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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #1510 - εἰμί
- to be, to exist, to happen, to be present
(sum), Aeol. ἔμμι Sapph. 2.15, Theoc. 20.32; Cret. ἠμί GDI 4959a; 2 sg. εἶ, and Ion. εἰς Od. 17.388, al., Aeol. ἔσσι, and Dor. ἐσσί Il. 1.176, Pi. O. 6.90, Sophr. 134; ἐσί GDI 4959a; 3 sg. ἐστί, Dor. ἐντί IG 12(1).677 (Rhodes), Theoc. 1.17, etc.; 3 dual ἐστόν Th. 3.112; 1 pl. ἐσμέν, and Ion. εἰμέν (also in Pi. P. 3.60), ἐμέν Call. Fr. 294, Dor. εἰμές Theoc. 15.73, but ἠμέν GDI 5178.34; 3 pl. εἰσί (-ίν), and Ion. ἔασι (-ιν) Il. 7.73, Xenoph. 8.1, Antim. 29, Herod. 4.84, Dor. ἐντί Pi. N. 1.24, Theoc. 11.45, IG 9(1).32.22 (Phocis), etc.: imper. ἴσθι (ἔσθι Hecat. 361 J.), and Lyr. also in Med. form ἔσσο Od. 3.200, Sapph. 1.28, Maced. Pae. 31, late Prose ἔσο Plu. 2.241d, M.Ant. 3.5, Hld. 5.12, Porph. Mar 34; 3 sg. ἔστω (ἤτω LXX Ps. 103.31, and late Inscrr., CIG 2664, al.; but in Pl. R. 361c leg. ἴτω), Dor. εἴτω, ἤτω, Heraclid. ap. Eust. 1411.21, Elean ἤστω Schwyzer 424; 3 pl. ἔστωσαν, but ἔστων Hom., Pl. R. 502a, ὄντων Id. Lg. 879b, and early Att. Inscrr., IG 12.22, etc. (ἔστωσαν first in ii B. C., ib.22.1328), Dor. ἐόντων ib.1126: subj. ὦ, ᾖς, ᾖ, ἔω Od. 9.18; 3 sg. ἔῃ Il. 12.300,al. (also ἔῃσι 2.366, al., ᾖσι (ν) 19.202, Hes. Op. 294), also Boeot. ἔνθω IG 7.3172.165, μετείω Il. 23.47 and perh. εἴῃ 9.245, etc.; Dor. 3 pl. ὦντι SIG 940.3 (Crete), ἔωντι GDI 5040.14 (Hierapytna), Boeot. ἴωνθι IG 7.3171.46 (iii B. C.): opt. εἴην, -ης (εἴησθα Thgn. 715), - η, also ἔοις, ἔοι, Il. 9.284, 142, al., cf. Hdt. 7.6; 3 pl. εἴοισαν Ἀρχ. Ἐφ. 1911.133 (Gonni); 3 dual εἴτην Pl. Prm. 149e, Sph. 243e; 1 pl. εἶμεν E. Alc. 921 (lyr.), Pl.; 2 pl. εἶτε Od. 21.195; 3 pl. εἶεν Il. 2.372, etc., εἴησαν Hdt. 1.2, etc.; Elean ἔα, = εἴη, SIG 9 (vi B. C.), and σύν-εαν, = συνεῖεν, GDI 1149 (vi B. C.): inf. εἶναι, Arc. ἦναι SIG 306.9 (Tegea, iv B. C.); ἔμμεναι (also Aeol. ἔμμεν' Sapph. 34), ἔμμεν (also Pi. P. 6.42, S. Ant. 623 (lyr.)), ἔμεναι, ἔμεν, also ἔμειν SIG 1166 (Dodona); Dor. εἶμεν Foed. ap. Th. 5.77, 79, IG 7.1.7 (Megara), ἦμεν Test.Epict. 5.16, Tab.Heracl. 1.75, Cret. ἦμεν or ἤμην Leg.Gort. 1.15, al., GDI 4998i 2, al., Megar. εἴμεναι Ar. Ach. 775, εἴμειν IG 12(1).155.100 (Rhodes), 14.952 (Agrigentum); εἶν ib. 12(9).211.10 (Eretria), SIG 135.4 (Olynthus), etc.: part. ὤν, ἐών, ἐοῦσα, ἐόν, Cypr. ἰών Inscr.Cypr. 135.23 H.; Boeot. fem. ἰῶσα IG 7.3172.116 (Orchom.), Aeol. and Dor. fem. ἔσσα Sapph. 75.4, IG 4.952.2 (Epid.), Theoc. 28.16, ἐοῖσα Pi. P. 4.265, ἔασσα Lyr.Alex.Adesp. 9, Diotog. ap. Stob. 4.7.62, εὖσα Erinn. 5.5 (also Ion., Herod. 5.16, εὔντων 2.85), ἐᾶσα Ti.Locr. 96d, IG 5(1).1470.8 (Messene), ἴαττα Leg.Gort. 8.47; acc. sg. εὖντα Theoc. 2.3; nom. sg. εἴς in Heraclid. ap. Eust. 1756.13, pl. ἔντες Tab.Heracl. 1.117; dat. pl. ἔντασσι ib.104; gen. pl. παρ-έντων Alcm. 64: impf. ἦν Il. 2.77, etc., ἔον (also Aeol., Alc. 127, Sapph. Oxy. 1787 Fr. 3 ii 21), in Att. ἦ (dub. in Aeol., Alc. Supp. 14.9), Ar. Pl. 77, Pl. Phd. 61b, etc., but usu. altered to ἦν in codd. (and ἦν is required by metre in E. Ion 280), contr. from and Ion. ἦα (Il. 5.808, al., IG 12(8).449.2 (Thasos), whence Hom.and later Ion. ἔᾱ Il. 4.321, al., ἔας Hdt. 1.187, ἔατε Id. 4.119); Ephesians 3:1-21 sg. ἦεν, always with ν in Hom.; ἔην as 1 sg., only Il. 11.762 (s. v.l., al. ἔον), freq. as 3 sg. (generally before a consonant, so that ἔεν is possible), sts. also ἤην; 2 sg. ἦσθα, later ἦς (wh. is v.l. in Pi. I. 1.26), sts. in LXX (Jd. 11.35, Ruth 3:2,al.), cf. Pl. Ax. 365e, Erinn. 4.4, Matthew 25:21, al., ἦσθας Men. Epit. 156, ἔησθα; 3 sg. ἦν, ἔην, ἤην, ἦεν (v. supr.), Dor. and Aeol. ἦς Alc. Supp. 30.1, Epich. 102, Sophr. 59, Theoc. 2.90, SIG 241.145 (Delph.); 3 dual ἤστην Il. 5.10, E. Hipp. 387, Ar. Eq. 982, Pl. Euthd. 272a, al.; Dor. 1 pl. ἦμες Plu. Lyc. 21; 2 pl. ἦτε Pl. Euthd. 276c, ἦστε Ar. Pax 821, Ec. 1086; 3 pl. ἦσαν, Ion. and Poet. ἔσαν (in Hes. Th. 321, 825, ἦν is not pl. for ἦσαν, but is rather a peculiarity of syntax, v. infr. v, but is 3 pl. in Epich. 46, al., SIG 560.15 (Epidamnus, iii B. C.)); Aeol. ἔον Schwyzer 644.12; later ἤμην PSI 4.362.21 (iii B. C.), SIG 527.46 (Crete, iii B. C.), IGRom. 4.1740 (Cyme), always in LXX as Ba. 1.19, cf. Matthew 23:30, Plu. 2.174a, etc., and sts. in codd. of earlier writers, Lys. 7.34, Trag.Adesp. 124 (cited from E. Hel. 931 by Choerob. and from Id. Tr. 474 by Aps.), X. Cyr. 6.1.9, Hyp. Ath. 26, 2 sg. ἦσο Epigr.Gr. 379 (Aezani), 3 sg. ἦστο Supp.Epigr. 1.455.7 (Phrygia), 1 pl. ἤμεθα PPetr. 2p.11 (iii B. C.), LXX Ba. 1.19, 1 Ki. 25.16, Ephesians 2:3; subj. ὦμαι PBaden 48.12 (ii B. C.), ἦται GDI 1696, ἦνται prob. in IG 5(1).1390.83 (Andania); Ion. and also ἔσκον, used by A. Pers. 656 (lyr.): fut. ἔσομαι, ἔσται, and Aeol. also ἔσσομαι, ἔσεται, ἔσσεται; Aeol. 2 sg. ἔσσῃ prob. in Alc. 67, 87; Dor. 2 and 3 sg. ἐσσῇ, ἐσσεῖται, Il. 2.393, 13.317, Theoc. 10.5, 3 pl. ἐσσοῦνται Foed. ap. Th. 5.77 codd. (but ἔσσονται Tab.Heracl. 1.113), inf. ἐσσεῖσθαι Sophr. 57. —
