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Bible Lexicons

Old & New Testament Greek Lexical DictionaryGreek Lexicon

Strong's #3303 - μέν

a primary particle
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μενοῦν , μενοῦνγε
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  1. truly, certainly, surely, indeed
Frequency Lists
Verse Results
KJV (166)
Matthew 18
Mark 8
Luke 10
John 6
Acts 39
Romans 16
1 Corinthians 22
2 Corinthians 7
Galatians 3
Ephesians 1
Philippians 5
Colossians 1
1 Thessalonians 1
2 Timothy 2
Titus 1
Hebrews 19
James 1
1 Peter 4
Jude 2
HCS (0)
HCS (2)
Mark 1
1 Corinthians 1
BSB (180)
Matthew 20
Mark 6
Luke 10
John 8
Acts 48
Romans 18
1 Corinthians 20
2 Corinthians 8
Galatians 3
Ephesians 1
Philippians 6
Colossians 1
1 Thessalonians 1
2 Timothy 3
Hebrews 19
James 1
1 Peter 4
Jude 3
ESV (44)
Matthew 6
Mark 4
Luke 1
John 1
Acts 4
Romans 7
1 Corinthians 4
2 Corinthians 1
Galatians 1
Ephesians 1
Philippians 4
Colossians 1
2 Timothy 1
Titus 1
Hebrews 6
1 Peter 1
WEB (150)
Matthew 12
Mark 6
Luke 11
John 7
Acts 43
Romans 5
1 Corinthians 22
2 Corinthians 7
Galatians 2
Ephesians 1
Philippians 6
Colossians 1
1 Thessalonians 1
Hebrews 21
James 1
1 Peter 2
Jude 2
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions


Particle, used partly to express certainty on the part of the speaker or writer; partly, and more commonly, to point out that the word or clause with which it stands is correlative to another word or clause that is to follow, the latter word or clause being introduced by δέ.


1. μέν used absolutely to express certainty, not followed by correlative δέ, indeed, of a truth, synonymous with μήν, as appears from the and Ion. form ἦ μέν in protestations and oaths (where Att. used ἦ μήν), καί μοι ὄμοσσον, ἦ μ. μοι πρόφρων ἔπεσιν καὶ χερσὶν ἀρήξειν Il. 1.77, cf. 14.275; ἦ μέν τοι τάδε πάντα τελείεται Od. 14.160, cf. Il. 24.416; τοῦτον ἐξορκοῖ, ἦ μέν οἱ διηκονήσειν Hdt. 4.154, cf. 5.93, etc.: with neg., οὐ μὲν γάρ τι κακὸν βασιλευέμεν Od. 1.392, etc.; ὤμοσα, μὴ μὲν.. ἀναφῆναι 4.254, cf. Hdt. 2.118, 179; ἔξαρνος ἦν, μὴ μὲν ἀποκτεῖναι Id. 3.67, cf. 99: without neg., ἀνδρὸς μὲν τόδε σῆμα πάλαι κατατεθνηῶτος Il. 7.89: also in Trag., ἀκτὴ μὲν ἥδε τῆς περιρρύτου χθονός S. Ph. 1, cf. 159 (anap.), OC 44, E. Med. 676, 1129, etc.; καὶ μέν Il. 1.269, 9.632, etc.; οὐδὲ μὲν οὐδὲ.. 2.703, 12.212; γε μέν, cf. γε 1.5.

2. an answering clause with δέ is sts. implied, τὴν μὲν ἐγὼ σπουδῇ δάμνημ' ἐπέεσσι her can I hardly subdue, [ but all others easily], Il. 5.893; ὡς μὲν λέγουσι as indeed they say, [ but as I believe not], E. Or. 8; καὶ πρῶτον μὲν ἦν αὐτῷ πόλεμος (with no ἔπειτα δέ to follow), X. An. 1.9.14; so νῦν μέν σ' ἀφήσω I will let you go this time, Herod. 5.81: to give force to assertions made by a person respecting himself, wherein opposition to other persons is implied, ὡς μὲν ἐμῷ θυμῷ δοκεῖ Od. 13.154; δοκεῖν μέν μοι ἥξει τήμερον [τὸ πλοῖον ] Pl. Cri. 43d: hence with the pers. Pron., ἐγὼ μέν νυν θεοῖσι ἔχω χάριν Hdt. 1.71; ἐγὼ μὲν οὐδέν (sc. θέλω) S. Ant. 498; ἐμοῦ μὲν οὐχ ἑκόντος Id. Aj. 455; ἐγὼ μὲν οὐκ οἶδα X. Cyr. 1.4.12, cf. 4.2.45, etc.: with the demonstr. Pron., τούτου μὲν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐγὼ σοφώτερός εἰμι Pl. Revelation 21:1-27 d: generally, to emphasize the preceding word, πολλὴ μὲν ἡ μεταβολή μοι γέγονεν great indeed has been the change, Isaiah 1:1, cf. Simon. 5.1, etc.

