךָ׃ with ᵐ5ᵑ6 Che and others); Psalm 68:5 בְּיָהּ שְׁמוֺ his name consists in Yah, Job 23:13; Job 37:10. With the predicate in the plural (as plural of majesty) Psalm 118:7 בְּעֹזְרָ֑י׳י J. is my great helper, Psalm 54:6 (see Che), Judges 11:35.
b. a secondary predicate, Exodus 6:3 and I appeared unto them בְּאֵל שַׁדָּ֑י as God Almighty, Numbers 26:53 בְּנַחֲלָה as an inheritance, Numbers 34:2; Ezekiel 46:16; Ezekiel 47:14; Deuteronomy 10:22; Deuteronomy 26:14 I have not put away therefrom בְּטָמֵא as one unclean = while unclean, Deuteronomy 28:62; Isaiah 40:10 בְּחָזָק יָבוֺא he cometh as a strong one, Psalm 35:2 (where see De) and rise up as my help, Psalm 35:16, Psalm 39:7; Psalm 55:19; Proverbs 3:26; Job 36:32 (De).
c. a predicate as accusative, Isaiah 48:10 I have refined thee וְלֹא בְכָ֑סֶף but not as though silver, Ezekiel 20:41; Numbers 18:26; Numbers 36:2; Joshua 13:6,7; Joshua 23:4; Ezekiel 45:1; Ezekiel 47:22 (twice in verse) (read יַמִּלוּ) Ezekiel 48:29 (see ᵐ5 Co) all בְּנַחֲלָה (compare
b.), Psalm 78:55 & allotted it בְּחֶבֶל נַחֲלָה as a line of inheritance (i.e. as a measured inheritance). Isaiah 26:4 ׳כִּי בְּיָהּ יהוה צוּר עוֺלָמִים י is different — for in Yah there is a rock of ages (compare Qor 4:7; 4:47 there is sufficiency in God as a patron).
d. in comparisons, Psalm 37:20 consume away בֶּעָשָׁן in the form of, as, smoke Psalm 78:33; Psalm 102:4; Job 34:36; Job 36:14.
II. Denoting proximity —
1 at, by (not very common): 1 Samuel 29:1 בָּעַיִן by the spring; Ezekiel 10:15,20 בִּנְהַר כְּבָר by the river Chebar ( Ezekiel 1:3 עַל).
2 on: Genesis 8:20; Numbers 23:2 בַּמִּזְבֵּחַ on the altar; Judges 8:21 on the necks of the camels; 1 Kings 2:5 and elsewhere בְּמָתְנָיו on his loins; Isaiah 59:17 a helmet בְּראֹשׁוֺ on his head.
3 often with verbs of touching, approaching, taking hold of, cleaving, etc., as אָחַז, דָּבֵק, חָשַׁק, נָגַע, נָגַשׁ, קָרַב, מָּגַּע, תָּמַךְ, תָּפַשׂ (see these words).
4 with words expressing or implying an act of hostility —
a. against: Genesis 16:12 יָדוֺ בַכֹּל וְיַד כֹּל בּוֺ his hand against all, and the hand of all against him; בּ׳הָֽיְתָה יַד מְּ Deuteronomy 13:10; 1 Samuel 5:9; 1 Samuel 18:17 #NAME? verbs (q. v.) of fighting (נִלְחַם, רִיב), going up to invade (עָלָה), being angry (הִתְעַבֵּר, אָנַף, חָרָה אַף), sinning or acting treacherously (חָטָא, בָּגַד, מָרַד, מָרָה, מָעַל, מָּשַׁע, שִׁקֵּר, כִּזֵּב, כִּחֵשׁ), testifying (עָנָה, הֵעִיד), mocking (הִלְעִיג, הֵתֵל), feeling loathing (קוּץ), rebuking (גָּעַר: properly to protest loudly), speaking (דִּבֶּר: Numbers 12:8b), etc., & even (an extreme case) Hosea 7:14 יָסוּרוּ בִי they turn aside (so as to be) against me. In a weaker sense מַשְׁתִּין בַּקִּיר mingens ad parietem 1 Samuel 25:22 and elsewhere
b. down to, upon ( super with accusative), especially in such phrases as דָּמָיו בּוֺ Leviticus 20:9 and elsewhere his blood be upon him; דָּמוֺ בְראֹשׁוֺ his blood be upon his head Joshua 2:19; ) בְּראֹשׁוֺ׳שׁוּב (הֵשִׁיב י Judges 8:57 (רָעָה), 1 Kings 2:33 (דָּם), 1 Kings 2:44 (רָעָה), Psalm 7:17 (עֲמָלוֺ); ׳בְּראֹשׁוֺ נָתַן דֶּרֶךְ מּ 1 Kings 8:32 & often in Ezekiel , as Ezekiel 9:10; Ezekiel 11:21.