I All forms of the pres. ind. are enclitic (exc. 2 sg. εἶ and 3 pl. ἔασι); but 3 sg. is written ἔστι when it begins a sentence or verse, or when it immediately follows οὐκ, καί, εἰ, ὡς, ἀλλά, or τοῦτ', Hdn.Gr. 1.553 (also μή acc. to EM 301.3); later Gramm. wrote ἔστι as Subst. Verb, Phot., Eust. 880.22. as the Subst. Verb, I of persons, exist, οὐκ ἔσθ' οὗτος ἀνήρ, οὐδ' ἔσσεται Od. 16.437; ἔτ' εἰσί they are still in being, 15.433, cf. S. Ph. 445, etc.; τεθνηῶτος.. μηδ' ἔτ' ἐόντος Od. 1.289; οὐκέτ' ἐστί he is no more, E. Hipp. 1162; οὐδὲ δὴν ἦν he was not long- lived, Il. 6.131; ὁ οὐκ ὤν, οἱ οὐκ ὄντες, of those who are no more, Th. 2.45, 44; οἱ ὄντες the living, Plb. 9.29.2; ὁ ὤν the Eternal, LXX Exodus 3:14, al., Ph. 1.289; θεοὶ αἰὲν ἐόντες Il. 1.290; ἐσσόμενοι posterity, 2.119; κἀγὼ γὰρ ἦ ποτ', ἀλλὰ νῦν οὐκ εἴμ' ἔτι E. Hec. 284; ὡς ἂν εἶεν ἅνθρωποι might continue in being, Pl. Smp. 190c; ζώντων καὶ ὄντων Ἀθηναίων D. 18.72, cf. Arist. GC 318b25; of things, εἰ ἔστι ἀληθέως [ἡ τράπεζα ] Hdt. 3.17, etc.; of cities, ὄλωλεν, οὐδ' ἔτ' ἐστὶ Τροία E. Tr. 1292, cf. Heracl. 491; δοκεῖ μοι Καρχηδόνα μὴ εἶναι censeo Carthaginem esse delendam, Plu. Cat.Ma. 27; ἂν ᾖ τὸ στράτευμα be in existence, D. 8.17; of money, to be in hand, τῶν ὄντων χρημάτων καὶ τῶν προσιόντων IG 12.91.25; τὰ ὄντα property, Pl. Grg. 511a, Plu. Ant. 24, etc.; τὸ ἐσόμενον ἐκ.. future revenue from.., BCH 46.420 (Olymos, i B. C.); of place, τὴν οὖσαν ἐκκλησίαν the local church, Acts 13:1; of time, τοῦ ὄντος μηνός in the current month, BGU 146.4, etc.; in office, ἱερέων τῶν ὄντων PPar. 5.4 (ii B. C.); αἱ οὖσαι [ἐξουσίαι ] the powers that be, Romans 13:1.
II of the real world, be, opp.
1. become, γίγνεται πάντα ἃ δή φαμεν εἶναι Pl. Tht. 152d, etc.; τὸ ὄν Being, Parm. 8.35, Protag. 2, Pl. Ti. 27d, etc.; opp. τὸ μὴ ὄν, Gorg. Fr. 3 D., etc.; οὐδὲν γίνεται ἐκ τοῦ μὴ ὄντος Epicur. Ephesians 1 p.5U.; ἐξ οὐκ ὄντων ἐποίησεν αὐτὰ ὁ θεός LXX 2 Maccabees 7:28; τὰ ὄντα the world of things, Heraclit. 7, Emp. 129.5, etc.; ὄν indecl., τῶν ὂν εἰδῶν species of Being, Plot. 6.2.10.
2. of circumstances, events, etc., to happen, τά τ' ἐόντα, τά τ' ἐσσόμενα, πρό τ' ἐόντα Il. 1.70; ἡ ἐσβολὴ ἔμελλεν ἔσεσθαι Th. 2.13, etc.; τῆς προδοσίας οὔσης since treachery was there, Id. 4.103; ἕως ἂν ὁ πόλεμος ᾖ so long as it last, Id. 1.58; αἱ σπονδαὶ ἐνιαυτὸν ἔσονται Id. 4.118; τί ἐστιν; what is it? what's the matter? Ar. Th. 193; τί οὖν ἦν τοῦτο; how came it to pass ? Pl. Phd. 58a: repeated with a relat. to avoid a positive assertion, ἔστι δ' ὅπῃ νῦν ἔ. things are as they are, i.e. are ill, A. Ag. 67.
III be the fact or the case, διπλασίαν ἂν τὴν δύναμιν εἰκάζεσθαι ἤ ἐστιν twice as large as it really is, Th. 1.10; αὐτὸ ὅ ἐστι καλόν beauty in its essence, Pl. Smp. 211c, cf. Phd. 74b; freq. in part., τὸν ἐόντα λόγον λέγειν or φαίνειν the true story, Hdt. 1.95, 116; τῷ ἐόντι χρήσασθαι tell the truth, ib. 30; τὰ ὄντα ἀπαγγέλλειν Th. 7.8; σκῆψιν οὐκ οὖσαν, λόγον οὐκ ὄντα, S. El. 584, Ar. Ra. 1052; τῷ ὄντι in reality, in fact, Pl. Prt. 328d, etc.; to apply a quotation to a case in point, τῷ ὄντι κλαυσίγελως real 'smiles through tears' (with allusion to Il. 6.484), X. HG 7.2.9, cf. Pl. La. 196d; κατὰ τὸ ἐόν according to the fact, right ly, Hdt. 1.97; πᾶν τὸ ἐόν the whole truth, Id. 9.11; τοῦ ἐόντος ἀποτεύξεται Hp. VM 2. folld. by the relat., οὐκ ἔστιν ὅς or ὅστις no one, οὐκ ἔσθ' ὃς.. ἀπαλάλκοι Il. 22.348; οὐκ ἔ. οὐδεὶς ὅς E. El. 903; οὐκ ἔ. ὅτῳ, = οὐδενί, A. Pr. 293 (anap.), cf. 989: freq. in pl., εἰσὶν οἵ, = Lat. sunt qui, used exactly like ἔνιοι, Th. 6.88, 7.44, Pl. Men. 77d, Grg. 503a, etc. (εἰσί τινες οἵ.. Th. 3.24); ἐστὶν ἃ χωρία, πολίσματα, Id. 1.12, 65; ἐστὶν ἃ εἰπεῖν Id. 2.67; ἦσαν οἵ X. An. 5.2.14; the sg. Verb is used even with masc. and fem. pl., ἐστὶν οἵ, αἵ, Hp. Fract. 1, VC 4, X. Cyr. 2.3.16; more freq. in oblique cases, ποταμῶν ἐστὶ ὧν Hdt. 7.187; ἐστὶν ἀφ' ὧν Th. 8.65; ἐστὶ παρ' οἷς, ἐστὶν ἐν οἷς, Id. 1.23, 5.25: in questions
εἰμί (from ἕω, whence ἐμι in inscriptions (?); Aeolic, ἐμμί (Curtius, (yet ἐμμί, so G. Meyer) § 564; Veitch, p. 228)), imperative ἴσθι, ἔστω, less usual ἤτω, 1 Corinthians 16:22; James 5:12; Clement of Rome, 1 Cor. 48, 5 [ET]; (1 Macc. 10:31; Psalm 103:31
I. εἰμί has the force of a predicate (i. e. is the substantive verb): to be, i. e.
1. to exist;
a. passages in which the idea of the verb preponderates, and some person or thing is said to exist by way of distinction from things non-existent: ἐστιν ὁ Θεός, Hebrews 11:6; ὁ ὤν καί ὁ ἦν (Winers Grammar, 68 (66), cf. 182 (172); Buttmann, 50 (43)), Revelation 1:4 (
b. equivalent to to live: εἰ ἤμεθα (or ἦμεν Rec.) ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις τῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν if we had been (viz. living) in the days of our fathers, Matthew 23:30; οὐκ εἶναι is used (as in classical Greek, cf. Passow, i., p. 792 (Liddell and Scott, under A. I. 1)) of the dead (who are not, are no more): Matthew 2:18.
