the Week of Christ the King / Proper 29 / Ordinary 34
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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #3588 - ὁ
- this, that, these, etc.
ὁ, ἡ, τό,
is, when thus written, demonstr. Pronoun. in Att., definite or prepositive Article. in , the so-called postpositive Article, = relative Pronoun, ὅς, ἥ, ὅ. —
I The nom. masc. and fem. sg. and pl., ὁ, ἡ, οἱ, αἱ, have no accent in codd. and most printed books, exc. when used as the relative; but ὁ, ἡ, οἱ, αἱ differ only in writing from ὃ, ἣ, οἳ, αἳ; the nom. forms of the article are said by Hdn.Gr.1.474 to be oxytone, and by A.D. Pron. 8.7 not to be enclitic. The forms τῶν, τοῖς, ταῖς were barytone (i. e. τὼν, τοὶς, ταὶς) in Aeol. acc. to Aristarch. ap. A.D. Synt. 51.26. For οἱ, αἱ some dialects (not Cypr., cf. Inscr.Cypr. 135.30H., nor Cret., cf. Leg.Gort. 5.28, nor Lesbian, cf. Alc. 81, Sapph. Supp. 5.1) and Hom. have τοί, ταί (though οἱ, αἱ are also found in Hom.): other Homeric forms are gen. sg. τοῖο, gen. and dat. dual τοῖιν Od. 18.34, al.: gen. pl. fem. τάων [ᾱ], dat. τοῖσι, τῇς and τῇσι, never ταῖσι or ταῖς in Hom. — In Dor. and all other dialects exc. Att. and Ion. the fem. forms preserve the old ᾱ instead of changing it to η, hence Dor. etc. ἁ, τάν, τᾶς; the gen. pl. τάων contracts in many dialects to τᾶν; the gen. sg. is in many places τῶ, acc. pl. τώς, but Cret., etc., τόνς (Leg.Gort. 7.7, al.) or τός (ib.3.50, al.); in Lesbian Aeol. the acc. pl. forms are τοὶς, ταὶς, IG 12(2).645 A 13, B 62; dat. pl. τοῖς, ταῖς (or τοὶς, ταὶς, v. supr.), ib.645 A 8, ib.1.6; ταῖσι as demonstr., Sapph. 16. The Att. Poets also used the Ion. and forms τοῖσι, ταῖσι; and in Trag. we find τοὶ μέν.., τοὶ δέ.., for οἱ μέν.., οἱ δέ.., not only in lyr., as A. Pers. 584, Th. 295, 298; οἱ μέν.. τοὶ δ' S. Aj. 1404 (anap.); but even in a trimeter, A. Pers. 424. In Att. the dual has usu. only one gender, τὼ θεώ (for τὰ θεά) And. 1.113 sq.; τὼ πόλεε Foed. ap. Th. 5.23; τὼ ἡμέρα X. Cyr. 1.2.11; τὼ χεῖρε Id. Mem. 2.3.18; τοῖν χεροῖν Pl. Tht. 155e; τοῖν γενεσέοιν Id. Phd. 71e; τοῖν πολέοιν Isoc. 4.75 (τά S. Ant. 769, Ar. Eq. 424, 484, ταῖν Lys. 19.17, Isaiah 5:16, etc. have been corrected); in Arc. the form τοῖς functions as gen. dual fem., μεσακόθεν τοῖς κράναιυν Schwyzer 664.8 (Orchom., iv B.C.): — in Elean and Boeot. ὁ, ἡ (ἁ), τό, with the addition of -ί, = ὅδε, ἥδε, τόδε, nom.pl. masc. τυΐ the following men, Schwyzer 485.14 (Thespiae, iii B.C.), al., cf. infr. VIII. 5. (With ὁ, ἁ, cf. Skt. demonstr. pron. sa, sâ, Goth. sa, sô, ONorse sá, sú, Old Lat. acc. sum, sam (Enn.): — with τό [from Τόδ ] cf. Skt. tat (tad), Lat. is-tud, Goth. pata: — with τοί cf. Skt. te, Lith. tĩe, O E. pá, etc.: — with τάων cf. Skt. tâsâm, Lat. is-tarum: — the origin of the relative ὅς, ἥ, ὅ (q. v.) is different.) ὁ, ἡ, τό,
DEMONSTR. PRONOUN, that, the oldest and in Hom. the commonest sense: freq. also in Hdt. (1.86, 5.35,al.), and sts. in Trag. (mostly in lyr., A. Supp. 1047, etc.; in trimeters, Id. Th. 197, Ag. 7, Eu. 174; τῶν γάρ.., τῆς γάρ.., Id. Supp. 358, S. OT 1082; seldom in Att. Prose, exc. in special phrases, v. infr. VI, VII):
I joined with a Subst., to call attention to it, ὁ Τυδεΐδης he — Tydeus' famous son, Il. 11.660; τὸν Χρύσην that venerable man Chryses, I.II: and so with Appellat., Νέστωρ ὁ γέρων N. — that aged man, 7.324; αἰετοῦ.. τοῦ θηρητῆρος the eagle, that which is called hunter, 21.252, al.; also to define and give emphasis, τιμῆς τῆς Πριάμου for honour, namely that of Priam, 20.181; οἴχετ' ἀνὴρ ὤριστος a man is gone, and he the best, 11.288, cf. 13.433, al.: sts. with words between the Pron. and Noun, αὐτὰρ ὁ αὖτε Πέλοψ 2.105; τὸν Ἕκτορι μῦθον ἐνίσπες 11.186, cf. 703, al.: — different from this are cases like Il. 1.409 αἴ κέν πως ἐθέλῃσιν ἐπὶ Τρώεσσιν ἀρῆξαι, τοὺς δὲ κατὰ πρύμνας τε καὶ ἀμφ' ἅλα ἔλσαι Ἀχαιούς if he would help the Trojans, but drive those back to the ships — I mean the Achaeans, where Ἀχ. is only added to explain τούς, cf. 1.472, 4.20, 329, al.
II freq. without a Subst., he, she, it, ὁ γὰρ ἦλθε Il. 1.12, al.
III placed after its Noun, before the Relat. Prons., ἐφάμην σὲ περὶ φρένας ἔμμεναι ἄλλων, τῶν ὅσσοι Λυκίην ναιετάουσι far above the rest, above those to wit who, etc., Il. 17.172; οἷ' οὔ πώ τιν' ἀκούομεν οὐδὲ παλαιῶν, τάων αἳ πάρος ἦσαν.. Ἀχαιαί such as we have not heard tell of yet even among the women of old, those women to wit who.., Od. 2.119, cf. Il. 5.332; θάλαμον τὸν ἀφίκετο, τόν ποτε τέκτων ξέσσεν Od. 21.43, cf. 1.116, 10.74: — for the Att. usage v. infr. before a Possessive Pron. its demonstr. force is sts. very manifest, φθίσει σε τὸ σὸν μένος that spirit of thine, Il. 6.407, cf. 11.608; but in 15.58, 16.40, and elsewh. it is merely the Art. for cases in which the Homeric usage approaches most nearly to the Attic, v. infr. B. init. ὁ μέν.., ὁ δέ.. without a Subst., in all cases, genders, and numbers, Hom., etc.: sts. in Opposition, where ὁ μέν prop. refers to the former, ὁ δέ to the latter; more rarely ὁ μέν the latter, ὁ δέ the former, Pl. Prt. 359e, Isoc. 2.32,34: sts. in Partition, the one.., the other.., etc. — The Noun with it is regularly in gen. pl., being divided by the ὁ μέν.., ὁ δέ.., into parts, ἠΐθεοι καὶ παρθένοι.., τῶν δ' αἱ μὲν λεπτὰς ὀθόνας ἔχον, οἱ δὲ χιτῶνας εἵατο Il. 18.595; τῶν πόλεων αἱ μὲν τυραννοῦνται, αἱ δὲ δημοκρατοῦνται, αἱ δὲ ἀριστοκρατοῦνται Pl. R. 338d, etc.: but freq. the
1. Noun is in the same case, by a kind of apposition, ἴδον υἷε Δάρητος, τὸν μὲν ἀλευάμενον τὸν δὲ κτάμενον Il. 5.28, cf. Od. 12.73, etc.: so in Trag. and Att., S. Ant. 22, etc.; πηγὴ ἡ μὲν εἰς αὐτὸν ἔδυ, ἡ δὲ ἔξω ἀπορρεῖ Pl. Phdr. 255c; if the Noun be collective, it is in the gen. sg., ὁ μὲν πεπραμένος ἦν τοῦ σίτου, ὁ δὲ ἔνδον ἀποκείμενος D. 42.6: sts. a Noun is added in apposition with ὁ μέν or ὁ δέ, ὁ μὲν οὔτασ' Ἀτύμνιον ὀξέϊ δουρὶ Ἀντίλοχος.., Μάρις δὲ.. Il. 16.317 - 19, cf. 116; τοὺς μὲν τὰ δίκαια ποιεῖν ἠνάγκασα, τοὺς πλουσίους, τοὺς δὲ πένητας κτλ. D. 18.102, cf. Pl. Grg. 501a, etc.