III:1. With —
a. of accompaniment: Numbers 20:20 בְּעַם כָּבֵד with much people, Joshua 22:8; Judges 11:34; 1 Kings 10:2; 2 Kings 5:9; Jeremiah 41:15; Exodus 21:22 and he shall give בִּפְלִלִים with arbitrators (arbitrators being employed), Isaiah 8:16 בְּלִמֻּדָֽי׃ with my disciples, i.e. having them present; Exodus 8:1; Exodus 8:13; Jeremiah 11:19 עֵץ בְּלַחְמוֺ a tree with its sap; 1 Kings 19:19 וְהוּא בִּשְׁנֵים הֶעָשָׂר and he with the 12th.
b. often of what one takes or brings with one: Genesis 32:11 בְּמַקְלִי with my staff I passed over Jordan, Judges 11:34; Judges 15:1; 1 Samuel 1:24; Isaiah 7:24; Micah 6:6 and elsewhere קִדֵּם בְּ to go to meet with; בָּא בְּ to come with Leviticus 16:3; Psalm 66:13; Psalm 71:16. (In Arabic this usage is developed more fully than in Hebrew, and literally to come with, literally to go away with, are used idiomatically in the sense of to bring, and to take away respectively: W AG ii. § 56 b.) Hence בְּאֵין, בְּאֶפֶס, בִּבְלִי, בְּלֹא = without.
c. of concomitant (or surrounding) conditions, as בְּחִמָּזוֺן with (or in) haste; בְּצֶדֶק with (or in) righteousness; בִּשְׁגָגָה in error; בִּתְרוּעָה וּבְקוֺל שׁוֺפָר 2 Samuel 6:15; often in such phrases as בְּצִדְקָֽתְךָ Psalm 31:2 in thy righteousness; בְּחַסְדְּךָ in thy mercy Exodus 15:13; — בְּאָשְׁרִי with my happiness! = happy am I Genesis 30:13; Psalm 29:4 the voice of ׳י is בַּכֹּחַ with power = is powerful; Exodus 32:12 בְּרָעָה with evil purpose; Psalm 73:8 בְרָע in wickedness; Psalm 90:10 בִּגְבוּרֹת with strength.
2 of the instrument or means: as
a.בַּחֶרֶב with the sword Exodus 5:3 etc.; בְּרַגְלַיִם with the feet Isaiah 28:3; . . . בְּיַד by the hand of ... (see below יָד); to stone בְּאֶבֶן or בָּֽאֲבָנִים with stones Leviticus 20:2; Numbers 14:10 etc.; שָׁתָה בְּ to drink with a cup Genesis 44:5; Amos 6:6 (compare in Aramaic Daniel 5:2); to cry בְּגָרוֺן with the throat Isaiah 58:1; to burn בָּאֵשׁ in or with fire (often); to slay or to perish בָּרָעָב through hunger or בַּדֶּבֶר through pestilence Exodus 16:3; Jeremiah 21:9 + often (compare Job 27:15 בַּמָּוֶת יִקָּבֵ֑רוּ); to save with or by Judges 7:7; 1 Samuel 14:6.
b. idiomatic, with certain verbs, as שָׁחַק בְּ to play with Job 40:29; עָבַד בְּ to labour with a person (as with an instrument), i.e. to use him as a slave Exodus 1:14; Jeremiah 22:13; Jeremiah 27:7 and elsewhere; עָשָׂה בְּ Jeremiah 18:23; Nehemiah 9:24; Daniel 11:7; Esther 1:15; Esther 2:11; Esther 3:11; Esther 6:6; & perhaps דִּבֶּר בְּ (of God) to speak with one Numbers 12:2,8a and elsewhere (see Ew§ 217f. (3); Dr Sm ii. 23,2). Further בַּבַּעַל, הִתְנַבֵּא ביהוה to prophesy with or by ׳י or Baal, ׳י or Baal being the inspirer; שָׁאַל בְּ, דָּרַשׁ to inquire or ask by means of a god (or oracle).