3. μέν is used alone in questions, when the answer is assumed, I take it, θέμις μὲν ἡμᾶς χρησμὸν εἰδέναι θεοῦ; E. Med. 676, cf. Ion 520 (troch.), Hipp. 316, S. Ant. 634, Ar. Av. 1214; Ἕλλην μέν ἐστι καὶ Ἑλληνίζει; Pl. Men. 82b.

II μέν folld. by δέ in the correlative clause or clauses, on the one hand, on the other hand; commonly in Classical Gr., less freq. in later Gr. (rare in NT):

1 μέν.., δέ.. (or when the correlative clause is neg., μέν.., οὐδέ.., Il. 1.318, 536), to mark opposition, Hom., etc. The opposed clauses commonly stand together, but are freq. separated by clauses, parenthetic or explanatory; e.g. μέν in Il. 2.494 is answered by δέ in 511, 527 sq.; in X. An. 1.9.2, πρῶτον μέν is answered by ἐπεὶ δέ in [*] 6; in Id. Mem. 1.1.2, πρῶτον μέν is answered by θαυμαστὸν δέ in 1.2.1.

2. to connect a series of clauses containing different matter, though with no opposition, Il. 1.18s q., 306 sq. (five δέ -clauses), 433 sq. (eight δέ -clauses), cf. X. An. 1.3.14, 7.10s q.: freq. when the members of a group or class are distinctly specified, παῖδες δύο, πρεσβύτερος μὲν Ἀρταξέρξης, νεώτερος δὲ Κῦρος ib. 1.1.1; τάφρος.., τὸ μὲν εὖρος ὀργυιαὶ πέντε, τὸ δὲ βάθος ὀργυιαὶ τρεῖς ib. 1.7.14; πρῶτος μέν.., δεύτερος δέ.., τρίτος δέ.. ib. 5.6.9; τότε μέν.., τότε δέ.., at one time.., at another.., ib. 6.1.9, etc.: esp. with the Art. used as a Pron., ὁ μέν.., ὁ δέ.. ; τὸ μέν.., τὸ δέ.., etc.

3. the principal word is freq. repeated, οἳ περὶ μὲν βουλὴν Δαναῶν, περὶ δ' ἐστὲ μάχεσθαι Il. 1.258, cf. 288, Od. 15.70; ἔνι μὲν φιλότης, ἐν δ' ἵμερος, ἐν δ' ὀαριστύς Il. 14.216; Ξέρξης μὲν ἄγαγεν.., Ξέρξης δ' ἀπώλεσεν A. Pers. 550, cf. 560, 694, 700 (all lyr.); χαλεπαίνει μὲν πρῳρεύς, χαλεπαίνει δὲ κυβερνήτης X. An. 5.8.20.

4. one of the correlative clauses is sts. independent, while the other takes the part. or some other dependent form, ἐβλασφήμει κατ' ἐμοῦ.., μάρτυρα μὲν.. οὐδένα παρασχόμενος.., παρεκελεύετο δέ.. D. 57.11; οἱ ἀμφὶ βασιλέα, πεζοὶ μὲν οὐκέτι, τῶν δὲ ἱππέων ὁ λόφος ἐνεπλήσθη X. An. 1.10.12, cf. 2.1.7, 5.6.29; ὧν ἐπιμεμφομένα σ' ἁδεῖα μὲν ἀντία δ' οἴσω S. Tr. 123, cf. OC 522 (bothlyr.); χωρὶς μὲν τοῦ ἐστερῆσθαι.., ἔτι δὲ καὶ.. δόξω ἀμελῆσαι Pl. Cri. 44 b.

5. μέν and δέ freq. oppose two clauses, whereof one is subordinate to the other in meaning or emphasis, ἀλλ' ἐκεῖνο θαυμάζω, εἰ Λακεδαιμονίοις μέν ποτε.. ἀντήρατε,.. νυνὶ δὲ ὀκνεῖτ' ἐξιέναι (for εἰ.. ἀντάραντες νυνὶ ὀκνεῖτε) D. 2.24, cf. E. IT 116, Lys. 34.11, X. Mem. 2.7.11, etc.: so in an anacoluthon, τρία μὲν ὄντα.. ναυτικά.., τούτων δ' εἰ περιόψεσθε τὰ δύο, κτλ., Th. 1.36.

