the Fifth Week of Lent
Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #4678 - σοφία
- wisdom, broad and full of intelligence; used of the knowledge of very diverse matters
- the wisdom which belongs to men
- spec. the varied knowledge of things human and divine, acquired by acuteness and experience, and summed up in maxims and proverbs
- the science and learning
- the act of interpreting dreams and always giving the sagest advice
- the intelligence evinced in discovering the meaning of some mysterious number or vision
- skill in the management of affairs
- devout and proper prudence in intercourse with men not disciples of Christ, skill and discretion in imparting Christian truth
- the knowledge and practice of the requisites for godly and upright living
- supreme intelligence, such as belongs to God
- to Christ
- the wisdom of God as evinced in forming and executing counsels in the formation and government of the world and the scriptures
- the wisdom which belongs to men
σοφία, Ion. -ιη, ἡ, prop. cleverness or skill in handicraft and art, as in carpentry, τέκτονος, ὅς ῥά τε πάσης εὖ εἰδῇ ς . Il. 15.412; of the Telchines, Pi. O. 7.53; ἡ ἔντεχνος ς ., of Hephaestus and Athena, Pl. Prt. 32 1d; of Daedalus and Palamedes, X. Mem. 4.2.33, cf. 1.4.2; in music and singing, τέχνῃ καὶ ς . h.Merc. 483, cf. 511; in poetry, Sol. 13.52, Pi. O. 1.117, Ar. Ra. 882, X. An. 1.2.8, etc.; in driving, Pl. Thg. 123c; in medicine or surgery, Pi. P. 3.54; in divination, S. OT 502 (lyr.); δυσθανατῶν ὑπὸ σοφίας εἰς γῆρας ἀφίκετο Pl. R. 406b; ς. δημηγορική, δικανική, ib. 365d; ἡ περὶ Ὁμήρου ς . Id. Ion 542a; οὐ σοφίᾳ ἀλλὰ φύσει ποιεῖν Id. Revelation 22:1-21 b; σημαίνοντες τὴν ς . . ., ὅτι ἀρετὴ τέχνης ἐστίν Arist. EN 1141a12: rare in pl., Pi. O. 9.107, Ar. Ra. 676 (lyr.), IG 12.522 (vase, v B.C. ).
2. skill in matters of common life. sound judgement, intelligence, practical wisdom, etc., such as was attributed to the seven sages, like φρόνησις, Thgn. 790, 876, 1074, Hdt. 1.30, 60; ἡ τῶν δεινῶν ς ., opp. ἀμαθία, Pl. Prt. 360d; τὴν τότε καλουμένην ς., οὖσαν δὲ δεινότητα πολιτικὴν καὶ δραστήριον σύνεσιν Plu. Them. 2; also, cunning, shrewdness, craft, Hdt. 1.68, etc.; τὸ λοιδορῆς αι θεοὺς ἐχθρὰ ς . Pi. O. 9.38 .
3. learning, wisdom, μείζω τινὰ ἢ κατ' ἄνθρωπον σοφίαν σοφοί Pl. Revelation 20 Revelation 20:1-15 e; opp. ἀμαθία, ib. 22e; freq. in E., e.g. μόρσιμα . . οὐ σοφίᾳ τις ἀπώσεται Heracl. 615 (lyr.); τὸ σοφὸν οὐ σοφία (v. σοφός 1.3 ) Ba. 395 (lyr.), etc.; freq. in Arist., speculative wisdom, EN 1141a19, Metaph. 982a2, 995b12 (pl.), 1059a18; defined as θείων τε καὶ ἀνθρωπίνων ἐπιστήμη, Stoic. 2.15; but also of natural philosophy and mathematics, ς. τις καὶ ἡ φυσική Arist. Metaph. 1005b1, cf. 1061b33 .
4. among the Jews, ἀρχὴ σοφίας φόβος Κυρίου LXX Proverbs 1:7, cf. Job 28:28, al.; Σοφία, recognized first as an attribute of God, was later identified with the Spirit of God, cf. LXX Proverbs 8:1-36 with Si. 24s q.
5. later as a title, ἡ ὑμετέρα, ἡ ὑμῶν ς ., POxy. 1165.6, PSI 7.790.14 (both vi A.D. ).
σοφία, σοφίας, ἡ (σοφός), Hebrew חָכְמָה, wisdom, broad and full intelligence (from Homer down); used of the knowledge of very diverse matters, so that the shade of meaning in which the word is taken must be discovered from the context in every particular case.