c.ביהוה through ׳י (= by His aid) in many connections, as Psalm 18:30; Psalm 44:6; Psalm 56:5; Psalm 56:11; Psalm 60:14; Isaiah 26:13; Isaiah 45:25; Hosea 1:7; Zechariah 10:12; with passive verbs Deuteronomy 33:29; Isaiah 45:17 (to be saved): and even of the immediate cause Numbers 36:2 to be commanded ביהוה by ׳י, Genesis 9:6 בָּאָדָם by man shall his blood be shed (both unusual), Hosea 14:4.
d. allied is the use of בְּ in such phrases as to bless, swear, speak, prophesy, etc., בְּשֵׁם in the name of ... (i.e. the name being used or appealed to in the act) Deuteronomy 6:13; Jeremiah 11:21, etc. (so to swear ביהוה by ׳י Joshua 2:12 etc.,בִּימִינוֺ Isaiah 62:8; to bless בְּךָ with thee Genesis 48:20, to swear with me Psalm 102:9, i.e. using my name in oath, Jeremiah 29:22); almost = in the authority and power of 1 Samuel 17:45; 1 Samuel 25:5; 1 Kings 21:8; Micah 4:5; Zechariah 10:12; Psalm 20:6; Psalm 44:6; Psalm 89:25.
e.בַּמָּה or בַּמֶּה by means of what? how? Genesis 15:8; Judges 6:15; Judges 16:5,6,10; 1 Kings 22:21; Malachi 2:17. בְּזֹאת by means of this Genesis 42:15,33. Exodus 7:17; Numbers 16:28; with this = on this condition Genesis 34:15,22; 1 Samuel 11:2; Isaiah 27:9.
3 of cost or price (the Beth pretii), the price, whether given or received, being treated as the instrumental means by which the act is accomplished, with, for, at the cost of: thus regularly
a. with שָׂכַר hire Genesis 30:16, מָּדָה redeem Exodus 34:20, אֵרֵשׂ betroth 2 Samuel 3:14, קָנָה buy 2 Samuel 24:24; 1 Kings 2:23 בְּנַפְשׁוֺ at the cost of his life hath A. spoken this word, 2 Samuel 23:17 who went בְּנַפְשׂוֺתָם at peril of their lives, Proverbs 7:23; Lamentations 5:9; Joshua 6:26 בִּבְכֹרוֺ יְיַסְּדֶנָּה at the price of his firstborn shall he lay its foundations, 1 Chronicles 12:19 בְּרָאשֵׁינוּ to the jeopardy of our heads he will fall away, etc.
b. with מָכַר sell Deuteronomy 21:14; עָבַד serve Genesis 29:18,20; Hosea 12:13; הֵמִיר exchange Leviticus 27:10; Hosea 4:7 their glory I will exchange for ignominy, Psalm 106:20; נָתַן בְּנֶשֶׁךְ to give for interest Leviticus 25:37; Psalm 15:5; in other connections Genesis 23:9; Genesis 47:16f.; Isaiah 45:13; Lamentations 1:11; Song of Solomon 8:7; 8:11; Deuteronomy 19:21 נֶפֶשׁ בְּנֶפֶשׁ עַיִן בְּעַיִן life for life, eye for eye; Isaiah 2:22 בַּמֶּה נֶחְשָׁב הוּא at what is he to be accounted? Isaiah 7:23 a thousand vines בְּאֶלֶף כָּ֑סֶף at a thousand (shekels of) silver. — Hence (perhaps) the idiomatic usages שָׁנָה בְשָׁנָה year for year, one year like another, annually Deuteronomy 15:20 and elsewhere; יוֺם בְּיוֺם (late), כְּיוֺם בְּיוֺם 1 Samuel 18:10; כְּפַעַם בְּפַעַם (see יוֺם, מַּעַם); חֹדֶשׁ בְּחֹדֶשׁ 1 Chronicles 27:1.