6. μέν is not always answered by δέ, but freq. by other equiv. Particles, as ἀλλά, Il. 1.22 sq., 2.703 sq., Pi. O. 9.1, A. Pers. 176, X. An. 1.7.17: by μέντοι, Hdt. 1.36, S. Ph. 350, D. 21.189, etc.: by ἀτάρ, Il. 6.84, 124, A. Pr. 342, S. OT 1051s q., Pl. Tht. 172c, etc. (so μέν.., αὐτάρ in , Il. 1.50, Od. 19.513, etc.): by αὖ, Il. 11.108, Od. 4.210: by αὖθις, S. Ant. 165: by αὖτε, Il. 1.234, Od. 22.5: by temporal Particles, πρῶτα μέν.., εἶτα.. S. El. 261; πρῶτον μέν.., μετὰ τοῦτο.. X. An. 6.1.5 - 7; μάλιστα μὲν δὴ.., ἔπειτα μέντοι.. S. Ph. 350, cf. OT 647: rarely by μήν with neg., οὐδὲν μὴν κωλύει Pl. Phdr. 268e; οὐ μὴν αὐταί γε Id. Phlb. 12d. when the opposition is emphatic, δέ is sts. strengthd., as ὅμως δέ.. S. OT 785, Ph. 473, 1074, etc. (so ἀλλ' ὅμως El. 450); δ' αὖ.. Il. 4.415, X. An. 1.10.5; δ' ἔμπης.. Il. 1.561 - 2. μέν is sts. answered by a copul. Particle, κάρτιστοι μὲν ἔσαν καὶ καρτίστοις ἐμάχοντο ib. 267, cf. 459, Od. 22.475, S. Aj. 1, Tr. 689, E. Med. 125 (anap.), etc.: rarely in Prose, τρία μὲν ἔτη ἀντεῖχον.., καὶ οὐ πρότερον ἐνέδοσαν Th. 2.65 (dub.). μέν before other


I where each Particle retains its force,

1 μὲν ἄρα, in Hom. μέν ῥα, Il. 2.1, 6.312, Od. 1.127, Pl. Phdr. 258d, R. 467d, etc.

2. μὲν γάρ S. OT 62, Th. 1.142, etc.: in Hom. there is freq. no second clause, Od. 1.173, 392, cf. S. OT 1062, etc.; μὲν γὰρ δή Il. 11.825; μὲν γάρ τε 17.727.

3. μέν γε, when a general statement is explained in detail, Κορινθίοις μέν γε ἔνσπονδοί ἐστε Th. 1.40, cf. 70, 6.86, Hdt. 6.46, Antipho 5.14, Lys. 13.27, Isa 4.8, Ar. Nu. 1382, V. 564, E. Fr. 909.4.

4. μὲν δή Il. 1.514, Hdt. 1.32, etc.: freq. used to express positive certainty, ἀλλ' οἶσθα μὲν δή S. Tr. 627, cf. OT 294; τὰ μὲν δὴ τόξ' ἔχεις Id. Ph. 1308; esp. as a conclusion, τοῦτο μὲν δὴ.. ὁμολογεῖται Pl. Grg. 470b, cf. X. Cyr. 1.1.6, etc.: in closing a statement, τοιαῦτα μὲν δὴ ταῦτα A. Pr. 500, etc.: used in answers to convey full assent, ἦ μὲν δή (cf. supr. A) Il. 9.348, Od. 4.33; καὶ μὲν δή.. γε Pl. R. 409b; οὐ μὲν δή, to deny positively, Il. 8.238, X. Cyr. 1.6.9, Pl. Tht. 148e, etc.; οὐ μὲν δή.. γε X. An. 2.2.3, 3.2.14; ἀλλ' οὔ τι μὲν δή.. Pl. Tht. 187a.

5. μὲν οὖν, v. infr. 11.2.

II where the Particles combine so as to form a new sense,

1 μέν γε at all events, at any rate (not in Trag.), τοῦτο μέν γ' ἤδη σαφές Ar. Ach. 154, cf. Nu. 1172, Lys. 1165, Ra. 80, Th. 3.39; μέν γέ που Pl. R. 559b, Tht. 147a.

2. μὲν οὖν is freq. used with a corresponding δέ, so that each Particle retains its force, Od. 4.780, Pi. O. 1.111, S. OT 244, 843; Ph. 359, D. 2.5, etc.: but freq. also abs., so then, S. Ant. 65; ταῦτα μὲν οὖν παραλείψω D. 2.3; esp. in replies, sts. in strong affirmation, παντάπασι μὲν οὖν Pl. Tht. 158d; κομιδῇ μὲν οὖν ib. 159e; πάνυ μὲν οὖν ib. 159b; ἀνάγκη μὲν οὖν ib. 189e; also to substitute a new statement so as to correct a preceding statement, nay rather, κακοδαίμων; Answ. βαρυδαίμων μὲν οὖν ! Ar. Ec. 1102; μου πρὸς τὴν κεφαλὴν ἀποψῶ wipe your nose on my head: Answ. ἐμοῦ μὲν οὖν.. nay on mine, Id. Eq. 911, cf. A. Pers. 1032 (lyr.), Ag. 1090 (lyr.), 1396, S. Aj. 1363, El. 1503, OT 705, Ar. Ra. 241, Pl. Cri. 44b, Grg. 466a, 470b, Prt. 309d, etc.; also μὲν οὖν δή S. Tr. 153; καὶ δὴ μὲν οὖν Id. OC 31; cf. οὐμενοῦν: in NT μενοῦν and μενοῦνγε, to begin a sentence, yea rather, Luke 11:28, Romans 9:20, etc., cf. Phryn. 322, Hsch. In Ion., μέν νυν is used for μὲν οὖν, Hdt. 1.18, 4.145, etc.

