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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #6698 - צוּר
Zur = “rock”
1) father of Cozbi and one of the 5 Midianite princes who were slain when Balaam fell
2) son of Jehiel, the father or leader of Gibeon
צוּר fut. יָצוּר, apoc. וַיָּצַר (like the kindred root צָרַר), to straiten, to press upon, to compress; hence
(1) to bind together (into a bundle or roll), i.q. צָרַר No. 1. Pret. צַרְתָּ Deuteronomy 14:25 וַיָּצֻרוּ 2 Kings 12:11 וַיָּצַר 5:23.
(2) to press with siege, to besiege a city, followed by an acc. of the city, 1 Chronicles 20:1 more often followed by עַל Deuteronomy 20:12; Ezekiel 4:3; Daniel 1:1 אֶל Deuteronomy 20:19 absol. Isai. 21:2 also followed by עַל 2 Samuel 20:15 and אֶל 1 Samuel 23:8, of the person besieged in the city. Once with acc. and עַל of the city, Isaiah 29:3, צַרְתִּי עָלַיִךְ מֻצָּב i.e. “I will push forward hosts (of soldiers) against thee” (ich fchiebe vor gegen dich). Metaph. Psalms 139:5, אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי “thou besettest me on every side,” so that I cannot flee from thee.
(3) to urge, to press upon any one in pursuit, i.q. צָרַר No. 4, Deuteronomy 2:9; Exodus 23:22. Part. צָרִים Esther 8:11 also to stir up any one, to urge him to rise, Judges 9:31.
(4) to cut (pr. to press with a knife, compare גָּדַד to press, to cut), to divide. Arab. صار Med. Waw id. Hence צוּר edge.
(5) to form, i.q. יָצַר (derived from the idea of cutting), Arab. صَوَّرَ id., fut. וַיָּצַר Exodus 32:4; 1 Kings 7:15 and אֲצוּרְךָ Jeremiah 1:5 בתיב. (Aram. id.)
Derivatives, צוּרִישַׁדַּי־צוּר, צָר, צֵר, צִיר, צֹר, מָצוֹר, מְצוּרָה, צַוָּאר.
(1) stone, pebble (so called as being a compact solid mass. Others take it as pr. a piece of rock, see No. 2), Isaiah 8:14. Job 22:24, צוּר נְחָלִים “the pebbles of the brooks” (compare Gramm. § 106, 3, c).
(2) a rock, Job 18:4, 24:8 metaph. used of God, the refuge and protection of Israel, Isaiah 30:29; Deuteronomy 32:37, “the rock where they took refuge;” Psalms 18:3, 32 Psalms 18:32, 47 Psalms 18:47. By another figure (drawn from a quarry), it is applied to the founder of a nation. Isaiah 51:1. Pl. צוּרוֹת Job 28:10.
(3) edge, from the root No. 4. Psalms 89:44, צוּר חֶרֶב “the edge of a sword,” according to which analogy, Joshua 5:2, Joshua 5:3, חַרְבוֹת צוּרִים are sharp knives, compare צֹר Exodus 4:25 and so Ch. But LXX., Vulg., Syr., Arab. understand it to mean knives made of stone (compare צוּר No. 1) which the ancient Orientals used in castrating and circumcising. I wonder that those who hold this opinion (such as Maurer on Jos. loc. cit.) should have neglected the words added by the LXX. Joshua 24:30, ἐκεῖ ἔθηκαν εἰς τὸ μνῆμα εἰς ὃ ἔθαψαν αὐτὸν (Joshua) ἐκεῖ τὰς μαχαίρας τὰς πετρίνας, ἐν αἷς περιέτεμε τοὺς υἱοὺς Ἰσραήλ … καὶ ἐκεῖ εἰσιν ἕως τῆς σήμερον ἡμέρας. This is worthy of remark, inasmuch as it clearly proves that stone knives were found in Palestine, as well as in Germany. Hence
(4) form, Psalms 49:15 קרי; French taille, from tailler; from the root No. 4, 5.
(5) [Zur], pr.n. m.
(a) of a leader of the Midianites, Numbers 25:15, 31:8 Joshua 13:21.
(b) 1 Chronicles 8:30, 9:36.
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