4 rather peculiarly, in certain cases where the object of an action may be treated as the instrument by which it is accomplished: as הֵנַיעַ בְּראֹשׁ to shake with the head Jeremiah 18:6; Job 16:4 (as well as הֵנִיעַ ראֹשׁ Psalm 22:8); to open with the mouth Job 16:10, with the lips Psalm 22:8; to gnash with the teeth Job 16:9 (to gnash the teeth Psalm 35:16); to wink with the eye Proverbs 6:13 (to wink the eye, ib. Proverbs 10:10); נָתַן בְּקוֺל to utter with the voice Psalm 46:7; Psalm 68:34; Jeremiah 12:8 (but נָתַן קוֺל is more common); to stretch out with the hand Lamentations 1:17; הֵרִים בַּמַּטֶּה (unusual) Exodus 7:20. So קָרָא בְּשֵׁם to call with the name — in different senses, according to the context, namely, to proclaim Exodus 33:19; Exodus 34:5; Isaiah 44:5; Psalm 49:12; to invoke Genesis 4:26; Genesis 12:8; 1 Kings 18:24-26 Isaiah 12:4; to name honourably Isaiah 43:1; Isaiah 45:3. compare Ew§ 282 d Ges§ 119. 3 b R. W AG ii. § 56 b β De Job 31:12; Proverbs 20:30.
5 with a causal force, through, on account of: Genesis 18:28 הֲתַשְׁחִית בַּחֲמִשָּׁה wilt thou destroy on account of five the whole city? Leviticus 26:39; Numbers 16:26; Deuteronomy 9:4,5; Deuteronomy 24:16 אִישׁ בְּחֶטְאוֺ יוּמָֽתוּ׃ they shall be put to death, each because of his own sin (compare Jeremiah 31:30; Ezekiel 3:18, see Ezekiel 18:17) 2 Samuel 3:27; 2 Samuel 14:7 (compare Jonah 1:14) Isaiah 7:4 ("" מִן) Isaiah 28:7 ("" מִן) Isaiah 50:1; Isaiah 53:5; Isaiah 57:17; Jeremiah 51:46; Psalm 5:8; Psalm 5:11; Psalm 6:8 ("" מִן) Psalm 31:10; Psalm 32:3; Psalm 42:10; Psalm 90:9; Psalm 94:23. So in בַּאֲשֶׁר, בִּגְלַל (see אֲשֶׁר, גָּלָל), & (sometimes) in בִּדְבַר at, through, the word of ....
6 of the material with which a work is wrought, both absolute עָשָׁה בַזָּהָב to work with gold Exodus 31:4; 1 Kings 7:14; and to make a thing with (in our idiom, of) gold Exodus 38:8; Ezekiel 7:20; 1 Kings 15:22 (בָּנָה). Without a verb Leviticus 13:52; 2 Chronicles 9:18.
7 with for although, in spite of (compare German bei alle dem): Leviticus 26:27; Numbers 14:11 בְּכֹל הָאֹתוֺת in spite of all the signs that I have wrought, Deuteronomy 1:32; Isaiah 47:9; Psalm 27:3; especially in the phrase בְּכָלזֿאת for all this Isaiah 5:25; Isaiah 9:11; Isaiah 9:16; Isaiah 9:20; Isaiah 10:4; Psalm 78:32 and elsewhere (compare in Arabic Qor 9:25.)
8 of a standard of measurement or computation, with, by: Exodus 12:4 בְּמִכְסַת נְפָשֹׁת by the computation of souls; Leviticus 5:25 and elsewhere בְּעֶרְכְּךָ by thy reckoning; Ezekiel 4:10; בְּמִסְמָּר by number Deuteronomy 25:2 +; . . . בְּמִסְמַּר by the numb
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תַּתְּנַי [Tatnai], pr.n. of a Persian governor. Ezra 5:3, 6:6 (perhaps = دادنى gift).
Grammatical and Analytical Index.
The numbers of the paragraphs in this Index refer to the tenth edition of Gesenius’s Hebrew Grammar (Halle, 1831). [These have been compared and verified in this Translation with the edition, 1842.] In the verbs and nouns here given, prefixes which have no vowel but Sh’va, Vav conversive (וַ), and the article are omitted.1
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
Copyright 1999-2023. All Rights Reserved, Jeff Garrison, Gdansk, Poland.