d. equivalent to to be found, the subject being anarthrous; as, ἦν ἄνθρωπος there was (found, German es gab) a man, etc.: Luke 16:1, 19; Luke 18:23; John 3:1; John 4:6; John 5:2; John 6:10; 1 Corinthians 8:5; 1 Corinthians 12:4-6; 1 Corinthians 14:10; 1 Corinthians 15:44; 1 John 5:16, and often; ἔσονται ἐμπαῖκται Jude 1:18; ἐστι, ἦν, ἔσται with a negative: οὐκ ἐστι δίκαιος there is not (namely, found) a righteous man, Romans 3:10; add Romans 3:12, 18; χρόνος οὐκ ἔσται ἔτι there shall be no longer time, Revelation 10:6; add, Revelation 22:3, 5 (Rec. adds ἐκεῖ); Revelation 21:25 (here ἐκεῖ stands) ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν οὐκ ἐστιν, 1 Corinthians 15:12; μή εἶναι ἀνάστασιν, Matthew 22:23 and its parall.; Acts 23:8. Here belong also the phrases εἰσιν, οἱ etc., οἵτινες etc., there are (some) who etc.: Matthew 16:28; Matthew 19:12; Mark 9:1; Luke 9:27; John 6:64; Acts 11:20; οὐδείς ἐστιν ὅς, Mark 9:39; Mark 10:29; Luke 1:61; Luke 18:29; with a noun added, ἕξ ἡμέραι εἰσιν, ἐν αἷς etc. Luke 13:14; τίς ἐστιν, ὅς, Matthew 7:9 (L Tr WH omit ἐστιν); Matthew 12:11 (Tr omits; WH brackets ἐστιν): ἐστιν ὁ with a participle there is (viz., is not lacking) one that etc. John 5:32 (?),
e. when used of things, events, facts, etc., εἶναι is equivalent to to happen, take place: νῦν κρίσις ἐστιν, John 12:31; γογγυσμός ἦν, John 7:12 θόρυβος τοῦ λαοῦ. Mark 14:2; σχίσμα, σχίσματα, John 9:16; 1 Corinthians 1:10; 1 Corinthians 12:25; ἔριδες, 1 Corinthians 1:11; αἱρέσεις, 1 Corinthians 11:19: πένθος, πόνος, κραυγή, Revelation 21:4; ἔσονται λιμοί καί λοιμοί (R G Tr marginal reading in br:, others omit καί λοιμοί) καί σεισμοί Matthew 24:7; ἀνάγκη μεγάλη, Luke 21:23; ἀνάστασιν μέλλειν ἔσεσθαι, Acts 24:15. of times and seasons: χειμών ἐστιν, John 10:22; νύξ, John 13:30 ψῦχος, John 18:18; καύσων, Luke 12:55; ἑσπέρα Acts 4:3 πρωΐα, John 18:28 (Rec.); σκοτία, John 20:1: ἐστι, ἦν ὥρα — as ἕκτη, Luke 23:44; John 4:6; John 19:14 (L T Tr WH)
2. equivalent to πάρειμι, to be present; to be at hand; to be in store: οἶνος οὐκ ἐστιν, John 2:3 Tdf.; παμπολλοῦ (Rec.) ὄχλου ὄντος, when there was present, Mark 8:1; add,
3. ἐστιν with an infinitive, as in Greek writings from Homer down (see Passow, i., p. 792f; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, A. VI.); see examples from the O. T. Apocrypha in Wahl, Clavis apocryph., p. 155), it is possible to etc.; with a negative (as more common in classic Greek also), it is impossible: Hebrews 9:5; 1 Corinthians 11:20 (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 44, 2 b.).
II. εἰμί (as a copula) connects the subject with the predicate, where the sentence shows who or what a person or thing is as respects character, nature, disposition, race, power, dignity, greatness, age, etc.
1. universally: ἐγώ εἰμί πρεσβύτης, Luke 1:18; ἐγώ εἰμί Γαβριήλ, Luke 1:19; ἔρημος ἐστιν ὁ τόπος, Matthew 14:15; προφήτης εἰ σύ, John 4:19; σύ εἰ ὁ Χριστός, Matthew 26:63; καθαροί ἐστε, John 13:10; ὑμεῖς ἐστε τό ἅλας τῆς γῆς, Matthew 5:13; Ἰουδαίους εἶναι ἑαυτούς, Revelation 3:9, cf. Revelation 2:9, and countless other examples
2. εἰμί, as a copula, indicates that the subject is or is to be compared to the thing expressed by the predicate: ἡ σφραγίς μου τῆς ἀποστολῆς ὑμεῖς ἐστε, ye are, as it were, the seal attesting my apostleship, i. e. your faith is proof that the name of apostle is given me rightfully, 1 Corinthians 9:2; ἡ ἐπιστολή (namely, συστατικη, cf. 1 Corinthians 9:1) ὑμεῖς ἐστε, i. e. ye yourselves are like a letter of recommendation for me, or ye serve as a substitute for a letter of recommendation, 2 Corinthians 3:2; τοῦτο ἐστι τό σῶμα μου, this which I now hand to you is, as it were, my body, Matthew 26:26; Mark 14:22; Luke 22:19; ὑμεῖς ναός Θεοῦ ἐστε (L text T Tr text WH ἡμεῖς ... ἐσμεν ye (we) are to be regarded as the temple of God, 2 Corinthians 6:16, cf. 1 Corinthians 6:19; ὁ Θεός ναός αὐτῆς ἐστιν (ἐστι R G Tr], καί τό ἀρνίον, they are to be regarded as its temple, they occupy the place of a temple in the city because present with everyone in it, Revelation 21:22. Hence,
3. εἶναι, getting an explicative force, is often equivalent to to denote, signify, import, as ὁ ἀγρός ἐστιν ὁ κόσμος, Matthew 13:37-39, 19f, 22; Luke 8:11f, 14; Galatians 4:24; Revelation 17:15; Revelation 19:8, (the Sept. Genesis 41:28; Ezekiel 37:11); τουτ' ἐστιν (so T WH uniformly, except that WH omits ν. ἐφελκ. in Hebrews 2:14), Lachmann τοῦτ᾿ἔστιν (except in Romans 10:6, 7, 8; also Treg. except in Matthew 27:46; Mark 7:2; Acts 1:19; Romans 9:8; Romans 10:6, 7, 8; sometimes written τοῦτο ἐστιν, see Tdf. Proleg., p. 111; cf. Winers Grammar, 45; Buttmann, 11 (10)), an explanatory formula (equivalent to τοῦτο σημαίνει) which is either inserted into the discourse as a parenthesis, or annexed to words as an apposition (cf. Winers Grammar, 530 (493); Buttmann, 400 (342). It is to be distinguished from τοῦτο δέ ἐστιν: τουτ' ἐστιν introduces an incidental explanation for the most part of the language; τοῦτο δέ ἐστιν subjoins an explanatory statement, relating generally to the thought; (cf. our that is to say, and that is); see Romans 1:12 and Fritzsche at the passage): Matthew 27:46; Mark 7:2; Acts 1:19; Romans 7:18; Romans 10:6-8; Philemon 1:12; Hebrews 2:14; Hebrews 7:5, etc.; likewise ὁ ἐστι, Mark 3:17; Mark 7:11, 34; Hebrews 7:2; ὁ ἐστι μεθερμηνευόμενον, this signifies, when interpreted, etc. Mark 15:34; Acts 4:36; see 6 c. below.