3. by μέν τε, if δέ τε follows, the two clauses are more closely combined than by τε.., τε.., Il. 5.139, al.; μέν τε is freq. answered by δέ alone, 16.28, al.; by ἀλλά, αὐτάρ, 17.727, Od. 1.215, al.; perh. by ἠδέ, Il. 4.341: Hom. also uses μέν τε abs., when τε loses its force, as after ἦ, τίς, etc., Il. 2.145, al.

4. μέν τοι in Hom. always occurs in speeches, where τοι can be regarded as the dat. of the Pron.: later, μέντοι is written as a single word, and is used: with a conj. force, yet, nevertheless, A. Pr. 320, 1054 (anap.), S. Tr. 413, etc.; and sts. stands for δέ, answering to μέν, v. supr. A. 11.6 a. as an Adv., in strong protestations, οὐ μέντοι μὰ Δία.. D. 4.49; in eager or positive assent, of course, φαμέν τι εἶναι..; Answ. φαμὲν μέντοι νὴ Δία Pl. Phd. 65d, al.: with a neg. to give emphasis to a question, οὐ σὺ μέντοι..; why, are you not.. ? Id. Prt. 309a, cf. Phdr. 229b, R. 339b, etc.: sts. to express impatience, ὄμνυμι γάρ σοι — τίνα μέντοι, τίνα θεῶν; Id. Phdr. 236d; τί μ. πρῶτον ἦν, τί πρῶτον ἦν; nay what was the first? Ar. Nu. 787; οὗτος, σὲ λέγω μ. Id. Ra. 171; σὺ μέντοι.. Luc. Alex. 44: with imper., to enforce the command, τουτὶ μ. σὺ φυλάττου only take heed.., Ar. Pax 1100, cf. Av. 661, X. An. 1.4.8: in answers, γελοῖον μέντἂν εἴη nay it would be absurd, Pl. Tht. 158e; summing up a long temporal clause, And. 1.130. μέντοι γε X. Cyr. 5.5.24, etc.; οὐ μ. γε Diog.Apoll. 5: in later Gr. μέντοιγε stands first in the sentence, μ. οὐ θέλω PLond. 3.897.13 (i A.D.); also γε μέντοι A. Ag. 938, S. OT 778, 1292, E. Hec. 600; ὅμως γε μ. Ar. Ra. 61. καὶ μ. καί is used to add a point to be noted, Heraclit. 28, Pl. R. 331d; also καί.. μ., νῦν σοι καιρός ἐστιν ἐπιδείξασθαι τὴν παιδείαν, καὶ φυλάξασθαι μέντοι.. and of course to take care.., X. An. 4.6.15 (v.l.), cf. 1.8.20, Pl. Prt. 339c, Tht. 143a. ἀλλὰ μέντοι well, if it comes to that, X. An. 4.6.16; well, of course, Pl. R. 331e, etc.; cf. μέντον. for μέν after other Particles, see each Particle. Position of μέν. Like δέ, it usu. stands as the second word in a sentence. But when a sentence begins with words common to its subordinate clauses, μέν stands second in the first of these clauses, as ἥδε γὰρ γυνὴ δούλη μέν, εἴρηκεν δ' ἐλεύθερον λόγον S. Tr. 63; οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι ἐτάξαντο μέν.., ἡσύχαζον δέ.. Th. 4.73, cf. 113, etc. It also attaches itself to words which mark opposition, as πρῶτον μέν, τότε μέν, ἐγὼ μέν, even when these do not stand first: sts. however it precedes them, ὡς μὲν ἐγὼ οἶμαι Pl. Phdr. 228b; ὡς μέν τινες ἔφασαν X. Cyr. 5.2.28. It generally stands between the Art. and Noun, or the Pr and its Case: but if special stress is laid on the Noun, this is sts. neglected, as οἱ Τεγεᾶται μὲν ἐπηυλίσαντο, Μαντινῆς δὲ ἀπεχώρησαν Th. 4.134; ἀνὰ τὸ σκοτεινὸν μέν.. Id. 3.22; also τῇ σῇ μὲν εὐδαιμονίῃ, τῇ ἐμεωυτοῦ δὲ κακοδαιμονίῃ Hdt. 1.87.

II μέν is freq. repeated:

1 when, besides the opposition of two main clauses, a subordinate opposition is introduced into the first, ὁ μὲν ἀνὴρ τοιαῦτα μὲν πεποίηκε τοιαῦτα δὲ λέγει, ὑμῶν δέ.. X. An. 1.6.9, cf. 5.8.24, Th. 8.104, D. 18.214, 23.208.