2. when a neg. accompanies ὁ δέ, it follows δέ, e.g. τὰς γοῦν Ἀθήνας οἶδα τὸν δὲ χῶρον οὔ S. OC 24; τὸν φιλόσοφον σοφίας ἐπιθυμητὴν εἶναι, οὐ τῆς μὲν τῆς δ' οὔ, ἀλλὰ πάσης Pl. R. 475b; οὐ πάσας χρὴ τὰς δόξας τιμᾶν, ἀλλὰ τὰς μὲν τὰς δ' οὔ· οὐδὲ πάντων, ἀλλὰ τῶν μὲν τῶν δ' οὔ Id. Cri. 47a, etc.
3. ὁ μέν τις.., ὁ δέ τις.. is used in Prose, when the Noun to which ὁ refers is left indefinite, ἔλεγον ὁ μέν τις τὴν σοφίαν, ὁ δὲ τὴν καρτερίαν.., ὁ δέ τις καὶ τὸ κάλλος X. Cyr. 3.1.41; νόμους.. τοὺς μὲν ὀρθῶς τιθέασιν τοὺς δέ τινας οὐκ ὀρθῶς Pl. R. 339c, cf. Phlb. 13c.
4. on τὸ μέν.., τὸ δέ.., or τὰ μέν.., τὰ δέ.., v. infr. VIII. 4.
5. ὁ μέν is freq. used without a corresponding ὁ δέ, οἱ μὲν ἄρ' ἐσκίδναντο.., Μυρμιδόνας δ' οὐκ εἴα ἀποσκίδνασθαι Il. 23.3, cf. 24.722, Th. 8.12, etc.: also folld. by ἀλλά, ἡ μὲν γάρ μ' ἐκέλευε.., ἀλλ' ἐγὼ οὐκ ἔθελον Od. 7.304; by ἄλλος δέ, Il. 6.147, etc.; τὸν μὲν.., ἕτερον δέ Ar. Av. 843, etc.; ὁ μέν.., ὃς δέ.. Thgn. 205 (v.l. οὐδέ): less freq. ὁ δέ in the latter clause without ὁ μέν preceding, τῇ ῥα παραδραμέτην φεύγων, ὁ δ' ὄπισθε διώκων (for ὁ μὲν φεύγων) Il. 22.157; σφραγῖδε.. χρυσοῦν ἔχουσα τὸν δακτύλιον, ἡ δ' ἑτέρα ἀργυροῦν IG 22.1388.45, cf. μέν D. III; γεωργὸς μὲν εἷς, ὁ δὲ οἰκοδόμος, ἄλλος δέ τις ὑφαντής Pl. R. 369d, cf. Tht. 181d.
6. ὁ δέ following μέν sts. refers to the subject of the preceding clause, τοῦ μὲν ἅμαρθ', ὁ δὲ Λεῦκον.. βεβλήκει Il. 4.491; τὴν μὲν γενομένην αὐτοῖσι αἰτίην οὐ μάλα ἐξέφαινε, ὁ δὲ ἔλεγέ σφι Hdt. 6.3, cf. 1.66, 6.9, 133, 7.6: rare in Att. Prose, ἐπεψήφιζεν αὐτὸς ἔφορος ὤν· ὁ δὲ οὐκ ἔφη διαγιγνώσκειν τὴν βοήν Th. 1.87; ἔμενον ὡς κατέχοντες τὸ ἄκρον· οἱ δ' οὐ κατεῖχον X. An. 4.2.6: this is different from ὁ δέ in apodosi, v. infr. 7; also from passages in which both clauses have a common verb, v. ὅ γε 11.
7. ὁ δέ is freq. used simply in continuing a narrative, Il. 1.43, etc.; also used by Hom. in apodosi after a relat., v. ὅδε 111.3.
8. the opposition may be expressed otherwise than by μέν and δέ, οὔθ' ὁ.. οὔθ' ὁ Il. 15.417; ἢ τοῖσιν ἢ τοῖς A. Supp. 439; οὔτε τοῖς οὔτε τοῖς Pl. Lg. 701e. the following usages prevailed in Att. Prose,
1 in dialogue, after καί, it was usual to say in nom. sg. masc. καὶ ὅς; in the other cases the usual forms of the Art. were used (v. ὅς A. II.I and cf. Skt. sas, alternat. form of sa); so, in acc., καὶ τὸν εἰπεῖν Pl. Smp. 174a, cf. X. Cyr. 1.3.9, etc.; also in Hdt., καὶ τὴν φράσαι 6.61, al.
2. ὁ καὶ ὁ such and such, τῇ καὶ τῇ ἀτιμίᾳ Pl. Lg. 721b: but mostly in acc., καί μοι κάλει τὸν καὶ τόν Lys. 1.23, cf. Pl. Lg. 784d; τὰ καὶ τὰ πεπονθώς D. 21.141, cf. 9.68; τὸ καὶ τό Id. 18.243; ἀνάγκη ἄρα τὸ καὶ τό it must then be so and so, Arist. Rh. 1401a4, cf. 1413a22; but τὰ καὶ τά now one thing, now another, of good and bad, τὸν δ' ἀγαθὸν τολμᾶν χρὴ τά τε καὶ τὰ φέρειν Thgn. 398, cf. Pi. P. 5.55, 7.20, al.; τῶν τε καὶ τῶν καιρόν Id. O. 2.53; so πάντα τοῦ μετρίου μεταβαλλόμενα ἐπὶ τὰ καὶ ἐπὶ τά, of excess and defect, Hp. Acut. 46; cf. A. VI.8. abs. usages of single cases,
1 fem. dat. τῇ, of Place, there, on that spot, here, this way, that way, Il. 5.752, 858, al.: folld. by ᾗ, 13.52, etc.: also in Prose, τὸ μὲν τῇ, τὸ δὲ τῇ X. Ath. 2.12. with a notion of motion towards, that way, in that direction, Il. 10.531, 11.149, 12.124; τῇ ἴμεν ᾗ.. 15.46; δελφῖνες τῇ καὶ τῇ ἐθύνεον ἰχθυάοντες Hes. Sc. 210: — only poet. of Manner, τῇ περ τελευτήσεσθαι ἔμελλεν in this way, thus, Od. 8.510. repeated, τῇ μέν.., τῇ δέ.., in one way.., in another.., or partly.., partly.., E. Or. 356, Pl. Smp. 211a, etc.: without μέν, τῇ μᾶλλον, τῇ δ' ἧσσον Parm. 8.48. relat., where, by which way, only , as Il. 12.118, Od. 4.229.