4. In the Bible far more frequently than in secular authors, and in the N. T. much more often in the historical than in the other books, a participle without the article serves as the predicate, being connected with the subject by the verb εἶναι (cf. Winers Grammar, § 45, 5 and especially Buttmann, 309ff (265ff)); and a. so as to form a mere periphrasis of the finite verb;
a. with the present participle is formed — a periphrasis of the present: ἐστι προσαναπληροῦσα ... καί περισσεύουσα, 2 Corinthians 9:12; — a periph. of the imperfect or of the aorist, mostly in Mark and Luke (Buttmann, 312 (268)): ἦν καθευδεν, Mark 4:38; ἦν προάγων,
b. so as to indicate continuance in any act or state (Buttmann, 310f (266)): ἦν διδάσκων was accustomed to teach, Mark 1:22; Luke 4:31; Luke 19:47; ἦν (T Tr text WH ἦλθεν) κηρύσσων, Mark 1:39; Luke 4:44; ἦσαν νηστεύοντες held their fast, Mark 2:18; ἦσαν συλλαλοῦντες were talking, Mark 9:4;ἦν συγκύπτουσα, Luke 13:11; ἦν θέλων, Luke 23:8; ἦν προσδεχόμενος, Mark 15:43 (Luke 23:51 προσεδέχετο); once in Paul, Galatians 1:23 ἦσαν ἀκούοντες, with the future (cf. Buttmann, 311 (267)): ἔσται δεδεμένον, ἔσται λελυμένον, equivalent to shall remain bound, shall remain loosed, Matthew 16:19; ἔσται πατουμένη shall continue to be trodden down, Luke 21:24, and other examples c. to signify that one is in the act of doing something: ἦν ἐρχόμενον was in the act of coming, John 1:9 (cf. Meyer edition Weiss at the passage); ἦν ὑποστρέφων, Acts 8:28.
d. the combination of εἶναι with participle seems intended also to give the verbal idea more force and prominence by putting it in the form of a noun (see Buttmanns Grammar, and Winer's Grammar, as above) ἦν ἔχων κτήματα πολλά (German wohlhabend (English was one that had)), Matthew 19:22; Mark 10:22; ἔσῃ σιωπῶν, Luke 1:20; ἦν ὑποτασσόμενος (obedient, in subjection), Luke 2:51; ἴσθι ἐξουσίαν ἔχων, be thou ruler over, Luke 19:17; ἦν συνευδοκῶν Acts 8:1; ζῶν εἰμί, Revelation 1:18, and in other examples three times in Paul: εἰ ... ἠλπικότες ἐσμεν μόνον if we are those who have only hoped, or to whom nothing is left but hope, 1 Corinthians 15:19; ἦν ἦν ... καταλλάσσων, the reconciler, 2 Corinthians 5:19; ἅτινά ἐστι λόγον ἔχοντα σοφίας, are things having a reputation of wisdom, Colossians 2:23 (Matthiae, § 560 ((so Kühner, § 353 Anm. 3)) gives examples from secular authors in which several words intervene between εἶναι and the participle).
e. Of quite another sort are those examples in which εἶναι has its own force, being equivalent to to be found, to be present, to stay, (see I. above), and the participle is added to express an act or condition of the subject (cf. Buttmann, § 144, 27): ἐν τοῖς μνημασι ... ἦν was i. e. stayed) κράζων, Mark 5:5; ἦν δέ ἐκεῖ (was kept there) ... βοσκομένη, Mark 5:11; Matthew 8:30; ἦσαν ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ ἀναβαίνοντες, Luther correctly, they were in the road (going up etc. Mark 10:32; εἰσιν ἄνδρες ... εὐχήν ἔχοντες, Acts 21:23; add, Matthew 12:10 (R G);
5. The formula ἐγώ εἰμί (I am he), frequent in the Gospels, especially in John, must have its predicate supplied mentally, inasmuch as it is evident from the context (cf. Krüger, § 60, 7); thus, ἐγώ εἰμί, namely, Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζωραῖον, John 18:5 (here L marginal reading expresses ὁ Ἰησοῦς, WH marginal reading Ἰησοῦς); John 18:6, 8; it is I whom you see, not another, Matthew 14:27; Mark 6:50; Luke 24:36 (Lachmann in brackets); John 6:20; namely, ὁ καθήμενος καί προσαιτῶν, John 9:9; simply εἰμί, I am teacher and Lord, John 13:13; οὐκ εἰμί namely, ἐξ αὐτῶν, Luke 22:58; John 18:25; I am not Elijah, John 1:21; specifically, I am the Messiah, Mark 13:6; Mark 14:62; Luke 21:8; John 4:26; John 8:24, 28; John 13:19; I am the Son of God, Luke 22:70 (like הוּא אֲנִי, Deuteronomy 32:39; Isaiah 43:10); cf. Keim, 3:320 (English translation, 6:34; Hofmann, Schriftbeweis, i. 63f). The third person is used in the same way: ἐκεῖνος ἐστιν, namely, ὁ υἱός τοῦ Θεοῦ, John 9:37; namely, ὁ παραδώσων ἐμέ, John 13:26.
6. Of the phrases having a pronoun in place of a predicate, the following deserve notice:
a. τίς εἰμί, εἰ, ἐστιν, a formula of inquiry, used by those desiring — either to know what sort of a man one is whom they see, or what his name is, John 1:19; John 8:25; John 21:12; Acts 26:15 — or that they may see the face of some one spoken of, and that he may be pointed out to them, Luke 19:3; John 9:36; σύ τίς εἰ ὁ with a participle, who (i. e. how petty) art thou, that etc.? the question of one administering a rebuke and contemptuously denying another's right to do a thing, Romans 9:20; Romans 14:4 (Strabo 6, 2, 4, p. 271 σύ τίς εἰ ὁ τόν Ὀμηρον ψεγων ὡς μυθογραφον); ἐγώ τίς εἰμί; who (how small) am I? the language of one holding a modest opinion of himself and recognizing his weakness, Acts 11:17, cf. Exodus 3:11.
b. εἰμί τίς, likesum aliquis in Latin, to be somebody (eminent): Acts 5:36; εἶναι τί, like the Latinaliquid esse, to be something (i. e., something excellent): Galatians 2:6; Galatians 6:3; in these phrases τίς and τί are emphatic; cf. Kühner, § 470, 3; (Winers Grammar, 170 (161); Buttmann, 114 (100)); εἶναι τί after a negative, to be nothing, 1 Corinthians 3:7, cf. Meyer at the passage; also in questions having a negative force, 1 Corinthians 10:19 (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 6, 2). οὐδέν εἰμί, 1 Corinthians 13:2; 2 Corinthians 12:11; οὐδέν ἐστιν, it is nothing, is of no account, Matthew 23:16, 18; John 8:54; Acts 21:24; 1 Corinthians 7:19.
c. τίς ἐστι, e. g. ἡ παραβολή, what does it mean? what is the explanation of the thing? Luke 8:9 τίς εἴη ἡ παραβολή αὐτῇ; Acts 10:17 τί ἄν εἰν τό ὅραμα; Mark 1:27 τί ἐστι τοῦτο; what is this? expressive of astonishment, Luke 15:26 τί εἰν ταῦτα; what might be the cause of the noise he heard? Luke 18:36; John 10:6, τινα ἦν, ἅ ἐλάλει αὐτοῖς. Τί ἐστι what does it mean? Matthew 9:13; Matthew 12:7; Luke 20:17; John 16:17f; τί ἐστιν εἰ μή ὅτι, Ephesians 4:9; see II. 3 above.
d. οὗτος, αὕτη, τοῦτο ἐστιν followed by a noun, equivalent to in this is seen, is contained, etc. α. is so employed that the pronoun refers to something which has just been said: οὗτος γάρ ἐστι ὁ νόμος, the law is summed up in what I have just mentioned, comes to this, Matthew 7:12. β.. in John's usage it is so employed that the pronoun serves as the subject, which is defined by a noun that follows, and this noun itself is a substitute as it were for the predicate: αὐτῇ ἐστιν ἡ νίκη ... ἡ πίστις ἡμῶν 1 John 5:4; αὕτη ἐστιν ἡ μαρτυρία τοῦ Θεοῦ, ἥν, etc. 1 John 5:9 Rec. οὗτος, αὕτη, τοῦτο ἐστι followed by ὅτι (Buttmann, 105 (92); cf. Winer's Grammar, 161 (152)): John 3:19; 1 John 1:5; 1 John 5:11, 14; followed by ἵνα (to say that something ought to be done, or that something is desired or demanded (cf. Winers Grammar, 338 (317); Buttmann, 240 (207))): John 6:29, 39; John 15:12; 1 John 3:11, 23; 1 John 5:3; followed by ὅτε etc. John 1:19 (Winer's Grammar, 438 (408)).