2. in apodosi with the demonstr. Pron. or Adv., τὸν μὲν καλέουσι θέρος, τοῦτον μὲν προσκυνέουσι, τὸν δὲ χειμῶνα.. Hdt. 2.121; ὅσοι μὲν δὴ νομοῦ τοῦ Θηβαίου εἰσί, οὗτοι μέν [νυν].. αἶγας θύουσι· ὅσοι δὲ.. νομοῦ τοῦ Μενδησίου εἰσί, οὗτοι δὲ.. ὄϊς θύουσι ib. 42, cf. 3.108, al.; ὅτε μέν με οἱ ἄρχοντες ἔταττον.., τότε μὲν ἔμενον.., τοῦ δὲ θεοῦ τάττοντος,.. ἐνταῦθα δέ.. Pl. Ap. 28e, cf. Grg. 512a.

3. μέν used absolutely is freq. folld. by a correlative μέν, εἰ μὲν οὖν ἡμεῖς μὲν.. ποιοῦμεν Id. R. 421a.

III μέν is sts. omitted (esp. in Poetry) where it is implied in the following δέ, φεύγων, ὁ δ' ὄπισθε διώκων Il. 22.157; ἐλευθεροῦτε πατρίδ', ἐλευθεροῦτε δὲ παῖδας A. Pers. 403; σφραγῖδε.. χρυσοῦν ἔχουσα τὸν δακτύλιον, ἡ δ' ἑτέρα ἀργυροῦν IG 22.1388.45, cf. Ar.

Thayer's Expanded Definition

μέν, a weakened form of μήν, and hence, properly a particle of affirmation: truly, certainly, surely, indeed — its affirmative force being weakened, yet retained most in Ionic, Epic, and Herodotus, and not wholly lost in Attic and Hellenistic writers (μέν 'confirmative'; cf. 4 Macc. 18:18). Owing to this its original meaning it adds a certain force to the terms and phrases with which it is connected, and thus contrasts them with or distinguishes them from others. Accordingly, it takes on the character of a concessive and very often of a merely distinctive particle, which stands related to a following δέ or other adversative conjunction, either expressed or understood, and in a sentence composed of several members is so placed as to point out the first member, to which a second, marked by an adversative particle, is added or opposed. It corresponds to the Latinquidem, indeed, German zwar (i. e. properly,zu Wahre, i. e. in Wahrheit (in truth)); but often its force cannot be reproduced. Its use in classic Greek is exhibited by Devarius i., p. 122ff, and Klotz on the same ii. 2, p. 656ff; Viger i., p. 531ff, and Hermann on the same, p. 824f; others; Matthiae, § 622; Kühner, ii., p. 806ff, § 527ff; p. 691ff; § 503; (Jelf, § 729, 1, 2; § 764ff); Passow, and Pape (and Liddell and Scott), under the word.

I. Examples in which the particle μέν is followed in another member by an adversative particle expressed. Of these examples there are two kinds:

1. those in which μέν has a concessive force, and δέ (or ἀλλά) introduces a restriction, correction, or amplification of what has been said in the former member, indeed ... but, yet, on the other hand. Persons or things, or predications about either, are thus correlated: Matthew 3:11, cf. Mark 1:8 (where T Tr WH omit; L brackets μέν); Luke 3:16 (where the meaning is, 'I indeed baptize as well as he who is to come after me, but his baptism is of greater efficacy'; cf. Acts 1:5); Matthew 9:37 and Luke 10:2 (although the harvest is great, yet the laborers are few); Matthew 17:11f (rightly indeed is it said that Elijah will come and work the ἀποκατάστασις, but he has already come to bring about this very thing); Matthew 20:23; Matthew 22:8; Matthew 23:28; John 16:22; John 19:32; Acts 21:39 (although I am a Jew, and not that Egyptian, yet etc.); Acts 22:3 (R); Romans 2:25; Romans 6:11; 1 Corinthians 1:18; 1 Corinthians 9:24; 1 Corinthians 11:14; 1 Corinthians 12:20 (R G L brackets Tr brackets WH marginal reading); (R. G L brackets); 2 Corinthians 10:10; Hebrews 3:5; 1 Peter 1:20, and often. μέν and δέ are added to articles and pronouns: οἱ μέν ... οἱ δέ, the one indeed ... but the other (although the latter, yet the former), Philippians 1:16f (according to the critical text); ὅς μέν ... ὅς δέ, the one indeed, but (yet) the other etc. Jude 1:22f; τινες μέν ... τινες δέ καί, Philippians 1:15; with conjunctions: εἰ μέν οὖν, if indeed then, if therefore ... εἰ δέ, but if, Acts 18:14f R G; L T Tr WH (εἰ μέν οὖν ... νυνί δέ, Hebrews 8:4f (here R G εἰ μέν γάρ)); εἰ μέν ... νῦν δέ, if indeed (conceding or supposing this or that to be the case) ... but now, Hebrews 11:15; κἄν μέν ... εἰ δέ μήγε, Luke 13:9; μέν γάρ ... δέ, 1 Corinthians 11:7; Romans 2:25; μέν οὖν ... δέ, Luke 3:18; εἰς μέν ... εἰς δέ, Hebrews 9:6f μέν ... ἀλλά, indeed ... but, although ... yet, Romans 14:20; 1 Corinthians 14:17; μέν ... πλήν, Luke 22:22. (Cf. Winers Grammar, 443 (413); Buttmann, § 149, 12 a.)

