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Bible Lexicons

Old & New Testament Greek Lexical DictionaryGreek Lexicon

Strong's #3987 - πειράω

from (G3984)
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  1. to make a trial of, to attempt
    1. taught by trial, experienced
  2. to test, to make trial of one, put him to proof
    1. his mind, sentiments, temper
    2. in particular, to attempt to induce one to commit some (esp. carnal) crime
    3. tempted to sin
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 5254 ‑ נָסָה (naw‑saw');  
Frequency Lists
Verse Results
KJV (2)
Acts 2
NAS (1)
Acts 1
HCS (1)
Acts 1
BSB (1)
Acts 1
ESV (2)
Acts 2
WEB (3)
Acts 2
Hebrews 1
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions


Il. 8.8, etc.: impf. ἐπείρων Th. 4.25: fut. - άσω [] ib. 9, 43: aor. ἐπείρᾱσα S. OC 1276, Ar. Eq. 517, Th. 6.54: pf. πεπείρᾱκα Luc. Am. 26: Pass., aor. ἐπειράθην [] Th. 6.54; cf. πειράζω. more freq. in Med. πειράομαι, Il. 2.193, 24.390, etc.: fut. - άσομαι [] S. OC 959, etc.; Dor. 2 pl. πειρασεῖσθε Ar. Ach. 743, cf. Hippod. ap. Stob. 4.1.94; later πειρᾱθήσομαι Gp. 12.13.12: aor. ἐπειρᾱσάμην, Ion. ἐπειρησάμην, Od. 8.120, Hdt. 7.135, Th. 2.44,al.; but aor. Pass. ἐπειρήθην, Att. ἐπειράθην [], found in med. sense, Il. 19.384, al., Hdt. 3.152,al., Th. 2.5 (v.l.), 33, 6.92, and in later Prose: pf. πεπείρᾱμαι, Ion. - ημαι, Od. 3.23, Pi. Fr. 110, Hdt. 9.46, S. Fr. 584, Antipho 5.1, etc.: 3 pl. plpf. ἐπεπείραντο D.C. Fr. 24.3, Ion. ἐπεπειρέατο Hdt. 7.125. (From πεῖρα.) Act., attempt, endeavour, try, c. inf., μήτε τις.. πειράτω διακέρσαι ἐμὸν ἔπος Il. 8.8; πειρήσω (δύναμαι) φηλητέων ὄρχαμος εἶναι h.Merc. 175; π. ἐς τὴν Μηδικὴν ἐσβάλλειν Hdt. 6.84, cf. Ar. V. 1025, al.: folld. by ὡς.., Il. 4.66, Od. 2.316, etc.; by ὅπως.., 4.545: c. Adj. neut., πολλὰ πειρῶντες Th. 6.38; πάντα Plu. 2.1122b: with inf. understood, Th. 7.32. II c. gen. pers., make trial of one, μή μευ πειράτω, for the purpose of persuading, Il. 9.345, cf. 24.433; of things, τευχέων A.R. 3.1249: in hostile sense, make an attempt on, μήλων πειρήσοντα Il. 12.301, Od. 6.134; οὐ πειρᾶν τῆς πόλιος, πρὶν.. Hdt. 6.82; π. τοῦ χωρίου Th. 1.61; Νισαίας Id. 4.70; ἀλλήλων Id. 7.38; νυμφείας εὐνᾶς Pi. N. 5.30. III abs., ναυσὶ π. make an attempt by sea, Th. 4.25; π. ἐπὶ τὴν κώμην ib. 43. c. acc. rei, experience, τύχης ἐπήρειαν Luc. Am. 46.

2. c. acc. pers., make an attempt on a woman's honour, Ar. Eq. 517 (ubiv. Sch.), Pl. 150, 1067, Lys. 1.12, X. Cyr. 5.2.28, etc.: Pass., πειραθεὶς ὁ Ἁρμόδιος ὑπὸ Ἱππάρχου Th. 6.54, cf. Pl. Phdr. 227c; v. infr. B. IV, cf. πεῖρα 11. more freq. in Med., c. inf., try to do, Il. 4.5, Hdt. 5.71, 6.138, al., Ar. Pl. 459, X. Oec. 6.2, Lys. 12.64, Isoc. 3.41, Pl. Tht. 186b: c. fut. inf., J. AJ 17.8.4: the inf. is sts. understood, πειρήσεται (sc. ἀλύξαι) Od. 4.417: folld. by εἰ, Il. 13.806, Pl. Phd. 95b; πειρήσεται αἴ κε θέῃσιν Il. 18.601; by ἐάν or ἄν, A. Pr. 327, Pl. Lg. 638e; by μὴ.., lest.., Od. 21.394; by ὅπως.., X. An. 3.2.3: c. part., freq. in Hdt., ἐπειρᾶτο ἐπιών 1.77; προσβαίνων ib. 84; π. βιώμενοι 4.139; π. ἀποσχίζων 6.9, cf. 5, 50, 7.139, al.; π. σκοπῶν Pl. Tht. 190e [*] c. neut. Adj., τὰ μεγάλα καὶ τὰ μικρὰ π. X. Cyr. 1.5.14.