7. The participle ὤν, οὖσα, ὄν, ὄντες, ὄντα, joined to a substantive or an adjective, has the force of an intercalated clause, and may be translated since or although I am, thou art, etc. (here the English use of the participle agrees in the main with the Greek): εἰ οὖν ὑμεῖς, πονηροὶ οὔντες, οἴδατε, Matthew 17:11; add,
8. Sometimes the copula ἐστιν (with the accent (see Chandler § 938)) stands at the beginning of a sentence, to emphasize the truth of what the sentence affirms or denies: Luke 8:11; 1 Timothy 6:6; ἐστι δέ πίστις etc. Hebrews 11:1 (although some explain it here (as a substantive verb), 'but faith exists' or 'is found,' to wit in the examples adduced immediately after (see Winers Grammar, § 7, 3)); several times so used in Philo in statements (quoted by Delitzsch on Hebrews 11:1) resembling definitions. οὐκ ἐστιν: Matthew 13:57; Mark 12:27; Acts 10:34; 1 Corinthians 14:33; James 3:15.
III. εἰμί joined with adverbs;
1. with adverbs of place;
a. where? to be, be busy, somewhere: ἐκεῖ, Matthew 2:15; Matthew 27:55; Mark 3:1 (L omits; Tr brackets ἦν), etc.; ἐνθάδε, Acts 16:28; ἔσω, John 20:26; οὗ, Matthew 2:9; Matthew 18:20; Acts 16:13; ὅπου, Mark 2:4; Mark 5:40; John 6:62; Acts 17:1, etc.; ποῦ, Matthew 2:2; John 7:11, etc.; ὧδε, Matthew 28:6; Mark 9:5, etc.
b. with adverbs of distance: ἀπέναντι τίνος, Romans 3:18 (Psalm 35:2
c. whence? to be from some quarter, i. e. to come, originate, from: πόθεν, Matthew 21:25; Luke 13:25, 27; John 7:27; John 9:29; John 19:9; John 2:9 (πόθεν ἐστιν namely, ὁ οἶνος, whence the wine was procured); ἐντεῦθεν, John 18:36.
2. with adverbs of quality; οὕτως εἰμί, to be thus or so, to be such; absolutely, Matthew 13:49; with ἐν ὑμῖν added, Matthew 20:26 (here R G T ἔσται); οὕτως ἔσται, so will it be, i. e. come to pass, Matthew 13:40 (49 (see above)); οὕτως ἐστιν or ἔσται, of things, events, etc., such is or will be the state of the case (Winer's Grammar, 465 (434)): Matthew 19:10; Matthew 24:27, 37, 39; Mark 4:26; Romans 4:18 (Genesis 15:5); so of persons, John 3:8. καθώς ἐστιν as, even as, he, etc. is, 1 John 3:2, 7; 1 John 4:17; εἰμί ὥσπερ τίς to be, to do as one, to imitate him, be like him, Matthew 6:5 (R G); Luke 18:11 (R G T WH text); ἔστω σοι ὥσπερ etc. regard him as a heathen and a publican, i. e. have no fellowship with him, Matthew 18:17; εἰμί ὡς or ὡσεί τίς, to be as, i. e. like or equal to anyone, Matt. (
IV. εἰμί with the oblique cases of substantives or of pronouns;
1. εἶναι τίνος, like the Latinalicuius esse, equivalent to to pertain to a person or a thing, denotes any kind of possession or connection (possessive genitive); cf. Krüger, § 47, 6, 4ff; Winers Grammar, § 30, 5 b.; Buttmann, § 132, 11.
a. of things which one owns: ἔσται σου πᾶσα (Rec. πάντα), Luke 4:7; οὗ ἐστιν ἡ ζώνη αὕτη, Acts 21:11; add, Mark 12:7; John 10:12; John 19:24; — or for the possession of which he is fitted: τίνος ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ οὐρανοῦ or τοῦ Θεοῦ, he is fit for a share in the kingdom of God, Matthew 5:3, 10; Matthew 19:14; Mark 10:14; Luke 18:16. πάντα ὑμῶν ἐστι, all things serve your interests and promote your salvation, 1 Corinthians 3:21.
b. of things which proceed from one: 2 Corinthians 4:7.
c. to be of one's party, be devoted to one: 1 Corinthians 1:12; 2 Timothy 2:19; τοῦ Χριστοῦ, Mark 9:41; Romans 8:9; 1 Corinthians 1:12; 2 Corinthians 10:7; hence also τῆς ὁδοῦ (namely, τοῦ κυρίου) εἶναι, Acts 9:2 (cf. Buttmann, 163 (142)).
e. to be suitable, fit, for one: Acts 1:7.
f. to be of a kind or class: εἶναι νυκτός, σκότους, ἡμέρας, 1 Thessalonians 5:5, 8; or to be of the number of (a partitive genitive, cf. Buttmann, 159 (139)): Acts 23:6; 1 Timothy 1:20; 2 Timothy 1:15.
g. with a genitive of quality: Hebrews 10:39; Hebrews 12:11. h. with a genitive of age: Mark 5:42; Luke 3:23; Acts 4:22 (Tobit 14:11). With this use (viz. 1) of εἶναι, those examples must not be confounded in which a predicate nominative is to be repeated from the subject (cf. Krüger, § 47, 6, 1): οὐκ ἐστιν ὁ Θεός νεκρῶν, ἀλλά ζώντων, namely, Θεός, Matthew 22:32, cf. Mark 12:27; Luke 20:38; ταῦτα τά ῤήματα οὐκ ἐστι δαιμονιζομένου, namely, ῤήματα, John 10:21; οὐκ ἐστιν ἀκαταστασίας ὁ Θεός, ἀλλά εἰρήνης, 1 Corinthians 14:33; ἄλλο βιβλίον, ὁ ἐστι τῆς ζωῆς, Revelation 20:12; add, 2 Corinthians 2:3; 1 Peter 3:3.
2. εἰμί with the dative (cf. Krüger, § 48, 3 (who appears to regard the dative as expressing a less close or necessary relationship than the genitive); Winers Grammar, § 31, 2);
a. ἐστι μοι, ἡμῖν, etc. it is mine, ours, etc., I, we, etc., have: Luke 1:7; Luke 2:7, 10; Luke 14:10; John 18:10, 39; John 19:40; Acts 7:5; Acts 8:21; Acts 10:6; Romans 9:2, 9; 1 Corinthians 9:16; 1 Peter 4:11, and often. οὐκ ἐστι ἡμῖν (others ὑμῖν) ἡ πάλη πρός etc. we have not a struggle against etc. Ephesians 6:12; εἰσιν ἡμῖν we have here etc. Acts 21:23; τί ἔσται ἡμῖν what shall we have? what will be given us? Matthew 19:27; ὑμῖν ἐστιν ἡ ἐπαγγελία the promise belongs to you, Acts 2:39.
b. εἶναι τίνι τί to be something to (or for) someone, used of various relations, as of service, protection, etc.: σκεῦος ἐκλογῆς ἐστι μοι οὗτος namely, τοῦ with an infinitive Acts 9:15; ἔσεσθε μοι μάρτυρες, Acts (
d. εἶναι τίνι τί, to be, i. e. conduce, redound to one for (or as) something (cf. Krüger, § 48, 3, 5): 1 Corinthians 11:14; 2 Corinthians 2:15; Philippians 1:28; οὐαί δέ μοι ἐστι, 1 Corinthians 9:16 (Hosea 9:12).
f. Acts 24:11 οὐ πλείους εἰσί μοι ἡμέραι ἤ δεκαδύο (L T Tr WH omit ἤ and read δώδεκα) not more than twelve days are (namely, passed) to me, i. e. it is not more than twelve days. Luke 1:36 οὗτος μήν ἕκτος ἐστιν αὐτῇ this is the sixth month to (with) her. Those passages must not be brought under this head in which the dative does not belong to the verb but depends on an adjective, as καλός, κοινωνός, φίλος, etc.