2. those in which μέν loses its concessive force and serves only to distinguish, but δέ retains its adversative power: Luke 11:48; Acts 13:36; Acts 23:8 (here WH text omits; Tr brackets μέν); 1 Corinthians 1:12, 23; Philippians 3:1; Hebrews 7:8; ἀπό μέν ... ἐπί δέ, 2 Timothy 4:4; μέν οὖν (German er nun (he, then)) ... οἱ δέ, Acts 28:5f; ὅς μέν ... ὅς δέ, and one ... and another, 1 Corinthians 11:21; οἱ μέν ... δέ (he, on the contrary), Hebrews 7:20f, 23f; ἐκεῖνοι μέν οὖν ... ἡμεῖς δέ, 1 Corinthians 9:25; εἰ μέν οὖν ... εἰ δέ, Acts 18:14f (R G); (L T Tr WH); and this happens chiefly when what has already been included in the words immediately preceding is separated into parts, so that the adversative particle contrasts that which the writer especially desires to contrast: ἑκάστῳ ... τοῖς μέν ζητοῦσιν ... τοῖς δέ ἐξ ἐριθείας etc. Romans 2:6-8; πᾶς ... ἐκεῖνοι μέν ... ἡμεῖς δέ etc. 1 Corinthians 9:25; add, Matthew 25:14f, 33; Romans 5:16; Romans 11:22.

3. μέν ... δέ serve only to distribute a sentence into clauses: both ... and; not only ... but also; as well ... as: John 16:9-11; Romans 8:17; Jude 1:8; πρῶτον μέν ... ἔπειτα δέ, Hebrews 7:2; μέν ... δέ ... δέ, some ... some ... some, Matthew 13:8; (ἕκαστος ... μέν ... δέ, each ... one ... another, 1 Corinthians 7:7 L T Tr WH); ὅς μέν ... ὅς δέ, one ... another, Matthew 21:35; Acts 17:32; 1 Corinthians 7:7 (R G); οἱ μέν ... ἄλλοι (L οἱ) δέ ... ἕτεροι δέ, Matthew 16:14; μέν γάρ ... ἄλλῳ δέ ... ἑτέρῳ δέ (here T Tr WH omit; L brackets δέ), 1 Corinthians 12:8-10; μέν ... followed by ἀλλά δέ (three times, Matthew 13:4f, 7f; ἄλλος μέν, ἄλλος δέ, 1 Corinthians 15:39; τοῦτο μέν ... τοῦτο δέ, on the one hand ... on the other; partly ... partly, Hebrews 10:33, also found in secular authors, cf. Winer's Grammar, 142 (135). μέν is followed by another particle: ἔπειτα, John 11:6; 1 Corinthians 12:28; James 3:17; καί νῦν, Acts 26:4, 6; τά νῦν, Acts 17:30; πολύ (R G πολλῷ) μᾶλλον, Hebrews 12:9.

II. Examples in which μέν is followed neither by δέ nor by any other adversative particle (μέν 'solitarium'); cf. Winers Grammar, 575f (534f); Buttmann, 365f (313f) These examples are of various kinds; either

1. the antithesis is evident from the context; as, Colossians 2:23 (`have indeed a show of wisdom', but are folly (cf. Lightfoot, in the place cited)); μέν ... σωτηρίαν, namely, but they themselves prevent their own salvation, Romans 10:1; τά μέν ... δυνάμεσιν, namely, but ye do not hold to my apostolic authority, 2 Corinthians 12:12: ἄνθρωποι μέν (L T Tr WH omit μέν) ... ὀμνύουσιν, namely, δέ Θεός καθ' ἑαυτοῦ ὀμνύει, Hebrews 6:16. Or,