2. neut. dat. τῷ, therefore, on this account, freq. in Hom., Il. 1.418, 2.254, al. (v. infr.): also in Trag., A. Pr. 239, S. OT 510 (lyr.); in Prose, τῷ τοι.. Pl. Tht. 179d, Sph. 230b. thus, so, Il. 2.373, 13.57, etc.: it may also, esp. when εἰ precedes, be translated, then, if this be so, on this condition, Od. 1.239, 3.224, 258,al., Theoc. 29.11. — In Hom. the true form is prob. τῶ, as in cod. A, or τώ, cf. A.D. Adv. 199.2.
3. neut. acc. τό, wherefore, Il. 3.176, Od. 8.332, al., S. Ph. 142 (lyr.); also τὸ δέ abs., but the fact Isa., Pl. Ap. 23a, Men. 97c, Phd. 109d, Tht. 157b, R. 340d, Lg. 967a; even when the τό refers to what precedes, the contrast may lie not in the thing referred to, but in another part of the sentence (cf. supr. VI. 6), τὸ δ' ἐπὶ κακουργίᾳ.. ἐπετήδευσαν Th. 1.37; τὸ δὲ.. ἡμῖν μᾶλλον περιέσται Id. 2.89; φασὶ δέ τινες αὐτὸν καὶ τῶν ἑπτὰ σοφῶν γεγονέναι· τὸ δὲ οὐκ ἦν but he was not, Nic.Dam. 58J.
4. τὸ μέν.., τὸ δέ.., partly.., partly.., or on the one hand.., on the other.., Th. 7.36, etc., cf. Od. 2.46; more freq. τὰ μέν.., τὰ δέ.., Hdt. 1.173, S. Tr. 534, etc.; also τὰ μέν τι.., τὰ δέ τι.. X. An. 4.1.14; τὸ μέν τι.., τὸ δέ τι.. Luc. Macr. 14; τὰ μέν.., τὸ δὲ πλέον.. Th. 1.90: sts. without τὸ μέν.. in the first clause, τὸ δέ τι Id. 1.107, 7.48: rarely of Time, τὰ μὲν πολλὰ.., τέλος δέ several times.. and finally, Hdt. 3.85.
5. of Time, sts. that time, sts. this (present) time, συνμαχία κ' ἔα ἑκατὸν ϝέτεα, ἄρχοι δέ κα τοΐ (where it is possible, but not necessary, to supply ϝέτος) SIG 9.3 (Olympia, vi B.C.): so with Preps., ἐκ τοῦ, τοῖο, from that time, Il. 1.493, 15.601. πρὸ τοῦ, sts. written προτοῦ, before this, aforetime, Hdt. 1.103, 122, 5.55, A. Ag. 1204, Ar. Numbers 5:1-31, etc.; ἐν τῷ πρὸ τοῦ χρόνῳ Th. 1.32, cf. A. Eu. 462; τὸ πρὸ τοῦ D.S. 20.59. in Thess. Prose, ὑππρὸ τᾶς yesterday, τὰ ψαφίσματα τό τε ὑππρὸ τᾶς γενόμενον καὶ τὸ τᾶμον the decree which was passed yesterday (lit. before this [day]), and to-day's, IG 9(2).517.43 (Larissa, iii B.C.).
6. ἐν τοῖς is freq. used in Prose with Superlatives, ἐν τοῖσι θειότατον a most marvellous thing, Hdt. 7.137; ἐν τοῖς πρῶτοι the very first, Th. 1.6, etc.; ἐν τοῖσι πρῶτος (πρώτοις codd.) Pherecr. 145.4; [Ζεὺς] Ἔρωτά τε καὶ Ἀνάγκην ἐν τοῖς πρῶτα ἐγέννησεν first of all, Aristid. Or. 43(1).16, cf. 37(2).2: when used with fem. Nouns, ἐν τοῖς remained without change of gender, ἐν τοῖς πλεῖσται δὴ νῆες the greatest number of ships, Th. 3.17; ἐν τοῖς πρώτη ἐγένετο (sc. ἡ στάσις) ib. 82: also with Advbs., ἐν τοῖς μάλιστα Id. 8.90, Pl. Cri. 52a, Plu. 2.74e, 421d, 723e, Brut. 6, 11,al., Paus. 1.16.3, etc.; ἐν τοῖς χαλεπώτατα Th. 7.71; τὴν Αἴγυπτον ἐν τοῖς μάλιστα μελάγγειον οὖσαν Plu. 2.364c: in late Prose, also with Positives, ἐν τοῖς παράδοξον Aristid. Or. 48(24).47 codd.; with πάνυ, ἐν τοῖς πάνυ D.H. 1.19, cf. 66 (ἐν ταῖς πάνυ f.l. 4.14, 15). ὁ, ἡ, τό,
THE DEFINITE ARTICLE, the, to specify individuals: rare in this signf. in the earliest Gr., becoming commoner later. In Hom. the demonstr. force can generally be traced, v. supr. A. I, but the definite Art. must be recognized in places like Il. 1.167, 7.412, 9.309, 12.289, Od. 19.372: also when joined to an Adj. to make it a Subst., αἰ
ὁ, ἡ, τό, originally τος, τῇ, τό (as is evident from the forms τοι, ται for οἱ, αἱ in Homer and the Ionic writings), corresponds to our definite article the (German der, die, das), which is properly a demonstrative pronoun, which we see in its full force in Homer, and of which we find certain indubitable traces also in all kinds of Greek prose, and hence also in the N. T.
I. As a demonstrative pronoun; Latinhic, hacc, hoc; German der, die, das, emphatic; cf. Winers Grammar, § 17, 1; Buttmann, 101f (89f);
1. in the words of the poet Aratus, τοῦ γάρ καί γένος ἐσμεν, quoted by Paul in Acts 17:28.
2. in prose, where it makes a partition or distributes into parts: ὁ μέν ... ὁ δέ, that ... this, the one ... the other: Matthew 13:23 R G Tr (here the division is threefold); Galatians 4:23 (here L WH Tr marginal reading brackets μέν); οἱ μέν ... οἱ δέ, Acts 28:24; Philippians 1:16f; οἱ μέν ... ὁ δέ, Hebrews 7:5f, 20 (21), 23f; τούς μέν ... τούς δέ, Mark 12:5 R G; Ephesians 4:11; οἱ μέν ... ἄλλοι δέ (Lclnn. οἱ δέ) ... ἕτεροι δέ, Matthew 16:14 cf. John 7:12; τινες followed by οἱ δέ, Acts 17:18; ὅς (see ὅς I.) μέν followed by ὁ δέ, Romans 14:2; οἱ δέ stands as though οἱ μέν had preceded, Matthew 26:67; Matthew 28:17.