V. εἰμί with prepositions and their cases.
1. ἀπό ὁ τίνος (τόπου), to come from, be a native of: John 1:44 (45) (cf. ἀπό, II. 1 a.).
2. εἰς τί, a. to have betaken oneself to some place and to be there, to have gone into (cf. Winers Grammar, § 50, 4 b.; (Buttmann, 333 (286)): εἰς οἶκον, Mark 2:1 (R G; others ἐν); εἰς τόν ἀγρόν, Mark 13:16 (R G); εἰς τήν κοίτην, Luke 11:7; εἰς τόν κόλπον, John 1:18, where cf. Tholuck (Winers Grammar, 415 (387); Buttmann, as above); (on Acts 8:20 see ἀπώλεια, 2 a.). metaphorically, to come to: εἰς χολήν πικρίας (hast fallen into), Acts 8:23.
c. to be for, i. e. conduce or inure to, serve for (Buttmann, 150f (131f); Winer's Grammar, § 29, 3 a.): 1 Corinthians 14:22; Colossians 2:22; James 5:3; ἐμοί εἰς ἐλάχιστον ἐστι, it results for me in, i. e. I account it, a very small thing, 1 Corinthians 4:3, (εἰς ὠφέλειαν, Aesop fab. 124, 2).
d. In imitation of the Hebrew הָיָה followed by לְ, εἶναι εἰς τινα or τί stands where the Greeks use a nominative (Winers Grammar and Buttmann, as above; especially Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word εἰς, 3): Matthew 19:5 and Mark 10:8 and 1 Corinthians 6:16 and Ephesians 5:31 ἔσονται εἰς σάρκα μίαν (from Genesis 2:24); 1 John 5:8 εἰς τό ἐν εἰσιν, unite, conspire, toward one and the same result, agree in one; 2 Corinthians 6:18 (Jeremiah 38:1
3. ἐκ τίνος, a. to be of, i. e. a part of anything, to belong to, etc. (Winers Grammar, 368 (345); cf. Buttmann, 159 (139)): 1 Corinthians 12:15f; ἐκ τινων, of the number of: Matthew 26:73; Mark 14:69; Luke 22:58; John 1:24; John 6:64, 71 (R T);
b. to be of, i. e. to have originated, sprung, come, from (Winers Grammar, § 51, 1 d.; Buttmann, 327 (281f)): Luke 23:7; John 1:46 (
c. to be of, i. e. proceed from one as the author (Winers Grammar, 366f (344f); Buttmann, 327 (281)): Matthew 5:37; John 7:17; Acts 5:38; 2 Corinthians 4:7; 1 John 2:16; Hebrews 2:11; εἶναι ἐξ οὐρανοῦ, ἐξ ἀνθρώπων, to be instituted by the authority of God, by the authority of men, Matthew 21:25; Mark 11:30; Luke 20:4; to be begotten of one, Matthew 1:20.
d. to be of, i. e. be connected with one; to be related to, (cf. Winer's § 51, 1 d.; cf. in ἐκ, II. 1 a. and 7): ὁ νόμος οὐκ ἐστιν ἐκ πίστεως, has no connection with faith, Galatians 3:12; ἐξ ἔργων νόμου εἶναι (Luth.mit Werken umgehen), Galatians 3:10; especially in John's usage, to depend on the power of one, to be prompted and governed by one, and reflect his character: thus εἶναι ἐκ τοῦ διαβόλου, John 8:44; 1 John 3:8; ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ, 1 John 3:12; ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου, John 15:19; John 17:14, 16; 1 John 4:5; when this expression is used of wickedness, it is equivalent to produced by the world and pertaining to it, 1 John 2:16; opposed to ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ εἶναι, John 8:47; 1 John 4:1-3; this latter phrase is used especially of true Christians, as begotten anew by the Spirit of God (see γεννάω, 2 d.): 1 John 4:4, 6; 1 John 5:19; 3 John 1:11; ἐκ τῆς ἀληθείας εἶναι, either to come from the love of truth as an effect, as 1 John 2:21, or, if used of a man, to be led and governed by the love and pursuit of truth, as John 18:37; 1 John 3:19; ὁ ὤν ἐκ τῆς γῆς ἐκ τῆς γῆς ἐστι, he who is from the earth as respects origin bears the nature of this his earthly origin, is earthly, John 3:31.
4. ἐν τίνι, a. with the dative of place, to be in, i. e. be present, to stay, dwell; a prop Matthew 24:26; Luke 2:49, etc.; on the surface of a place (Germauf), as ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ, Mark 10:32 and elsewhere; ἐν τῷ ἀγρῷ, Luke 15:25. at: ἐν δεξιά tou] Θεοῦ, Romans 8:34; to live, dwell, as in a city: Luke 18:3; Acts 9:10; Philippians 1:1; 1 Corinthians 1:2, etc.; of God, ἐν οὐρανοῖς, Ephesians 6:9; of things which are found, met with, in a place: 2 Timothy 2:20, etc. β. things so pertaining to locality that one can, in a proper sense, be in them or be surrounded by them, are spoken of in the same way metaphorically and improperly, as εἶναι ἐν τῷ φωτί, ἐν τῇ σκοτία: 1 John 2:9, 11; 1 Thessalonians 5:4; ἐν σαρκί, Romans 7:5; Romans 8:8 (see σάρξ, 4).
b. to be in a state or condition (see Buttmann, 330 (284); cf. Winer's Grammar, § 29, 3 b. and ἐν, I. 5 c.): ἐν εἰρήνη, Luke 11:21; ἐν ἔχθρα, Luke 23:12; ἐν κρίματι, Luke 23:40; ἐν περιτομή, ἐν ἀκροβυστία, Romans 4:10; ἐν δόξῃ, 2 Corinthians 3:8, etc.; hence, spoken of ills which one is afflicted with: ἐν ῤύσει αἵματος, Mark 5:25; Luke 8:43 (ἐν τῇ νόσῳ, Sophocles Aj. 271; inmorbo esse, Cicero, Tusc. 3, 4, 9); of wickedness in which one is, as it were, merged, ἐν ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις, 1 Corinthians 15:17; of holiness, in which one perseveres, ἐν πίστει, 2 Corinthians 13:5.
d. to be occupied in a thing (Bernhardy (1829), p. 210; (see iv, I. 5 g.)): ἐν τῇ ἑορτή, in celebrating the feast, John 2:23; to be sedulously devoted to (A. V. give oneself wholly to) a thing, 1 Timothy 4:15 (Horace, epistles 1, 1, 11omnis in hoc sum).
