the First Week of Advent
Click here to join the effort!
Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #3162 - μάχαιρα
- a large knife, used for killing animals and cutting up flesh
- a small sword, as distinguished from a large sword
- curved sword, for a cutting stroke
- a straight sword, for thrusting
μάχαιρ-α [ μᾰ], ας
(later - ης, dat. - ῃ, PTeb. 16.14 (ii B. C.), Luke 21:24, etc.), ἡ,
1. large knife or dirk, Il. 11.844, 18.597, 19.252; μ. ἥ οἱ πὰρ ξίφεος μέγα κουλεὸν αἰὲν ἄωρτο 3.271; carving-knife, Pi. O. 1.49, Hdt. 2.61, Ar. Eq. 489, Pl. R. 353a, etc.; κοπίδες μ. E. Cyc. 242; sacrificial knife, Ar. Pax 948, Pl.Com. 91, Michel 832.52 (Samos, iv B. C.): — ἡ Δελφικὴ μ. a knife adapted to various purposes, Arist. Pol. 1252b2, cf. Hsch. s.v. Δελφικὴ μ.; prov., of greedy persons, because Delphian sacrificers claimed a share for the knife, App.Prov. 1.94.
2. as a weapon, short sword, dagger, Pi. N. 4.59, Hdt. 6.75, 7.225, Lys. 13.87, etc.; an assassin's weapon, Antipho 5.69; used by jugglers, Pl. Euthd. 294e (pl.), etc.; later, sabre, opp. the straight sword (ξίφος), X. Eq. 12.11, cf. HG 3.3.7, Cyr. 1.2.13, Matthew 26:52, etc.; οἱ ἐπὶ τῆς μ., of a bodyguard, Arr. Epict. 1.30.7; but, ἐπὶ μ. τασσόμενοι possessing power of life and death (jus gladii), Cat.Cod. Astr. 8(4).173; μ. ἱππική cavalry sabre, IG 11(2).161 B 99 (Delos, iii B. C.).
3. μ. κουρίδες, shears or scissors, Cratin. 37; κεκαρμένος μοιχὸν μιᾶ μ., i.e. with one blade, Ar. Ach. 849, cf. Poll. 2.32 (where διπλῇ is f.l.), Hsch. s.v. μιᾷ μαχαίρᾳ; μ. κουρικαί Plu. Dio 9.
4. metaph., διὰ μαχαιρῶν καὶ πυρός Zen. 3.19, cf. Posidipp. 1.10; μ. τοῦ πνεύματος Ephesians 6:17, cf. LXX Isaiah 49:2.
II name of a precious stone, Arist. Mir. 847a5, Ps.- Plu. Fluv. 10.5.
III part of the liver, Ruf. Onom. 180.
μάχαιρα, genitive μαχαίρας (so (with R G) Lachmann in Luke 21:24) and μαχαίρης, dative μάχαιρα. (so (with R G) Lachmann in Luke 22:49; Acts 12:2) and μαχαίρῃ (between which forms the manuscripts vary, cf. (Scrivener, Collation, etc., p. lvi.; Tdf. Proleg., p. 117; WHs Appendix, p. 156a); Winers Grammar, 62 (61); Buttmann, 11; Delitzsch on Hebrews 11:34, p. 584 note), ἡ, (akin to μάχη and Latinmactare);
2. a small sword, distinguished from the large sword, the ῤομφαία (Josephus, Antiquities 6, 9, 5 ἀποτεμνει τήν κεφαλήν τῇ ῤομφαία τῇ ἐκείνου (Goliath's), μάχαιραν, οὐκ ἔχων αὐτός), and curred, for a cutting stroke; distinct also from ξίφος, a straight sword, for thrusting, Xenophon, r. eq. 12, 11, cf. Hell. 3, 3, 7; but the words are frequently used interchangeably. In the N. T. universally, a sword (the Sept. often for חֶרֶב): as a weapon for making or repelling an attack, Matthew 26:47, 51, 52,(55); Mark 14:43, 47; Luke 22:36, 38, 49, 52; John 18:10; Acts 16:27; Hebrews 11:37; Revelation 6:4; Revelation 13:10,(14); by a Hebraism, στόμα μαχαίρας, the edge of the sword (חֶרֶב פִּי, Genesis 34:26; Joshua 8:24; 1 Samuel 13:22; Judges 3:16, etc. (but in the Sept. the rendering στόμα ξίφους or στόμα ῤομφαίας is more common)): Luke 21:24; Hebrews 11:34; μάχαιρα δίστομος (see δίστομος), Hebrews 4:12. of the sword as the instrument of a magistrate or judge: death by the sword, Romans 8:35; ἀναιρεῖν τινα μάχαιρα, Acts 12:2; τήν μαχαίρας φόρειν, to bear the sword, is used of him to whom the sword has been committed, viz. to use when a malefactor is to he punished; hence, equivalent to to have the power of life and death, Romans 13:4 (so ξίφος, ξιφη ἔχειν, Philostr. vit. Apoll. 7, 16; vit. sophist. 1, 25, 2 (3), cf. Dion Cass. 42, 27; and in the Talmud the king who bears the sword, of the Hebrew king). Metaphorically, μάχαιρα, a weapon of war, is used for war, or for quarrels and dissensions that destroy peace; so in the phrase βαλεῖν μάχαιραν ἐπί τήν τήν, to send war on earth, Matthew 10:34 (for which Luke 12:51 says διαμερισμόν); ἡ μάχαιρα τοῦ πνεύματος, the sword with which the Spirit subdues the impulses to sin and proves its own power and efficacy (which sword is said to be ῤῆμα Θεοῦ (cf. Buttmann, 128 (112))), Ephesians 6:17 (on the genitive in this passage cf. Ellicott or Meyer).
Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2006, 2011 by Biblesoft, Inc.
All rights rserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
μάχαιρα , -ης
(Att.. -ας ; v. WH, App., 1568; ΒΙ ., § 7, 1), ἡ ,
1. (in Hom., al.) a large knife or dirk, for sacrificial purposes (Genesis 22:6; Genesis 22:10, Judges 19:20 A).
2. a short sword or dagger (as disting. from ῥομφαία , a large broad sword and ξίφος , a straight sword for thrusting): Matthew 26:47 ff., Mark 14:43; Mark 14:47-48, Luke 22:36 ff., John 18:10-11,Acts 16:27, Hebrews 11:37, Revelation 6:4; Revelation 13:10; Revelation 13:14; στόμα μαχαίρης (as in Heb. H2719 H6310, Genesis 34:26, al.), the edge of the sword: Luke 21:24, Hebrews 11:34; μ . δίστομος , Hebrews 4:12; ἀναιρεῖν μαχαίρῃ , Acts 12:2; τὴν μ . φορεῖν , Romans 13:4. Metaph., Matthew 10:34 (opp. to εἰρήνη ), Romans 8:35; μ . τοῦ πνεῦματος , Ephesians 6:17.†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
In Ptolemaic papyri the usual forms of the gen. and dat. of this common noun are μαχαίρας, μαχαίρᾳ, e.g. P Par 12.15 (B.C. 157) σπασάμενος λέπει με τῇ μαχαίρᾳ εἰς τὸ σκέλος, and the same holds generally true of the LXX (cf. Thackeray Gr. i. p. 141 f., Helbing Gr. p. 31ff.). In the NT only μαχαίρης, μαχαίρῃ, are found, and are normal in papyri of the Roman period. For an ex. from an earlier date see P Tebt I. 16.14 (B.C. 114) ἐν μαχαίρηι ";armed with a sword"; (for instrumental ἐν cf. 1 Corinthians 4:21 and the editors’ note). See further Moulton Proleg, pp. 38, 48, and Gr. ii. p. 118. We may add as further illustrating the word P Tebt I. 48.20 (c. B.C. 113) σπασαμένων τὰς μαχαίρας, and P Ryl II. 256.3 (i/B.C.) where a young man complains that he has been deprived of—πατ ]ρ ̣ικὴν στρατιωτικὴν μάχαιραν, which he had inherited. In Luke 22:38 Field (Notes, p. 76 f.) suggests as an alternative rendering ";knives,"; and compares Dion. Hal. Ant. xi. 37 ὡς ἐγγὺς ἦν ἐργαστηρίου μαγειρικοῦ, μάχαιραν ἐξαρπάσας ἀπὸ τῆς τραπέζης κτλ. For the dim. μαχαίριον see P Eleph 5.13 (B.C. 284–3) and P Oxy XIV. 1658.8 (iv/A.D.) μαχαίρια β ̄ μει ̣[κ (ρά, and for μαχαιρᾶς (not in LS), ";cutler,"; see ib. 1676.6 (iii/A.D.) δόντος μοι αὐτὴν τοῦ μαχαιρᾶ, ";which (letter) was given me by the cutler"; (Edd.). On the μαχαιροφόροι, a kind of military police, see P Amh II. 38.3 (ii/B.C.), P Oxy II. 294.20 (A.D. 22) (= Selections, p. 35) al., and the editor’s note on OGIS 737.6 (ii/B.C.) : cf. Romans 13:4. MGr μαχαίρι.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.