3. in narration, when either two persons or two parties are alternately placed in opposition to each other and the discourse turns from one to the other; ὁ δέ, but he, and he (German er aber): Matthew 2:14; Matthew 4:4; Matthew 21:29; Mark 1:45; Mark 12:15; Luke 8:21, 30, 48; Luke 22:10, 34; John 9:38, and very often; plural, Matthew 2:5, 9; Matthew 4:20; Mark 12:14 (R G L marginal reading), 16 (L brackets οἱ δέ); Luke 7:4; Luke 20:5, 12; Luke 22:9, 38, 71; Acts 4:21; Acts 12:15, and often; οἱ μέν οὖν, in the Acts alone: Acts 1:6; Acts 5:41; Acts 15:3, 30; ὁ μέν οὖν,
II. As the definite or prepositive article (to be distinguished from the postpositive article — as it is called when it has the force of a relative pronoun, like the German der, die, das, examples of which use are not found in the N. T.), whose use in the N. T. is explained at length by Winers Grammar, §§ 18-20; Buttmann, 85 (74ff); (Green, p. 5ff). As in all languages the article serves to distinguish things, persons, notions, more exactly, it is prefixed
1. to substantives that have no modifier; and a. those that designate a person or a thing that is the only one of its kind; the article thus distinguishes the same from all other persons or things, as ὁ ἥλιος, ὁ οὐρανός, ἡ γῆ, ἡ θάλασσα, ὁ Θεός, ὁ λόγος (John 1:1f), ὁ διάβολος, τό φῶς, ἡ σκοτία, ἡ ζωή, ὁ θάνατος, etc.
b. appellative names of persons and things definite enough in themselves, or made so by the context, or sufficiently well-known from history; thus, to the names of virtues and vices, as ἡ δικαιοσύνη, ἡ σοφία, ἡ δύναμις, ἡ ἀλήθεια, etc. ὁ ἐρχόμενος, the well-known personage who is to come, i. e. the Messiah, Matthew 11:3; Luke 7:19; ὁ προφήτης, the (promised and expected) prophet, John 1:21; John 7:40; ἡ σωτηρία, the salvation which all good men hope for, i. e. the Messianic salvation: ἡ γραφή, etc.; ἡ νεφέλη, the cloud (well known from the O. T.), 1 Corinthians 10:1f; τούς ἀγγέλους, James 2:25; τῷ ἐκτρώματι, 1 Corinthians 15:8. to designations of eminent personages: ὁ υἱός τοῦ Θεοῦ, ὁ υἱός τοῦ ἀνθρώπου (see υἱός); ὁ διδάσκαλος τοῦ Ἰσραήλ, John 3:10; cf. Fritzsche on Mark, p. 613. The article is applied to the repeated name of a person or thing already mentioned or indicated, and to which the reader is referred, as τούς μάγους, Matthew 2:7 cf. 1; οἱ ἀσκοί, Matthew 9:17: οἱ δαίμονες, Matthew 8:31 cf. Matthew 8:28; τήν ὄνον καί τόν πῶλον, Matthew 21:7, cf. Matthew 21:2, and countless other examples The article is used with names of things not yet spoken of, in order to show that definite things are referred to, to be distinguished from others of the same kind and easily to be known from the context; as τά βρέφη, the babes belonging to the people of that place, Luke 18:15; ἀπό τῶν δένδρων, namely, which were there, Matthew 21:8; τῷ ἱερεῖ, to the priest whose duty it will be to examine thee, when thou comest, Matthew 8:4; Mark 1:44; Luke 5:14; τό πλοῖον, the ship which stood ready to carry them over, Matthew 8:23 (R G T, cf. Matthew 8:18);
c. The article prefixed to the plural often either includes all and every one of those who by the given name are distinguished from other things having a different name — as οἱ ἀστέρες, Matthew 24:29; Mark 13:25; αἱ ἀλωτεκες, Matthew 8:20; Luke 9:58, etc.; — or defines the class alone, and thus indicates that the whole class is represented by the individuals mentioned, however many and whosoever they may be; as in οἱ Φαρισαῖοι, οἱ γραμματεῖς, οἱ τελῶναι, οἱ ἄνθρωποι people, the multitude (German die Leute); οἱ ἀετοί, Matthew 24:28; τοῖς κυσίν, Matthew 7:6.
d. The article prefixed to the singular sometimes so defines only the class, that all and every one of those who bear the name are brought to mind; thus, ὁ ἄνθρωπος, Matthew 15:11; ὁ ἐθνικός καί τελώνης, Matthew 18:17; ὁ ἐργάτης, Luke 10:7; 1 Timothy 5:18; ὁ μεσίτης, Galatians 3:20; ὁ κληρονόμος, Galatians 4:1; ὁ δίκαιος, Romans 1:17; Hebrews 10:38; τά σημεῖα τοῦ ἀποστόλου, the signs required of anyone who claims to be an apostle, 2 Corinthians 12:12, and ether examples e. The article is prefixed to the nominative often put for the vocative in addresses (cf. Winers Grammar, § 29, 2; Buttmann, § 129 a. 5): χαῖρε ὁ βασιλεύς τῶν Ἰουδαίων (properly, σύ ὁ βασιλεύς, thou who art the king), John 19:3; ναί, ὁ πατήρ, Matthew 11:26; ἄγε νῦν οἱ πλούσιοι, κλαύσατε, James 5:1; οὐρανέ καί οἱ ἅγιοι, Revelation 18:20; add, Mark 5:41; Mark 10:47; Luke 12:32; Luke 18:11, 13; John 8:10; John 20:28; Acts 13:41; Romans 8:15; Ephesians 5:14, 22, 25; Ephesians 6:1, 4; Revelation 12:12.
f. The Greeks employ the article, where we abstain from its use, before nouns denoting things that pertain to him who is the subject of discourse: εἶπε or φησί μεγάλη τῇ φωνή, Acts 14:10 (R G);
g. Proper Names sometimes have the article and sometimes are anarthrous; cf. Winers Grammar, § 18, 5 and 6; Buttmann, § 124, 3 and 4; (Green, p. 28f); α. as respects names of Persons, the person without the article is simply named, but with the article is marked as either well known or as already mentioned; thus we find Ἰησοῦς and ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Παῦλος and ὁ Παῦλος, etc. Πιλᾶτος has the article everywhere in John's Gospel and also in Mark's Gospel, if Mark 15:43 (in R G L) be excepted (but T Tr WH insert the article there also); Τίτος is everywhere anarthrous. Indeclinable names of persons in the oblique cases almost always have the article, unless the case is made evident by a preposition: τῷ Ἰωσήφ, Mark 15:45; τόν Ἰακώβ καί τόν Ἠσαῦ, Hebrews 11:20, and many other examples, especially in the genealogies, Matthew 1:1ff; Luke 3:23; but where perspicuity does not require the article, it is omitted also in the oblique cases, as τῶν υἱῶν Ἰωσήφ, Hebrews 11:21; τῶν υἱῶν Αμμωρ, Acts 7:16; ὁ Θεός Ἰσαάκ, Matthew 22:32; Acts 7:32; ὅταν ὄψησθε Ἀβραάμ καί Ἰσαάκ ... καί πάντας τούς προφήτας, Luke 13:28. The article is commonly omitted with personal proper names to which is added an apposition indicating the race, country, office, rank, surname, or something else, (cf. Matthiae, § 274): let the following suffice as examples: Ἀβραάμ ὁ πατήρ ἡμῶν, John 8:56; Romans 4:1; Ἰάκωβον τόν τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου καί Ἰωάννην τόν ἀδελφόν αὐτοῦ, Matthew 4:21; Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνή, Matthew 27:56, etc.; Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Matthew 3:1; ἡροδης ὁ τετράρχης, Luke 9:7; Ἰησοῦς ὁ λεγόμενος Χριστός, Matthew 1:16; Σαῦλος δέ ὁ καί Παῦλος namely, καλούμενος, Acts 13:9; Σίμωνος τοῦ λεπροῦ, Mark 14:3; Βαρτιμαῖος ὁ τυφλός, Mark 10:46 (R G); Ζαχαριου τοῦ ἀπολομένου, Luke 11:51. But there are exceptions also to this usage ὁ δέ ἡροδης ὁ τετράρχης, Luke 3:19; τόν Σαούλ, υἱόν Κίς, Acts 13:21; in the opening of the Epistles: Παῦλος ἀπόστολος, Romans 1:1; 1 Corinthians 1:1, etc. β. Proper names of countries and region s have the article far more frequently than those of cities and towns, for the reason that most names of countries, being derived from adjectives, get the force of substantives only by the addition of the article, as ἡ Ἀχαΐα (but cf. 2 Corinthians 9:2), ἡ Γαλατία, ἡ Γαλιλαία, ἡ Ἰταλία, ἡ Ἰουδαία, ἡ Μακεδονία (but cf. Romans 15:26; 1 Corinthians 16:5), etc. Only Αἴγυπτος, if Acts 7:11 L T Tr WH be excepted, is everywhere anarthrous. The names of cities, especially when joined to prepositions, particularly ἐν, εἰς and ἐκ, are without the article; but we find ἀπό (R G ἐκ) τῆς Ῥώμης in Acts 18:2. γ. Names of rivers and streams have the article in Matthew 3:13; Mark 1:5; Luke 4:1; Luke 13:4; John 1:28; τοῦ Κεδρών, John 18:1 G L Tr marginal reading
2. The article is prefixed to substantives expanded and more precisely defined by modifiers;
a. to nouns accompanied by a genitive of the pronouns μου, σου, ἡμῶν, ὑμῶν, αὐτοῦ, ἑαυτῶν, αὐτῶν: Matthew 1:21, 25; Matthew 5:45; Matthew 6:10-12; Matthew 12:49; Mark 9:17; Luke 6:27; Luke 10:7; Luke 16:6; Acts 19:25 (L T Tr WH ἡμῖν); Romans 4:19; Romans 6:6, and in numberless other places; it is rarely omitted, as in Matthew 19:28; Luke 1:72; Luke 2:32; 2 Corinthians 8:23; James 5:20, etc.; cf. Buttmann, § 127, 27.
