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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #1658 - ἐλεύθερος
- in a civil sense, one who is not a slave
- of one who ceases to be a slave, freed, manumitted
- free, exempt, unrestrained, not bound by an obligation
- in an ethical sense: free from the yoke of the Mosaic Law
ἐλεύθερος, α, ον
(ος, ον A. Ag. 328, E. El. 868): later ἐλαύθερος BCH 22.76(Delph.); Elean ἐλεύθαρος Schwyzer 416.3: —
1. free, Hom. has the word only in Il. in two phrases, ἐλεύθερον ἦμαρ the day of freedom, i.e. freedom, Il. 6.455, 16.831, al.; and κρητὴρ ἐλεύθερος the cup drunk to freedom, 6.528; ἐ. πιοῦσαν οἶνον ἀποθανεῖν Xenarch. 5 codd. Ath. (fort. -ριον, cf. ἐλευθέριος 1.2); of persons, Alc. Supp. 25.11, Hdt. 1.6, A. Pr. 50, S. Aj. 1020, Th. 8.15, etc.: Comp., X. Cyr. 8.3.21: Sup., Id. Hier. 1.16; τὸ ἐ. freedom, Hdt 7.103, etc.; τοὐλεύθερον E. Supp. 438: c.gen., free or freed from a thing, φόνου, πημάτων, φόβου, A. Eu. 603 codd., Ch. 1060, E. Hec. 869; αἰτίας Men. Sam. 272; ἔξω αἰτίας ἐ. S. Ant. 445; ἐ. ἀπ' ἀλλήλων independent, X. Cyr. 3.2.23, Pl. Lg. 832d. ἐλευθέρα, ἡ, married woman, Ath. 13.571d; wife, POxy. 1872.8 (v/vi A.D.); but, freedwoman, IG 14.2490(Vienne). free, of cities, in Roman Law, BGU 316.3 (iv A.D.).
2. of things, free, open to all, ἀγορά X. Cyr. 1.2.3; ἐ. φυλακή,= Lat. libera custodia, D.S. 4.46; περιωπή Ael. NA 15.5; unencumbered, of property, D. 35.21, IG 9(1).32.10 (Stiris), SIG 364.36 (Ephesus, iii B.C.).
3. ἐλεύθερον εἶναί τινι, c. inf., legally permissible, open to.., ib.45.42 (Halic., v B.C.).
II = cross ἐλευθέριος, fit for a freeman, free, frank, φρήν Pi. P. 2.57; ἐλευθερωτέρη ὑπόκρισις Hdt. 1.116; ἐλεύθρα βάζειν A. Pers. 593 (lyr.); ὦ μηδὲν ὑγιὲς μηδ' ἐ. φρονῶν S. Ph. 1006; δούλη μέν, εἴρηκεν δ' ἐ. λόγον Id. Tr. 63, cf. El. 1256; φρονήματα Pl. R. 567a; βάσανοι ἐ. tortures such as might be used to a freeman, Id. Lg. 946c (so φάσγανα E. Fr. 495.38); τὸ ἐ. Pl. Mx. 245c: freq. in Adv. -ρως, εἰπεῖν Hdt. 5.93, al.; χαίρειν.. καὶ γελᾶν ἐ. S. El. 1300; τεθραμμένους Isoc. 7.43 codd. (fort. -ερίως) ; παιδευθεὶς ἐ. Aeschin. 3.154 codd. (fort. -ερίως) ; ἐ. δούλευε, δοῦλος οὐκ ἔσει Men. 857; ἐλεύθεροι ἐλευθέρως free and like free men, Pl. Lg. 919e. (Cf. Lat. lîber, fr. Ital. * loufero -(cf. Osc. Luvfreis 'Liberi'), I.- E. (e)leudh-ero -: the connexion with Slav. liud, OHG. liut, etc. 'people' is doubtful.)
ἐλεύθερος , -α , -ον ,
[in LXX chiefly for H2670;]
(a) in civil sense, not a slave: John 8:33, 1 Corinthians 7:21-22; 1 Corinthians 12:13, Galatians 3:28, Ephesians 6:8, Colossians 3:11, Revelation 6:15; Revelation 13:16; Revelation 19:18; fem., Galatians 4:22-23; Galatians 4:30;
(b) as regards restraint and obligation in general: Matthew 17:26, 1 Corinthians 9:1; seq. ἐκ , 1 Corinthians 9:19; ἀπό , Romans 7:3; c. inf., 1 Corinthians 7:39; from the law, Galatians 4:26, 1 Peter 2:16; from sin, John 8:36; τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ , as regards righteousness, Romans 6:20 (Cremer, 249).†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
For the spiritual significance of this term in the Pauline writings cf. the preceding article, and what is said s.v. ἀπελεύθερος. In the oldest Greek marriage contract we possess, P Eleph 1 (B.C. 311–0) (= Selections, p. 1 ff.), the contracting parties are described as ἐλεύθερος ἐλευθέρα, and in the curious law-suit, P Oxy I. 37i. 18 (A.D. 49) (= Selections, p. 50), which recalls in various particulars the Judgment of Solomon, the nurse, who is charged with carrying off a foundling, defends herself on the ground that she did so ὀν [ό ]ματι ἐλευθέρου, ";in virtue of its being freeborn."; Other exx. of the adj. are P Ryl II. 117.26 (A.D. 269) πρὸς τὸ ἔχειν με τ [ὰ ἐ ]μὰ ἐλεύθερον, ";so that I may keep my property in freedom,"; and P Oxy IX. 1186.6 (iv/A.D.), the edict of a Preses in which it is declared that for slaves punishment by scourging (διὰ τῶν ἱμάντων) is lamentable (ἀνιαρόν), but ";for free men to be submitted to such an outrage is contrary to the laws and an injustice";—ἐλευθέρους δὲ ἄνδρας τοιαύτην ὕβρειν ὑπομένειν οὔτε τοῖς [νόμοις ] ἀκόλ [ου ]θ ̣ο ̣ν ̣ ἀ ̣δ ̣ι ̣κει ̣αν τε [ἔ ]χον ἐστίν.
For the adverb see P Tebt II. 284.7 (i/B.C.) where the writer informs his sister that in obedience to an oracular response from the god Soknebtunis—καταβήσομαι ἐλευθέρω ̣ς ̣, ";I will go with boldness"; (Edd.).
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
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