the Week of Proper 3 / Ordinary 8
Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #29 - ἀγγαρεύω
- to employ a courier, dispatch a mounted messenger, press into public service, compel to go
press one to serve as an ἄγγαρος,
generally, press into service, Matthew 5:41; Matthew 27:32, OGI 665.24; κτήνη, πλοῖα PTeb. 5.182, 252 (ii B. C.), cf. PPetr. 2p.64 (iii B. C.): — Pass., to be pressed into service, Men. 440: metaph., to be constrained, Procop. Arc. 13.
ἀγγαρεύω; future ἀγγαρεύσω; 1 aorist ἠγγάρευσα; to employ a courier, despatch a mounted messenger. A word of Persian origin (used by Menander, Sicyon. 4), but adopted also into Latin (Vulg. angariare). Ἄγγαροι were public couriers (tabellarii), stationed by appointment of the king of Persia at fixed localities, with horses ready for use, in order to transmit royal messages from one to another and so convey them the more speedily to their destination. See Herodotus 8, 98 (and Rawlinson's note); Xenophon, Cyril 8, 6, 17 (9); cf. Gesenius, Thesaurus under the word אִגֶרֶת; (B. D. under the word
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(from the Persian; cf. Vg. angiare, and the Heb. H104; on the orthogr., v. B1., § 6, 1; M, Pr., 46), to impress into public service, employ a courier; hence, to compel to perform a service (prob. common in the vernac.; cf. Deiss., BS, 86 f., MM, Exp., iv; VGT, s.v.): Matthew 5:41 Matthew 27:32, Mark 15:21.†
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Ptolemaic examples of this interesting old Persian word are P Petr II. 20iv. 5 (B.C. 252) τοῦ. . . λέμβου. . . ἀγγαρευθέντος ὑπὸ σοῦ with reference to a ";post boat,"; and P Tebt I. 5.182, .252 (B.C. 118) where for the editors’ ἐπαρετεῖν Wilcken (Archiv iii. p. 325) reads ἐγγαρεύειν. From A.D. 42 add P Lond 1171 (c).2 ( = III. p. 107) μηδενὶ ἐξέστω ἐνγαρεύειν τοὺς ἐπὶ τῆς χώρας —a prefect’s rescript. Cf. BGU I. 21iii. 16 (A.D. 340) οἴνου ἐνγαρίας, and from the inscriptions Syll 932.54 (beginning of iii/A.D.) ἀνγαρειῶν ἄνεσιν with Dittenberger’s note, ";vehicula cursus publici ponderosissima et lentissima, quae bubus vehebantur (cursus clabularis Cod Theod. VI. 29, 5, 1, VIII. 5, 11), angariarum nomine utebantur."; Herwerden Lex. cites a form ἀνενγάρευτος = ἀναγγάρευτος, from an inscr. which Mayser (p. 56) refers to Arch. Zeit. 1890, p. 59. See further Zahn Intr. i. p. 66, Deissmann BS p. 86 f., and Rostowzew ";Angariae"; in Klio vi. (1906) p. 249 ff. For the spelling with ἐ. in Mark 15:21 א* B* Deissmann (BS p. 182) compares BGU I. 21iii. 16 (A.D. 340—coeval with the MSS.) ἐνγαρίας. The noun ἄγγαρος appears in Greek as early as Æschylus Agam. 282 ἀγγάρου πυρός, ";the courier flame"; : it is probably the Iranian cognate of ἄγγελος. It survives in vernacular MGr ἀγγαρεμένος, ";put to compulsory labour"; (Thumb Handbook, p. 315). In his note on P Lond IV. 1376.1 (A.D. 711) the editor suggests that in the late Aphrodito papyri ἀγγαρευτής is used in the general sense of ";foreman,"; ";superintendent.";
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Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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