b. The possessive pronouns ἐμός, σός, ἡμέτερος, ὑμέτερος, joined to substantives (if John 4:34 be excepted) always take the article, and John generally puts them after the substantive (ἡ κρίσις ἡ ἐμή, John 5:30; ὁ λόγος ὁ σός,
c. When adjectives are added to substantives, either the adjective is placed between the article and the substantive — as τό ἴδιον φορτίον, Galatians 6:5; ὁ ἀγαθός ἄνθρωπος, Matthew 12:35; τήν δικαίαν κρίσιν, John 7:24; ἡ ἀγαθή μερίς, Luke 10:42; τό ἅγιον πνεῦμα, Luke 12:10; Acts 1:8; ἡ αἰώνιος ζωή, John 17:3, and many other examples; — or the adjective preceded by an article is placed after the substantive with its article, as τό πνεῦμα τό ἅγιον, Mark 3:29; John 14:26; Acts 1:16; Hebrews 3:7; Hebrews 9:8; Hebrews 10:15; ἡ ζωή αἰώνιος, 1 John 1:2; 1 John 2:25; ὁ ποιμήν ὁ καλός, John 10:11; τήν πύλην τήν σιδηρᾶν, Acts 12:10, and other examples; — very rarely the adjective stands before a substantive which has the article, as in Acts (
d. What has been said concerning adjectives holds true also of all other limitations added to substantives, as ἡ κατ' ἐκλογήν πρόθεσις, Romans 9:11; παῥ ἐμοῦ διαθήκη, Romans 11:27; ὁ λόγος ὁ τοῦ σταυροῦ, 1 Corinthians 1:18; ἡ εἰς Χριστόν πίστις, Colossians 2:5; on the other hand, ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν ἡ πρός τόν Θεόν, 1 Thessalonians 1:8; τῆς διακονίας τῆς εἰς τούς ἁγίους, 2 Corinthians 8:4; see many other examples of each usage in Winers Grammar, 131ff (124ff); (Buttmann, 91ff (80ff)).
e. The noun has the article before it when a demonstrative pronoun (οὗτος, ἐκεῖνος) belonging to it either precedes or follows (Winers Grammar, § 18, 4; Buttmann, § 127, 29-31); as, ὁ ἄνθρωπος οὗτος, John 9:24 (οὗτος ὁ ἄνθρωπος, L Tr marginal reading WH); Acts 6:13; Acts 22:26; ὁ λαός οὗτος, Matthew 15:8; ὁ υἱός σου οὗτος, Luke 15:30; plural Luke 24:17, and numberless other examples; οὗτος ὁ ἄνθρωπος, Luke 14:30; οὗτος ὁ λαός, Mark 7:6 (ὁ λαός οὗτος, L WH marginal reading); οὗτος ὁ υἱός μου, Luke 15:24; οὗτος ὁ τελώνης, Luke 18:11 (ὁ τελώνης οὗτος, L marginal reading); οὗτος ὁ λόγος, John 7:36 (ὁ λόγος οὗτος, L T Tr WH), and many other examples on ἐκεῖνος, see ἐκεῖνος, 2; on αὐτός ὁ etc., see αὐτός (I. 1 b. etc.); on ὁ αὐτός etc., see αὐτός, III.
3. The neuter article prefixed to adjectives changes them into substantives (cf. Winers Grammar, § 34, 2; Buttmann, § 128, 1); as, τό ἀγαθόν, τό καλόν (which see each in its place); τό ἔλαττον, Hebrews 7:7; with a genitive added, τό γνωστόν τοῦ Θεοῦ, Romans 1:19; τό ἀδύνατον τοῦ νόμου, Romans 8:3; τό ἀσθενές τοῦ Θεοῦ, 1 Corinthians 1:25; αὐτῆς, Hebrews 7:18; τά ἀόρατα τοῦ Θεοῦ, Romans 1:20; τά κρυπτά τῆς αἰσχύνης, 2 Corinthians 4:2, etc.
4. The article with cardinal numerals: εἷς one; ὁ εἷς the one (of two), see εἷς, 4 a.; but differently ὁ εἷς in Romans 5:15, 17, the (that) one. So also οἱ δύο (our the twain), Matthew 19:5; οἱ δέκα the (those) ten, and οἱ ἐννέα, Luke 17:17; ἐκεῖνοι οἱ δέκα (καί) ὀκτώ, Luke 13:4.
5. The article prefixed to participles a. gives them the force of substantives (Winers Grammar, §§ 18, 3; 45, 7; Buttmann, §§ 129, 1 b.; 144, 9); as, ὁ πειράζων, Matthew 4:3; 1 Thessalonians 3:5; ὁ βαπτίζων, Mark 6:14 (for which Matthew 14:2 ὁ βαπτιστής); ὁ σπείρων, Matthew 13:3; Luke 8:5; ὁ ὀλοθρεύων, Hebrews 11:28; οἱ βαστάζοντες, Luke 7:14; οἱ βόσκοντες, Matthew 8:33; Mark 5:14; οἱ ἐσθίοντες, the eaters (convivae), Matthew 14:21; τό ὀφειλόμενον, Matthew 18:30, 34; τά ὑπάρχοντα (see ὑπάρχω, 2).
b. the participle with the article must be resolved into he who (and a finite verb; cf. Buttmann, § 144, 9): Matthew 10:40; Luke 6:29; Luke 11:23; John 15:23; 2 Corinthians 1:21; Philippians 2:13, and very often. πᾶς ὁ followed by a participle (Winer's Grammar, 111 (106)), Matthew 5:22; Matthew 7:26; Luke 6:30 (T WH omit; L Tr marginal reading brackets article);
6. The neuter τό before infinitives a. gives them the force of substantives (cf. Buttmann, 261ff (225ff) (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 44, 2 a.; 3 c.)); as, τό καθίσαι, Matthew 20:23; Mark 10:40; τό θέλειν, Romans 7:18; 2 Corinthians 8:10; τό ποιῆσαι, τό ἐπιτελέσαι, 2 Corinthians 8:11, and other examples; τοῦτο κρίνατε. τό μή τιθέναι κτλ., Romans 14:13. On the infinite with the article depending on a preposition (ἀντί τοῦ, ἐν τῷ, εἰς τό, etc.), see under each preposition in its place.