a. the wisdom which belongs to men: universally, Luke 2:40, 52; specifically, the varied knowledge of things human and divine, acquired by acuteness and experience, and summed up in maxims and proverbs, as was ἡ σοφία τοῦ Σολομῶνος, Matthew 12:42; Luke 11:31; the science and learning τῶν Αἰγυπτίων, Acts 7:22 (cf. Winers Grammar, 227 (213) n.; Buttmann, § 134, 6); the art of interpreting dreams and always giving the sagest advice, Acts 7:10; the intelligence evinced in discovering the meaning of some mysterious number or vision, Revelation 13:18; Revelation 17:9; skill in the management of affairs, Acts 6:3; a devout and proper prudence in contact with men not disciples of Christ, Colossians 4:5; skill and discretion in imparting Christian truth, Colossians 1:28; Colossians 3:16; (2 Peter 3:15); the knowledge and practice of the requisites for godly and upright living, James 1:5; James 3:13, 17; with which σοφία ἄνωθεν κατερχομένη is put in contrast the σοφία ἐπίγειος, ψυχική, δαιμονιώδης, such as is the craftiness of envious and quarrelsome men. James 3:15, or σαρκικῇ σοφία (see σαρκικός, 1), craftiness, 2 Corinthians 1:12 (for the context shows that it does not differ essentially from the πανουργία of
b. supreme intelligence, such as belongs to God: Revelation 7:12, also to Christ, exalted to God's right hand, Revelation 5:12; the wisdom of God as evinced in forming and executing his counsels, Romans 11:33; with the addition of τοῦ Θεοῦ, as manifested in the formation and government of the world, and to the Jews, moreover, in the Scriptures, 1 Corinthians 1:21; it is called πολυποίκιλος from the great variety of ways and methods by which he devised and achieved salvation through Christ, Ephesians 3:10. In the noteworthy passage, Luke 11:49 (where Christ ascribes to 'the wisdom of God' what in the parallel, Matthew 23:34, he utters himself), the words ἡ σοφία τοῦ Θεοῦ εἶπεν seem to denote the wisdom of God which is operative and embodied as it were in Jesus, so that the primitive Christians, when to comfort themselves under persecution they recalled the saying of Christ, employed that formula of quotation (cf. 1 Corinthians 1:24, 30,etc.); but Luke, in ignorance of this fact, took the phrase for a part of Christ's saying. So Eusebius (h. e. 3, 32, 8), perhaps in the words of Hegesippus, calls those who had personally heard Christ οἱ αὐταῖς ἀκοαῖς τῆς ἐνθεου σοφίας ἐπακοῦσαι κατηξιώμενοι; cf. Grimm in the Studien und Kritiken for 1853, p. 332ff. (For other explanations of the phenomenon, see the commentaries on Luke, the passage cited Cf. Schürer, Zeitgesch. § 33, V. 1 and references.) [SYNONYMS: on the relation of σοφία to γνῶσις see γνῶσις, at the end. "While σοφία is 'mental excellence in its highest and fullest sense' (Aristotle, eth. Nic. 6, 7), σύνεσις and φρόνησις are both derivative and special — applications of σοφία to details: σύνεσις, critical, apprehending the bearing of things, φρόνησις, practical, suggesting lines of action" (Lightfoot on Colossians 1:9); but cf. Meyer on Colossians, the passage cited; Schmidt, chapter 13 § 10; chapter 147 § 8. See σοφός, at the end]
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σοφία , -ας , ἡ ,
[in LXX chiefly for H2451;]
skill, intelligence, wisdom, ranging from knowledge of the arts and matters of daily life to mental excellence in its highest and fullest sense;
(a) of human wisdom: 1 Corinthians 2:1; 1 Corinthians 2:4-5, James 3:15, Revelation 13:18; Revelation 17:9; σ . Σολομῶνος , Matthew 12:42, Luke 11:31; Αἰγυπτίων , Acts 7:22; Ἕλληνες σ . ζητοῦσιν , 1 Corinthians 1:22; σ . λόγου , 1 Corinthians 1:17; τ . σοφῶν , 1 Corinthians 1:19 (LXX); τ . κόσμου , 1 Corinthians 1:20-21; 1 Corinthians 3:19; ἀνθρωπίνη , 1 Corinthians 2:13; σαρκική , 2 Corinthians 1:12;
of wisdom in spiritual things: Luke 21:15, Acts 6:3; Acts 6:10; Acts 7:10, 1 Corinthians 2:6, Colossians 1:28; Colossians 2:23; Colossians 3:16; Colossians 4:5, James 1:5; James 3:13; James 3:17, 2 Peter 3:15; λόγος σοφίας , 1 Corinthians 12:8; πνεῦμα σοφίας , Ephesians 1:17; σ . καὶ φρόνησις , Ephesians 1:8; σ . καὶ σύνεσις , Colossians 1:9;
(b) of divine wisdom: of God, Romans 11:33, 1 Corinthians 1:21; 1 Corinthians 1:24; 1 Corinthians 2:7, Revelation 7:12; πολυποίκιλος , Ephesians 3:10;
of Christ, Matthew 13:54, Mark 6:2, Luke 2:40; Luke 2:52, 1 Corinthians 1:30 Colossians 2:3, Revelation 5:12;
of wisdom personified, Matthew 11:19, Luke 7:35; Luke 11:49.†
SYN.: σύνεσις G4907, intelligence; φρόνησις G5428, prudence, which with σ . make up (Arist., N. Eth., i, 13) the three intellectual ἀρεταί . σ . is wisdom primary and absolute; in distinction from which φ . is practical, σύνεσις critical, both being applications of σ . in detail (cf. Lft., and ICC on Colossians 1:9; Lft., Notes, 317 f.; Tr., Syn., § LXXv; Cremer, 870 ff.).
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
";endure adversity with,"; c. dat. in Hebrews 11:25. According to Grimm-Thayer the verb ";is not round elsewhere,"; but cf. the corr. form συνκακουργοῦντες in BGU I. 15 ii. 11 (A.D. 194).
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
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Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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