2. the antithetic idea is brought out by a different turn of the sentence: Acts 19:4 (Rec.), where the expected second member, Ἰησοῦς δέ ἐστιν ἐρχόμενος, is wrapped up in τουτ' ἐστιν εἰς τόν Ἰησοῦν; Romans 11:13 ἐφ' ὅσον μέν κτλ., where the antithesis παραζήλω δέ κτλ. is contained in εἴπως παραζηλώσω; Romans 7:12 μέν νόμος κτλ., where the thought of the second member, 'but sin misuses the law,' is expressed in another forth in Romans 7:13ff by an anacoluthon, consisting of a change from the disjunctive to a conjunctive construction (cf. Herm. ad Vig., p. 839), we find μέν ... τέ, Acts 27:21; μέν ... καί, 1 Thessalonians 2:18; in distributions or partitions, Mark 4:4-8 (here R G μέν ... δέ ... καί ... καί); Luke 8:5-8; or, finally, that member in which δέ would regularly follow immediately precedes (Herm. ad Vig., p. 839), Acts 28:22 (yet see Meyer at the passage; cf. Buttmann, § 149, 12 d.). Or

3. the writer, in using μέν, perhaps had in mind a second member to be introduced by δέ, but was drawn away from his intention by explanatory additions relating to the first member: thus Acts 3:13 (ὅν ὑμεῖς μένRec. omits this μέν — etc., where Θεός δέ ἤγειρεν ἐκ νεκρῶν, cf. Acts 3:15, should have followed); especially (as occasionally in classical Greek also) after πρῶτον μέν: Romans 1:8; Romans 3:2; 1 Corinthians 11:18; τόν μέν πρῶτον λόγον κτλ., where the antithesis τόν δέ δεύτερον λόγον κτλ. ought to have followed, Acts 1:1.

4. μέν οὖν (in Luke 11:28 T Tr WH μενοῦν), Latinquidem igitur, (English so then, now therefore, verily, etc.) (where μέν is confirmatory of the matter in hand, and οὖν marks an inference or transition, cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2, p. 662f; (Herm. Vig., pp. 540f, 842; Buttmann, § 149, 16)): Acts 1:18; Acts 5:41; Acts 13:4; Acts 17:30; Acts 23:22; Acts 26:9; 1 Corinthians 6:4, 7 (here T omits Tr brackets οὖν); ἀλλά μέν οὖν, Philippians 3:8 G L Tr; εἰ μέν οὖν, Hebrews 7:11.

5. μέν solitarium has a concessive and restrictive force, indeed, verily (German freilich) (cf. Klotz, Devar. ii. 2, p. 522; Hartung, Partikeln, ii. 404): εἰ μέν, 2 Corinthians 11:4; μέν οὖν now then, (German nun freilich), Hebrews 9:1 (cf. Buttmann, as above. On the use of μέν οὖν in the classics cf. Cope's note on Aristotle, rhet. 2, 9, 11.)

6. μενουγγε, which see in its place.

III. As respects the position of the particle: it never stands at the beginning of a sentence, but yet as near the beginning as possible; generally in the second or third place, by preference between the article and noun (examples in which it occupies the fourth place are Acts 3:21; 2 Corinthians 10:1; Colossians 2:23; Acts 14:12 Rec.; the fifth place, Ephesians 4:11; Romans 16:19 R WH brackets; 1 Corinthians 2:15 R G; (John 16:22, see below)); moreover, in the midst of a clause also it attaches itself to a word the force of which is to be strengthened, as καί ὑμεῖς οὖν λύπην μέν νῦν ἔχετε (but L T Tr WH ... οὖν νῦν μέν λύπην), John 16:22; cf. Winers Grammar, § 61, 6. The word is not found in the Rev. or in the Epistles of John.

STRONGS NT 3303: μενοῦν μενοῦν, equivalent to μέν οὖν, see μέν, II. 4f.

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Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

μέν ,

conjunctive particle (originally a form of μήν ), usually related to a following δέ or other adversative conjunction, and distinguishing the word or clause with which it stands from that which follows. It is generally untranslatable and is not nearly so frequent in NT as in cl. Like δέ , it never stands first in a clause.

1. Answered by δέ or some other particle: μέν . . . δέ , indeed . . . but, Matthew 3:11, Luke 3:16, al.; with pronouns, ὃς μέν . . . ὃς δέ , one . . . another, Matthew 2:1-231:35, al.; pl., Philippians 1:16-17; ὃ μὲν . . . ὃ δέ . . . ὃ δέ , some . . . some . . . some, Matthew 13:8; τοῦτο μὲν . . . τοῦτο δέ , partly . . . partly, Hebrews 10:33; μὲν . . . ἔπειτα , John 11:6; μὲν . . . καί , Luke 8:5.

2. μέν solitarium, answered by no other particle: πρῶτον μέν (Bl., l.c.), Romans 1:8; Romans 3:2, 1 Corinthians 11:18; μὲν οὖν in narrative, summing up what precedes or introducing something further (Bl., § 78, 5), so then, rather, nay rather: Luke 11:28 (WH, μενοῦν ), Acts 1:6; Acts 9:31, al.; μὲν οὖν γε (Philippians 3:8, WH) : see μενοῦνγε G3304 .

μεν -οῦν = μὲν οὖν , see μέν .