b. Much more frequent in the N. T. than in the earlier and more elegant Greek writings, especially in the writings of Luke and Paul (nowhere in John's Gospel and Epistles), is the use of the genitive τοῦ with an infinitive (and in the Sept. far more frequent than in the N. T.), which is treated of at length by Fritzsche in an excursus at the end of his commentary on Matthew, p. 843ff; Winers Grammar, § 44, 4; Buttmann, 266ff (228ff). The examples fall under the following classes: τοῦ with an infinitive is put α. after words which naturally require a genitive (of a noun also) after them; thus after ἄξιον, 1 Corinthians 16:4; ἔλαχε, Luke 1:9 (1 Samuel 14:47); ἐξαποροῦμαι, 2 Corinthians 1:8. β. for the simple expletive (i. e. 'complementary') or (as it is commonly called) epexegetical infinite, which serves to fill out an incomplete idea expressed by a noun or a verb or a phrase (where in German zu is commonly used); thus after προθυμία, 2 Corinthians 8:11; βραδεῖς, Luke 24:25; ἐλπίς, Acts 27:20; 1 Corinthians 9:10 (not Rec.); ἐζήτει εὐκαιρίαν, Luke 22:6 (not L marginal reading); ὁ καιρός (namely, ἐστι) τοῦ ἄρξασθαι, to begin, 1 Peter 4:17 (καιρόν χειν with the simple infinitive Hebrews 11:15); διδόναι τήν ἐξουσίαν, Luke 10:19 (ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν with simple infinitive, John 19:10; 1 Corinthians 9:4); ὀφειλέται ἐσμεν (equivalent to ὀφείλομεν), Romans 8:12 (with an infinitive alone, Galatians 5:3); ἕτοιμον εἶναι, Acts 23:15 (1 Macc. 3:58 1 Macc. 5:39 1 Macc. 13:31; with an infinitive alone, Luke 22:33); χρείαν ἔχειν, Hebrews 5:12; ἔδωκεν ὀφθαλμούς τοῦ μή βλέπειν καί ὦτα τοῦ μή ἀκούειν, that they should not see ... that they should not hear (cf. Buttmann, 267 (230)), Romans 11:8 (χειν ὦτα elsewhere always with a simple infinitive; see οὖς, 2); ἐπλήσθη ὁ χρόνος τοῦ τεκεῖν αὐτήν, at which she should be delivered (cf. Buttmann, the passage cited), Luke 1:57; ἐπλήσθησαν ἡμέραι ... τοῦ περιτεμεῖν αὐτόν, that they should circumcise him (cf. Buttmann, the passage cited), Luke 2:21; after ἀνένδεκτόν ἐστιν, Luke 17:1 (so Buttmann, § 140, 15; (Winer's Grammar, 328 (308) otherwise)); quite unusually after ἐγένετο (cf. Buttmann, § 140, 16 δ.; Winer's Grammar, the passage cited), Acts 10:25 (Rec. omits the article). γ. after verbs of deciding, entreating, exhorting, commanding, etc.: after κρίνειν (see κρίνω, 4); ἐγένετο γνώμη (γνώμης T Tr WH (see γίνομαι, 5 e. a.)), Acts 20:3; τό πρόσωπον ἐστήριξεν, Luke 9:51; συντίθεσθαι, Acts 23:20 (with an infinitive alone, Luke 22:5); προσεύχεσθαι, James 5:17; παρακαλεῖν, Acts 21:12; ἐντέλλεσθαι, Luke 4:10; ἐπιστέλλειν, Acts 15:20 (with an infinitive alone, Acts 21:25 (R G T, but L Tr text WH here ἐπεστείλαμεν; Buttmann, 270 (232))); κατανεύειν, Luke 5:7. δ. after verbs of hindering, restraining, removing (which naturally require the genitive), and according to the well-known pleonasm with μή before the infinitive (see μή, I. 4 a.; Buttmann, § 148, 13; Winer's Grammar, 325 (305)); thus, after κατέχω τινα, Luke 4:42; κρατοῦμαι, Luke 24:16; κωλύω, Acts 10:47; ὑποστέλλομαι, Acts 20:20, 27; παύω, 1 Peter 3:10; καταπαύω, Acts 14:18; without μή before the infinitive after ἐγκόπτομαι, Romans 15:22. ε. τοῦ with an infinitive is added as a somewhat loose epexegesis: Luke 21:22; Acts 9:15; Acts 13:47; Philippians 3:21; εἰς ἀκαθαρσίαν τοῦ ἀτιμάζεσθαι τά σώματα αὐτῶν, to the uncleanness of their bodies being dishonored, Romans 1:24 (cf. Buttmann, § 140, 14); Winer's Grammar, 325f (305f). ζ. it takes the place of an entire final clause, in order that (Winers Grammar, § 44, 4 b.; Buttmann, § 140, 17); especially after verbs implying motion: Matthew 2:13; Matthew 3:13; Matthew 13:3; Matthew 24:45; Mark 4:3 (where L T WH omit; Tr brackets τοῦ); Luke 1:77, 79; Luke 2:24, 27; Luke 5:1 (R G L text Tr marginal reading);
7. The article with adverbs (Buttmann, § 125, 10f; Winer's Grammar, § 18, 3), a. gives them the force of substantives; as, τό πέραν, the region beyond; τά ἄνω, τά κάτω, τό νῦν, τά ἔμπροσθεν, τά ὀπίσω, etc.; see these words in their proper places.
b. is used when they stand adjectivally, as ἡ ἄνω Ἱερουσαλήμ, ὁ τότε κόσμος, ὁ ἔσω ἄνθρωπος, ὁ νῦν αἰών, etc., on which see these several words.
c. the neuter τό is used in the accusative absolute, especially in specifications of time: both with adverbs of time, τό πάλιν, 2 Corinthians 13:2; τά νῦν or τανῦν, and with neuter adjectives used adverbially, as τό λοιπόν, τό πρότερον (John 6:62; Galatians 4:13); τό πρῶτον (John 10:40; John 12:16; John 19:39); τό πλεῖστον (1 Corinthians 14:2;); see these words themselves.
8. The article before prepositions with their cases is very often so used that ὤν, ὄντες, ὄντα, must be supplied in thought (cf. Buttmann, § 125, 9; Winer's Grammar, § 18, 3); thus, οἱ ἀπό Ἰταλίας, ἀπό Θεσσαλονίκης, Acts 17:13; Hebrews 13:24 (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 66, 6); ὁ ἐν τίνι, Matthew 6:9; Romans 8:1; neuter τά πρός, Mark 2:2; οἱ ἐκ τίνος, Romans 2:8; Romans 4:14, 16; Philippians 4:22 etc.; οἱ παρά τίνος, Mark 3:21 (see παρά, I. e.). τά περί τίνος, Luke 24:19; Acts 24:10; Philippians 1:27; (add, τά (T Tr WH τό) περί ἐμοῦ, Luke 22:37), etc. (see περί, I.
b. β.); τά περί τινα, Philippians 2:23 (see περί, II. b.); οἱ μετά τίνος, those with one, his companions, Matthew 12:3; οἱ περί τινα, and many other examples which are given under the several prepositions. the neuter τό in the accusative absolute in adverbial expressions (cf. Winers Grammar, 230 (216); Buttmann, §§ 125, 12; 131, 9): τό καθ' ἡμέραν, daily, day by day, Luke 11:3; Luke 19:47; Acts 17:11 (R G WH brackets); τό καθόλου, at all, Acts 4:18 (L T WH omit τό); besides, in τό κατά σάρκα, as respects human origin, Romans 9:5 (on the force of the article here see Abbot in the Journal of the Society for Biblical Literature, etc. for 1883, p. 108); τά κατ' ἐμέ, as respects what relates to me, my state, my affairs, Colossians 4:7; Ephesians 6:21; τό ἐξ ὑμῶν, as far as depends on you, Romans 12:18; τό ἐφ' ὑμῖν, as far as respects you, if I regard you, Romans 16:19 R G; τά πρός (τόν) Θεόν, the accusative absolute, as respects the things pertaining to God, i. e. in things pertaining to God, Romans 15:17; Hebrews 2:17; Hebrews 5:1 (ἱερεῖ τά πρός τούς Θεούς, στρατήγω δέ τά πρός τούς ἀνθρώπους, Xenophon, resp. Laced. 13, 11; cf. Fritzsche, Ep. ad Romans, iii., p. 262f); τό ἐκ μέρους namely, ὄν, that which has been granted us in part, that which is imperfect, 1 Corinthians 13:10.