e. a person or thing is said to be in one, i. e. in his soul: thus, God (by his power and influence) in the prophets, 1 Corinthians 14:25; Christ (i. e. his holy mind and power) in the souls of his disciples or of Christians, John 17:26; 2 Corinthians 13:5; τό πνεῦμα τῆς ἀληθείας, John 14:17; friends are said to be ἐν τῇ καρδία of one who loves them, 2 Corinthians 7:3. vices, virtues, and the like, are said to be in one: as δόλος, John 1:47 (48); ἀδικία, John 7:18; ἄγνοια, Ephesians 4:18; ἁμαρτία, 1 John 3:5; ἀλήθεια, John 8:44; 2 Corinthians 11:10; Ephesians 4:21; 1 John 1:8; 1 John 2:4, (ἀλήθεια καί κρίσις, 1 Macc. 7:18); ἀγάπη, John 17:26; 1 John 2:15; ὁ λόγος αὐτοῦ (τοῦ Θεοῦ) οὐκ ἐστιν ἐν ἡμῖν, God's word has not left its impress on our souls, 1 John 1:10; τό φῶς οὐκ ἐστιν ἐν αὐτῷ, the efficacy or influence of the light is not in his soul (rather, an obvious physical fact is used to suggest a spiritual truth: the light is not in him, does not shine from within outward), John 11:10; σκοτία, 1 John 1:5; σκάνδαλον, 1 John 2:10, i. e. there is nothing within him to seduce him to sin (cf. Dusterdieck and Huther at the passage). Acts 13:15 (if ye have in mind any word of exhortation etc. (Winers Grammar, 218 (204f)).
f. ἐν τῷ Θεῷ εἶναι is said α. of Christians, as being rooted, so to speak, in him, i. e. intimately united to him, 1 John 2:5; 1 John 5:20; β. of all men, because the ground of their creation and continued being is to be found in him alone, Acts 17:28.
g. with a dative of the person to be in — (i. e. either) among the number of: Matthew 27:56; Mark 15:40; Luke 2:44; Romans 1:6; — (or, in the midst of: Acts 2:29; Acts 7:44 Rec., etc.) h. noteworthy, further, are the following: ἐστι τί ἐν τίνι there is something (to blame) in one, Acts 25:5; something is (founded (A. V. stand)) in a thing, 1 Corinthians 2:5; οὐκ ἐστιν ἐν οὐδενί ἄλλῳ ἡ σωτηρία salvation is (laid up, embodied) in none other, can be expected from none, Acts 4:12; with the dative of the thing, is (contained, wrapped up) in something: Ephesians 5:18; Hebrews 10:3; 1 John 4:18.
c. τινα, to be upon one: χάρις ἦν ἐπί τινα, was with him, assisted him, Luke 2:40; Acts 4:33; πνεῦμα ἦν ἐπί τινα, had come upon one, was impelling him, Luke 2:25, cf. Luke 4:18; the Sept. Isaiah 61:1; add, Galatians 6:16; εἶναι ἐπί τό αὐτό, to be (assembled) together (cf. αὐτός, III. 1), Acts 1:15; Acts 2:1, 44; of cohabitation, 1 Corinthians 7:5 (according to the reading ἦτε for Rec. συνέρχεσθε).
b. κατά τί, according to something: κατά σάρκα, κατά πνεῦμα, to bear the character, have the nature, of the flesh or of the Spirit, Romans 8:5; εἶναι κατ' ἄνθρωπον, Galatians 1:11; κατ' ἀλήθειαν, Romans 2:2.
7. μετά τίνος, a. to be with (i. e., to associate with) one: Matthew 17:17; Mark 3:14; Mark 5:18; Luke 6:3; John 3:26; John 12:17; John 16:32; Acts 9:39, and often in the Gospels; Revelation 21:3; of ships accompanying one, Mark 4:36; of what is present with one for his profit, 2 John 1:2; Romans 16:20; Hebraistically, to be with one, i. e. as a help (of God, becoming the companion, as it were, of the righteous): Luke 1:66; John 3:2; John 8:29; John 16:32; Acts 7:9; Acts 10:38; Acts 11:21; Acts 18:10; 2 Corinthians 13:11; Philippians 4:9; 2 John 1:3, cf. Matthew 28:20 (Genesis 21:20; Judges 6:12, etc.).
9. πρός τινα (cf. Winers Grammar, 405 (378)), a. toward: πρός ἑσπέραν ἐστι it is toward evening, Luke 24:29.
b. by (turned toward): Mark 4:1.
b. τινα, to be abore one, to surpass, excel him: Luke 6:40.
VI. As in classical Greek, so also in the N. T. εἰμί is very often omitted (cf. Winer § 64, I. 2, who gives numerous examples (cf. 596 (555); 350 (328f)); Buttmann, 136f (119f)), ἐστιν most frequently of all the parts: Luke 4:18; Romans 11:36; 1 Corinthians 4:20; 2 Timothy 3:16; Hebrews 5:13, etc.; in exclamations, Acts 19:28, 34; in questions, Romans 9:14; 2 Corinthians 6:14-16; τί γάρ, Philippians 1:18; Romans 3:3; τί οὖν, Romans 3:9; Romans 6:15; also εἰ, Revelation 15:4; εἰμί, 2 Corinthians 11:6; ἐσμεν, ἐστε, 1 Corinthians 4:10; εἰσί, Romans 4:14; 1 Corinthians 13:8, etc.; the imperative ἔστω, Romans 12:9; Hebrews 13:4f; ἐστε, Romans 12:9; 1 Peter 3:8; εἰν in wishes, Matthew 16:22; Galatians 6:16, etc.; even the subjunctive ἤ after ἵνα, Romans 4:16; 2 Corinthians 8:11 (after ὅπως), 13; often the participle ὤν, ὄντες, as (see Buttmann, § 144, 18) in Mark 6:20; Acts 27:33; in the expressions οἱ ἐκ περιτομῆς, ὁ ἐκ πίστεως, οἱ ὑπό νόμον, etc. (Compare: ἄπειμι, ἔνειμι (ἔξεστι), πάρειμι, συμπάρειμι, σύνειμι.)
STRONGS NT 1510: εἶμι εἶμι, to go, approved of by some in John 7:34, 36, for the ordinary εἰμί, but cf. Winers Grammar, § 6, 2; (Buttmann, 50 (43). Compare: ἄπειμι, εἴσειμι, ἔξειμι, ἔπειμι, σύνειμι.)
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with various uses and significations, like the English verb to be.
I. Conditional, if;
1. c. indic., expressing a general assumption;
(a) pres.: seq. indic. pres., Matthew 11:14, Romans 8:25, al.; seq. imperat., Mark 4:23; Mark 9:22, John 15:18, 1 Corinthians 7:9, al.; seq. fut. indic., Luke 16:31, Romans 8:11, al.; seq. pf. or aor., with negation in apodosis, Matthew 12:26, Romans 4:14, al.; similarly, seq. impf., Luke 17:6, John 8:39; seq. quæst., Matthew 6:23 John 5:47; John 7:23; John 8:46, 1 Peter 2:20;
(b) fut.: Matthew 26:33, 1 Peter 2:20;
(c) pf.: John 11:12, Romans 6:5, al.;
(d) aor.: Luke 16:11; Luke 19:8, John 13:32; John 18:23, Revelation 20:15, al.
2. Where the assumption is certain = ἐπεί : Matthew 12:28, John 7:4, Romans 5:17, al.
3. Of an unfulfilled condition, c. indic. impf., aor. or plpf., seq. ἄν , c. imp. or aor. (see ἄν , I, i).
4. C. indic., after verbs denoting wonder, etc., sometimes, but not always, coupled with an element of doubt: Mark 15:44, 1 John 3:13, al.
5. C. indic., as in LXX (Numbers 14:30, 1 Samuel 14:45, al. = Heb. H518), in oaths, with the formula of imprecation understood in a suppressed apodosis (WM, 627; Burton, § 272): Mark 8:12, Hebrews 3:11 (LXX) Hebrews 4:3 (LXX),
6. Rarely (cl.) c. optat., to express a merely possible condition: Acts 24:19; Acts 27:39, 1 Corinthians 14:10; 1 Corinthians 15:37, 1 Peter 3:14; 1 Peter 3:17
II. Interrogative, if, whether.
1. As in cl., in indir. questions after verbs of seeing, asking, knowing, saying, etc: c. indic. Pres., Matthew 26:63, Mark 15:36, Acts 19:2, 2 Corinthians 13:5, al.; fut., Mark 3:2, Acts 8:22, al.; aor., Mark 15:44, 1 Corinthians 1:16, al.; c. subjc. aor. (M, Pr., 194), Philippians 3:12.