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

The act. μιμνήσκω, which is not found in the NT, is seen in P Giss I. 91.6 (ii/A.D.) μιμνη ̣[σκει ] ἡμῶν συνεχῶς, and for pres. mid., as in Hebrews 2:6; Hebrews 13:3, cf. P Hamb 1. 37.4 (ii/A.D.) ἀναγκαῖον γάρ ἐστι μνημίσκεσθαι (l. μιμνήσκεσθαι) τῆς καλοκαγαθίας σου, and BGU IV. 1024v. 6 (iv/v A.D.) μ ̣ι ̣μ ̣ν ̣η ̣σ ̣κόμενος ὧν ἔπ ̣ρα ̣σ ̣ε ̣̓. The perf. μέμνημαι in the sense of ";bear in mind,"; ";hold in remembrance,"; is common, e.g. P Ryl II. 81.21 (c. A.D.104) τοῦ κατασπορέως. . . ὀφείλοντος. . . μεμνῆσ [θαί μ ]ο ̣υ ̣ τῆς γενομένη [ς ] αὐτῷ ἐντολῆς παρόν [τος σο ], ";the inspector of sowing ought to have remembered my order given when you were present"; (Edd.), P Oxy III. 525.5 (early ii/A.D.) μέμνη [σ ]ο τοῦ νυ [κ ]τ [ελίου ]῎ Ισιδος τοῦ ἐν τῶι Σαραπ [ιείωι, ";remember the night-festival of Isis at the Serapeum"; (Edd.), P Ryl II. 235.13 (ii/A.D.) διὸ μέμ ̣[νησο ] κ ̣αὶ ἡμῶν κἂν πάνυ τ ̣ι ̣[νὰ ἄ ]λλα πράττῃς ";therefore bear us too in mind even if you are engaged in quite other pursuits"; (Edd.), and P Oxy XIV. 1664.4 (iii/A.D.) ὅτι οὐ μόνοι ἡμεῖς μεμνήμεθά σου ἀλλὰ καὶ αὐτοὶ ἡμῶν οἱ πάτριοι θεοί, τοῦτο δῆλον ἅπασιν, ";that not only we but also our ancestral gods themselves hold you in memory is clear to all"; (Edd.),7 μεμνημένη τῆς ἀγαθῆς σου προαιρέσεως, ";remembering your goodwill"; (Edd.). For a similar use of the 1 aor. ἐμνήσθην, cf. P Tebt II. 410.8 (A.D. 16) μν [ ]σθητι ̣ ̣[ς ] (cf. Luke 24:6 ε ̣̓ν ̣ τῷ Τρ [ι ]στόμῳ με ἐφιλοτ [ι ]μ ̣οῦ σὺν ἐμοὶ μεῖναι, ";remember how zealous you were at Tristomos to remain with me"; (Edd.), ib. 420.17 (iii/A.D.) μνήσθητί μου (cf. Luke 23:42) ὃν κἀγὼ πεποίηκά σοι ἀπὸ ἀρχῆς μέχρι τέλους, ";remember me and what I also have done for you from beginning to end"; (Edd), P Oxy VIII. 1070.48 (iii/A.D.) ὑμεῖς οὐδὲ ὅλως ἐγράψατε οὐδὲ ἐμνήσθητέ μου περὶ τῆς ἀσφαλείας τῆς οἰκίας ἡμῶν, ";you have not written at all nor remembered me in regard to the safety of our house"; (Ed.), Preisigke 159.8 μνήσθητι ὑμῶν καὶ παράδος ὑμῖν θεραπείαν —a temple inscr. to Aesculapius, and ib. 4018 ἱστορήσας ἐμνήσθην τῆς. . . ἀδελφῆς. The verb is also found c. dat. in the sense of ";recall";to one in P Lille 8.11 (iii/B.C.) κα ̣λ ̣ω ̣ς οὖν π ̣ο ̣ι ̣η ̣[σε ]ις μνησθεὶς Θεοδώρωι, ἵνα. . ., ";you will do well to recall to Theodorus that. . .,"; ib. 12.1 (B.C. 250–249) ἐμνήσθην σοι καὶ παρόντι περὶ τῶν ρ ̄ (ἀρουρῶν), ";I have recalled to you verbally the matter of the 100 arourae."; With Luke 1:54 cf. Pss. Sol. x. 4 καὶ μνησθήσεται (for form see Robertson Gr, p. 357) Κύριος τῶν δούλων αὐτοῦ ἐν ἐλέει (cited by Plummer ad l.), and with Luke 23:42 cf. the Christian sepulchral inscr. from Antinoopolis Preisigke 1563.6 Κ (ύρι)ε μ ]νήσθητι [τῆς δο ]υ ̣λη (ς) σου [ἐν τῇ ] βασιλεί [ᾳ σου.


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
δὲ ΜΕΝ μέν μὲν τὰ de dè MEN mén mèn ta tà
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