9. The article, in all genders, when placed before the genitive of substantives indicates "kinship, affinity, or some kind of connection, association or fellowship, or in general that which in some way pertains to a person or thing" (cf Winers Grammar, § 30, 3; Buttmann, § 125, 7);
a. the masculine and the feminine article: Ἰάκωβος ὁ τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου, ὁ τοῦ Ἀλφαίου, the son, Matthew 10:2 (3), 3; Μαρία ἡ τοῦ Ἰακώβου, the mother, Mark 16:1 (T omits; Tr brackets τοῦ); Luke 24:10 (L T Tr WH); Ἑμμόρ τοῦ Συχέμ, of Hamor, the father of Shechem, Acts 7:16 R G; ἡ τοῦ Ουριου, the wife, Matthew 1:6; οἱ Χλόης, either the kinsfolk, or friends, or domestics, or work-people, or slaves, of Chloe, 1 Corinthians 1:11; also οἱ Ἀριστοβούλου, οἱ Ναρκίσσου, Romans 16:10f; οἱ τοῦ Χριστοῦ, the followers of Christ (A. V. they that are Christ's), 1 Corinthians 15:23 G L T Tr WH; Galatians 5:24; οἱ τῶν Φαρισαίων, the disciples of the Pharisees, Mark 2:18a Rec., 18b R G L; Καισάρεια ἡ Φιλίππου, the city of Philip, Mark 8:27.
b. τό and τά τίνος: as τά τοῦ Θεοῦ, the cause or interests, the purposes, of God, opposed to τά τῶν ἀνθρώπων, Matthew 16:23; Mark 8:33; in the same sense τά τοῦ κυρίου, opposed to τά τοῦ κόσμου, 1 Corinthians 7:32-34; τά τῆς σαρκός, τά τοῦ πνεύματος, Romans 8:5; τά ὑμῶν, your possessions, 2 Corinthians 12:14; ζητεῖν τό or τά τίνος, 1 Corinthians 10:24; 1 Corinthians 13:5; Philippians 2:21; τά τῆς εἰρήνης, τῆς οἰκοδομῆς, which make for, Romans 14:19; τά τῆς ἀσθενείας μου, which pertain to my weakness, 2 Corinthians 11:30; τά Καίσαρος, τά τοῦ Θεοῦ, due to Caesar, due to God, Matthew 22:21; Mark 12:17; Luke 20:25; τά τοῦ νηπίου, the things wont to be thought, said, done, by a child, 1 Corinthians 13:11; τά τίνος, the house of one (τά Λυκωνος, Theocritus, 2, 76; (εἰς τά τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ, Lysias c. Eratosthenes § 12, p. 195); cf. ἐν τοῖς πατρικοῖς, in her father's house, Sir. 42:10; (Chrysostom hom. 52:(on Genesis 26:16), vol. iv. part ii. col. 458, Migne edition; Genesis 41:51; Esther 7:9, (Hebrew בַּיִת); Job 18:19 (Hebrew מָגוּר))); with the name of a deity, the temple (τά τοῦ Διός, Josephus, contra Apion 1, 18, 2; also τό τοῦ Διός, Lycurgus, adverb, Leocr., p. 231 ((orat. Attic, p. 167, 15))), Luke 2:49 (see other examples in Lob. ad Phryn., p. 100). τά τοῦ νόμου, the precepts of the (Mosaic) law, Romans 2:14; τό τῆς παροιμίας, the (saying) of (that which is said in) the proverb, 2 Peter 2:22; τά τῶν δαιμονιζομένων, what the possessed had done and experienced, Matthew 8:33; τό τῆς συκῆς, what has been done to the fig-tree, Matthew 21:21.
10. The neuter τό is put a. before entire sentences, and sums them up into one conception (Buttmann, § 125, 13; Winer's Grammar, 109 (103f)): εἶπεν αὐτῷ τό Αἰ δύνασαι πιστεῦσαι, said to him this: 'If thou canst believe,' Mark 9:23 (but L T Tr WH τό Αἰ δύνῃ 'If thou canst!'); cf. Bleek at the passage; (Riddell, The Apology etc. Digest of Idioms § 19 γ.). before the sayings and precepts of the O. T. quoted in the New: τό Οὐ φονεύσεις, the precept, 'Thou shalt not kill', Matthew 19:18; add, Luke 22:37 (where Lachmann ὅτι for τό); Romans 13:9; (1 Corinthians 4:6 L T Tr WH); Galatians 5:14. before indirect questions: τό τίς etc., τό τί etc., τό πῶς etc., Luke 1:62; Luke 9:46; Luke 19:48; Luke 22:2, 4, 23; Acts 4:21; Acts 22:30; Romans 8:26; 1 Thessalonians 4:1; cf. Matthiae, § 280; Krüger, § 50, 6, 10; Passow, ii., p. 395b; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, B. I. 3f).
b. before single words which are explained as parts of some discourse or statement (references as above): τό Αγαρ, the name Αγαρ, Galatians 4:25 (T L text WH marginal reading omit; Tr brackets Αγαρ); τό 'ἀνέβη', this word ἀνέβη, Ephesians 4:9 (cf. Lightfoot on Galatians, the passage cited); τό ἔτι ἅπαξ, Hebrews 12:27; cf. Matthiae, 2, p. 731f, 11. We find the unusual expression οὐαί (apparently because the interjection was to the writer a substitute for the term ἡ πληγή or ἡ θλῖψις (Winers Grammar, 179 (169))), misery, calamity (A. V. the Woe), in Revelation 9:12; Revelation 11:14.
III. Since it is the business, not of the lexicographer, but of the grammarian, to exhibit the instances in which the article is omitted in the N. T. where according to the laws of our language it would have been expected, we refer those interested in this matter to the Grammars of Winer (sec. 19) and Alex. Buttmann (sec. 124, 8) (cf. also Green, chapter ii. § iii.; Middleton, The Doctrine of the Greek Article (edited by Rose), pp. 41ff, 94f; and, particularly with reference to Granville Sharp's doctrine (Remarks on the uses of the Def. Art. in the Greek Text of the N. T., 3rd edition 1803), a tract by C. Winstanley (A Vindication etc.) republished at Cambr. 1819), and only add the following remarks:
1. More or less frequently the article is lacking before appellatives of persons or things of which only one of the kind exists, so that the article is not needed to distinguish the individual from others of the same kind, as ἥλιος, γῆ, Θεός, Χριστός, πνεῦμα ἅγιον, ζωή αἰώνιος, θάνατος, νεκροί (of the whole assembly of the dead (see νεκρός, 1 b., p. 423b)); and also of those persons and things which the connection of discourse clearly shows to be well-defined, as νόμος (the Mosaic law (see νόμος, 2, p. 428a)), κύριος, πατήρ, υἱός, ἀνήρ (husband), γυνή (wife), etc.