II most freq. (V. A. 11) c. Genesis 1:1-31 c. gen. pers., make trial of one, Il. 10.444, Od. 13.336, etc.; νῦν σεῦ, ξεῖνε, ὀΐω πειρήσεσθαι, εἰ.. 19.215; ἕο αὐτοῦ ἐν ἔντεσι.. εἰ οἷ ἐφαρμόσσειε Il. 19.384; with gen. not expressed, ἔπεσιν πειρήσομαι 2.73; ἦ πρῶτ' ἐξερέοιτο ἕκαστά τε πειρήσαιτο test him in each particular, Od. 4.119 (v.l. μυθήσαιτο) ; π. θεοῦ make trial of, tempt a god, Hdt. 6.86. γ, cf. A. Ag. 1663 (troch.): in hostile sense, πρὶν πειρήσαιτ' Ἀχιλῆος Il. 21.580 (with acc. cogn. added ἀέθλους.. ἐπειρήσαντ' Ὀδυσῆος Od. 8.23): freq. in Hdt., esp. ἀλλήλων πειρᾶσθαι, as ἐπειρῶντο κατὰ τὸ ἰσχυρὸν ἀλλήλων 1.76; πειρᾶσθέ μου γυναικὸς ὡς ἀφράσμονος A. Ag. 1401, etc.; π. τῆς Πελοποννήσου make an attempt on it, Hdt. 8.100; π. τοῦ τείχους Th. 2.81.

2. c. gen. rei, make proof or trial of.., σθένεος Il. 15.359; ἥβης 23.432; χειρῶν καὶ σθένεος π., .. .. Od. 21.282; try one's chance at or in a work or contest, ἔργου 18.369; ἀέθλου, ἀέθλων, Il. 23.707, Od. 8.100, etc.; παλαιμοσύνης ib. 126; make proof of, try a weapon, τόξου 21.159, 180; νευρῆς ib. 410 (but [ ὀϊστοί,] τῶν τάχ' ἔμελλον πειρήσεσθαι arrows whose force they were soon to make trial of, i. e. feel, ib. 418); also, make proof of, have experience of, esp. in pf. Pass., first in Hes., νηῶν Op. 660; οὐ πεπειρημένοι πρότερον [οἱ] Αἰγύπτιοι Ἑλλήνων Hdt. 4.159, cf. Pl. Phd. 118; πειρασάμενος ἀγαθῶν, δουλείας, Th. 2.44, 5.69, cf. Antipho 5.1; κακῶν D. 18.253; ὀρφανίας π., i.e. to be an orphan, Phalar. 49; but π. τινὸς μετρίου find him moderate by experience or on trial, Plu. Aem. 8, cf. Arat. 43; also, πεπείρανται ὅτι.. Lys. 27.2.

3. abs., try one's fortune, try the chances of war, αἴ κε θεὸς πειρώμενος ἐνθάδ' ἵκηται Il. 5.129; πειρώμενος ἢ ἐν ἀέθλῳ ἠὲ καὶ ἐν πολέμῳ making trial of one's powers, 16.590; Ἕκτορι πειρηθῆναι ἀντιβίην, ἢ.. .. to try one's fortune against him, 21.225; περὶ δ' αὐτῆς πειρηθήτω (sc. τῆς ἵππου) let him try for her, as a prize, 23.553.

III make a trial or put a matter to the test, ἐν σοὶ πειρώμεθα Pl. Phlb. 21a: c. dat. modi, ἐγχείῃ πειρήσομαι Il. 5.279; ἐπειρήσαντο πόδεσσι tried their luck in the foot-race, Od. 8.120, cf. 205; σφαίρῃ 8.377; also π. σὺν ἔντεσι, σὺν τεύχεσι π., Il. 5.220, 11.386: but in pf., οὐδέ τί πω μύθοισι πεπείρημαι I have not tried myself, have not found my skill, in words, Od. 3.23: abs., ὁ πειραθεὶς πιστεύσει X. Eq.Mag. 1.16; πεπειραμένος σαφῶς οἶδα by experience, Id. Hier. 2.6. c. acc. pers., make an attempt on (V.A.IV. 2), Διὸς ἄκοιτιν Pi. P. 2.34.

Thayer's Expanded Definition

πειράω: imperfect middle 3 person (singular and plural), ἐπειρᾶτο, ἐπειρῶντο; perfect passive participle πεπειραμενος (see below); common in Greek writings from Homer down; to try; i. e.:

1. to make a trial, to attempt (A. V. to assay), followed by an infinitive; often so from Homer down; also so in the middle in Acts 9:26 R G; (Xenophon, symp. 4, 7; Cyril 1, 4, 5, etc.; often in Polybius; Aelian v. h. I, 34; 2 Macc. 2:23; 3Macc. 1:25; 4 Macc. 12:2, etc.); hence, πεπειραμενος taught by trial, experienced, Hebrews 4:15 in certain manuscripts and editions ((Rec.st), Tdf. formerly) (see below, and cf. πειράζω, d. α.).

2. In post-Homer usage with the accusative of a person to test, make trial of one, put him to the proof: his mind, sentiments, temper, Plutarch, Brut. 10; in particular, to attempt to induce one to commit some (especially a carnal) crime; cf. Passow, under the word, 3{a}; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, A. IV. 2). Hence, πεπειραμενος in Hebrews 4:15 (see 1 above) is explained by some (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 15. Note at the end) tempted to sin; but the passive in this sense is not found in Greek writings; see Delitzsch at the passage.

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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All rights rserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

πειράω ,

more commonly as depon., πειράομαι ,

[in LXX for H5254;]

to try, attempt: Acts 26:21.†

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

With the pass, ";am embittered"; in Colossians 3:19, cf. the compd. in P Lille I. 7i. 9 (iii/B.C.) προσπικρανθείς μοι.


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
επειρωντο ἐπειρῶντο epeironto epeirônto epeirōnto epeirō̂nto
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