2. Prepositions which with their cases designate a state and condition, or a place, or a mode of acting, usually have an anarthrous noun after them; as, εἰς φυλακήν, ἐν φυλακή, εἰς ἀέρα, ἐκ πίστεως, κατά σάρκα, ἐπ' ἐλπίδι, παῥ ἐλπίδα, ἀπ' ἀγορᾶς, ἀπ' ἀγροῦ, ἄν ἀγρῷ, εἰς ὁδόν, ἐν ἡμέραις Ἡρῴδου, εἰς ἡμέραν ἀπολυτρώσεως, and numberless other examples.
STRONGS NT 3588: ὅ ὅ, τέ, ἥ, τέ, τό, τέ, see τέ 2 a.
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ὁ , ἡ , τό ,
the prepositive article (ἄρθρον προτακτικόν ), originally a demonstr. prop. (so usually in Hom.), in general corresponding to the Eng. definite article.
I. As demonstr. Aron.
1. As freq. in Hom., absol., he (she, it), his (etc.) : Acts 17:28 (quoted from the poet Aratus).
2. Distributive, ὁ μὲν . . . ὁ δέ , the one . . . the other: 1 Corinthians 7:7, Galatians 4:22; pl., Acts 14:4; Acts 17:32, Philippians 1:16, al.; οἱ μὲν . . . ἄλλοι δέ , Matthew 16:14, John 7:12. οἱ μὲν . . . ὁ δέ , Hebrews 7:21; Hebrews 7:23.
3. In narration (without ό μὲν preceding), ὁ δέ , but he: Matthew 2:14, Mark 1:45, Luke 8:21, John 9:38, al. mult.
II. As prepositive article, the, prefixed,
1. to nouns unmodified: ὁ θεός , τὸ φῶς , etc.; to abstract nouns, ἡ σοφία , etc., to pl. nouns which indicate a class, οἱ ἀλώπεκες , foxes, Matthew 8:20, al.; to an individual as representing a class, ὁ ἐργάτης , Luke 10:7; c. nom. = voc. in addresses, Matthew 11:26, John 19:3, James 5:1, al.; to things which pertain to one, ἡ χεῖρ , his hand, Mark 3:1; to names of persons well known or already mentioned; usually to names of countries (originally adjectives), ἡ Ἰουδαία , etc.
2. To modified nouns : c. pers. prop. gen., μοῦ , σοῦ , etc.; c. poss. prop., ἐμός , σός , etc.; c. adj. between the art, and the noun, ό ἀγαθὸς ἄθρωτος , Matthew 12:35; the noun loll, by adj., both c. art., ὁ ποιμὴν ὁ καλός , John 10:11 (on ὁ ὄχλος πολύς , John 12:9, v. M, Pr., 84); before adjectival phrases, ἡ κατ᾿ ἐκλογὴν πρόοθεσις , Romans 9:11.
3. To other parts of speech used as substantives;
(a) neuter adjectives: τ . ἀγαθόν , etc.;
(b) cardinal numerals: ὁ εἷς , oἷ δύο , etc.;
(c) participles: ὁ Βαπτίζων (= ὁ Βαπτιστής , Matthew 14:2), Mark 6:14; πᾶς ὁ , c. ptcp., every one who, etc.;
(d) adverbs: τὸ πέραν , τὰ νῦν , ὁ ἔσω ἄνθρωπος ;
(e) infinitives: nom., τὸ θέλειν , Romans 7:18, al.; gen., τοῦ , after adjectives, ἄξιον τοῦ πορεύεσθαι , 1 Corinthians 16:4; verbs, ἔλαχεν τοῦ θυμιᾶσαι , Luke 1:9; and freq. in a final sense, ἐξῆλθεν σπΕέιρων τοῦ σπείρειν , Matthew 13:3 (on the artic. inf., v. B1., § 71).
4. In the neut. to sentences, phrases or single words treated as a quotation : τὸ Ἐι δύνῃ , Mark 9:23; τὸ ἔτι ἅπαξ , Hebrews 12:27; τό ἀνέβη , Ephesians 4:9, al.
5. To prepositional phrases: oἱ ἀπὸ Ἰταλίας , Hebrews 13:24; oἱ ἐκ νόμου , Romans 4:14; neut. acc absol., in adverbial phrases, τὸ καθ᾿ ἡμέραν , daily, Luke 11:3; τὸ κατὰ σάρκα , as regards the flesh, Romans 9:5,
6. To nouns in the genitive, denoting kinship, association, etc.: ὁ τοῦ , the son of (unless context indicates a different relationship), Matthew 10:2, al.; τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ , the things that pertain to God, Matthew 16:23; τὰ τῆς εἰρήνης , Romans 14:19 (cf. M, Pr., 81 If.; B1., §§ 46, 47).
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
The following may serve as exx. of this common word, probably borrowed, like Lat. asinus, from some Asiatic language (Boisacq, p. 705)—P Petr III. 140 (a).2 (iii/B.C.) ἀπ [οστεῖ ]λόν μοι τὴν ὄνον, P Grenf II. 14 (b).5 f. (B.C. 225) (= Chrest. I. p. 489) συνκεχρήμε ̣[θ ]α δ ̣ὲ ὄνους βαδιστὰς (see s.v. βαδίζω) πέντε. . . ἑτοιμάκαμεν δὲ καὶ τοὺς τεσσαράκοντα ὄνους [τοὺς σ ]κ ̣[ε ]υ ̣οφόρους, P Ryl II. 142.20 (A.D. 37) ἤροσαν διὰ ὄνων εἰς λόγο (ν) δεσχ (= μ)ῶ (ν) ἑξακοσίων, ";they carried off by means of donkeys a matter of six hundred bundles"; (Edd.), ib. 145.16 (A.D. 38) ἀφήρπασεν παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ ὄνον θήλειαν, ";be robbed him of a female donkey"; (Edd.), P Lond II. 331.16 f. (A.D. 165) (= II. p. 154, Chrest. I. p. 575) δώσ [ο ]μεν ἔτι καταβαίνοντι ὄνους τέσσαρας καὶ ἀναβαίνοντι τοὺς ἴσους, ";we shall give him for the down journey four asses, and for the up journey the same number,"; P Oxy VI. 932.8 (late ii/A.D.) ἐὰν δύνῃ ἀναβῆναι ἵνα ἐπιγνοῖς (cf. Luke 1:4 א*) τὸν ὄνον, ";if you can go up to find out the ass, do so"; (Edd.), and ib. I. 112.6 (iii/iv A.D.) δήλωσόν μοι ἢ πλοίῳ ἐξέρχ [ει ] ἢ ὄνῳ, ";let me know whether you are coming by boat or by donkey,"; a good ex. of the instrumental dat. In P Fay 67.2 (A.D. 80) (πυροῦ) ὄνους τρεῖς, ὄνους = ";donkey-loads"; : cf. BGU II. 362i. 6 (A.D. 215) ὄν ]ων γ ̄ ὑπὸ δένδρα, ";three asses laden with trees";—a rare instance of Coptic syntactical influence found in the papyri (cf. s.v. ὀστέον, and see Thackeray Gr. i. p. 20). In Herodas vi. 83 ὁ ὄνος = ";the grindstone"; : cf. μύλος ὀνικός (Matthew 18:6, Mark 9:42). On the δίπλωμα ὄνων, see Ostr. i. p. 360 f. For ὀνηλάτης cf. P Fay 119.3 (c. A.D. 100), and for ὀνηλάσιον cf. P Ryl II. 183 (a).2 (A.D. 16). See also s.v. βαδίζω.
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