2. As in LXX (= Heb. H518 and interrog. הֲ , Genesis 17:17, al.; v. WM, 639 f.; Viteau, i, 22), in direct questions: Mark 8:23 (Tr., WH, txt.), Luke 13:23; Luke 22:49, Acts 19:2, al.
III. With other particles.
1. εἰ ἄρα , εἴγε , εἰ δὲ μήγς , see ἄρα , γε .
2. εἰ δὲ καί , but if also: Luke 11:18; but even of, 1 Corinthians 4:7, 2 Corinthians 4:3; 2 Corinthians 11:6.
3. εἰ δὲ μή , but if not, but if otherwise: Mark 2:21-22, John 14:2, Revelation 2:5, al.
4. εἰ καί , if even, if also, although: Mark 14:29, Luke 11:8, 1 Corinthians 7:21, 2 Corinthians 4:16, Philippians 2:17, al.
5. καί εἰ , even if see καί .
6. εἰ μή , if not, unless, except, but only: Matthew 24:22, Mark 2:26; Mark 6:5, John 9:33, 1 Corinthians 7:17 (only), Galatians 1:19 (cf. ἐὰν μή , 216; v. Hort., Ja., xvi); ἐκτὸς εἰ μή , pleonastic (Bl., § 65, 6), 1 Corinthians 14:5; 1 Corinthians 15:2, 1 Timothy 5:19..
7. εἰ μήν = cl. ἦ μήν (M, Pr., 46), in oaths, surely (Ezekiel 33:27, al.): Hebrews 6:14.
8. εἴ πως , if haply: Acts 27:12, Romans 1:10.
9. εἴτε . . . εἴτε , whether . . . or: Romans 12:6-8, 1 Corinthians 3:22; 1 Corinthians 13:8, al.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Middle forms in the flexion of εἰμί other than the present tense (cf. however MGr εἶμαι, –σαι, etc.) begin to appear very early in the dialects and are well established in the papyri. Thus the 1st sing. impf. ἤμην, which always takes the place of the class. ἦ in the NT (but see Acts 20:18 D) may be illustrated from PSI IV. 362.21 (B.C. 251–0) ἤμην δὲ πρὸς τῶι λαμβάνειν τὸν χαλκόν, P Magd 6.6 (B.C. 221) ἤμην γυμνός, P Par 8.7 (B.C. 129) ὧν ἤμην δι᾽ αὐτῶν [π ]αραμε [μετ ]ρηκ [υῖα, P Oxy III. 526.3 (ii/A.D.) οὐκ ἤμην ἀπαθὴς ἀλόγως σε καταλείπιν. For 1st plur. ἤμεθα see P Petr II. 4 (7).3 (B.C. 255–4) τεθλιμμένοι ἤμεθα : cf. Acts 27:37, Ephesians 2:8, as contrasted with the act. ἦμεν in Acts 11:11 (אB), 16.12, Romans 7:5 al. : the two forms are found together in Galatians 4:3 (אDFG). The non-classical ἦς (Lob. Phryn. p. 149) is found septies in the NT as compared with ἦσθα (from an old perf. form ἤησθα), which is confined to Mark 14:67 with its parallel Matthew 26:69. For ἤμην, ἦς in Epictetus, see Sharp Epict. p. 83. On the other hand ἦσθα is the commoner form in the LXX (Thackeray Gr. i. p. 256), and Moulton (Gr. ii. § 86) throws out the conjecture that this ἦσθα in Mt may have started under LXX influence, and that the text of Mk was harmonized. In P Hib I. 78.16 (B.C. 244–3) ἐὰν δὲ μὴ δυνατὸς ἦσθα ἀπολῦσαι γράψομ (l. γράψον) μοι, ἦσθα must be treated as subj., like ἦσαν in P Tebt II. 333.13 (A.D. 216) ἐὰν ἦσάν τι παθόντες ἀνθρώπ [ι ]νον and P Oxy VIII. 1157.15 (late iii/A.D.) ἐὰν δὲ ἦσαν <? ἐπείγον > τες ἀπαιτῆσαι τὸ ἐπικεφάλαιον, ";and if they are [hurrying on with] the collection of the poll-tax"; (Ed.), where a past tense is excluded by the context. The forms may probably be regarded as extensions of the curious but common substitution of ἦν for ᾖ, the iota being lost and the parasitic ν being added after the long vowel, in such passages as P Oxy IV. 744.9 f. (B.C. 1) (= Selections, p. 33) ἐὰν ἦν ἄρσενον, ἄφες, ἐὰν ἦν θήλεα, ἔκβαλε, BGU III. 821.6 (ii/A.D.) ὅταν ἦν τι καινότερον, εὐθέως σοι δηλ [ώ ]σω, P Fay 124.15 (ii/A.D.) ε ̣ἴπερ εἰ καὶ γράμματα μ ̣ὴ ἦν, P Oxy I. 63.18 (ii/iii A.D.) ἵνα μη [δ ]ὲν ἐνπόδιον ἦν, ";in order that there may be no delay."; The same phenomenon is found in NT uncials, e.g. Matthew 10:13 C ἔὰν μὲν ἦν ἡ οἰκία ἀξία, Mark 5:18 B*D ἵνα μετ᾽ αὐτοῦ ἦν, Luke 20:28 אc ἐὰν. . οὗτος ἄτεκνος ἦν, 1 Corinthians 16:4 Α ἐὰν δὲ ἄξιον ἦν. See further Moulton Gr. ii. § 86 n. 2 (ε) and for additional papyrus exx. CR xv. pp. 38, 436, xviii. p. 108. In certain cases we may have instances of ἐάν construed with the indicative (cf. Deissmann BS p. 201 f.) : the context alone can decide.
For 3rd sing. εἴη (ι), the only form of the opt. which occurs in the NT (undecies), we may cite P Vat A.3 (B.C. 168) (= Witkowski.2, p. 64) εἴηι ἄν, ὡς βούλομαι, P Grenf I. 21.2 (B.C. 126) ε [ἴ ]ηι μέμ μοι ὑγιαίνοντι τῶν ἐμαυτοῦ κύριον εἶναι, and the frequently recurring phrase εὐορκοῦντι μέν μοι εὖ εἴηι, ἐφιορκοῦντι δὲ τὰ ἐναντία, as in P Tebt I. 79.17 f. (B.C. 110–8). In P Hib I. 79.5 (c. B.C. 260) we have εἲ (for εἴη) ἄν, ὡς ἐγὼ θέλω, a form apparently not found elsewhere in Ptolemaic papyri (cf. Witkowski.2, p. 25), and in P Par 44.2 (B.C. 153) εἴε (for εἴη) ἄν, ὡς βούλομαι. The 3rd plur. is seen in P Par 35.29 (B.C. 163) πυνθανομένων δ᾽ ἡμῶν τοῦ χάριν εἴησαν εἰσπορευσάμενοι.
The 2nd sing. imperf. ἴσθι, as in Matthew 5:25, Mark 5:34, occurs in such passages as P Tebt I. 58.51 (B.C. 111) καὶ σὺ ἀναγωνίατος ἴσθει (l. ἴσθι), P Leid Wiii. 10 (ii/iii A.D.) σὺ δὲ ἐν ἐλίνοις ἴσθσι (l. λίνοις ἴσθι). According to Mayser (Gr. p. 327) the ending –θι is found in the Ptolemaic papyri only in ἴσθει = ἴσθι from εἶναι, and ἴσθι from οἶδα. Ἔστω hardly needs illustration, but its frequency may be noted in such formulas as P Petr I. 16 (2).14 (B.C. 230) ἡ πρᾶξις ἔστω ὡς πρὸς βασιλικά, P Oxy II. 270.43 (A.D. 94) ἄκυρον [ἔ ]στω, 46 κυρία ἔστω al. For ἤτω, which in the NT is found only in 1 Corinthians 16:22 (contrast Galatians 1:8), James 5:12, see BGU I. 276.24 (ii/iii A.D.) παρά σοι ἤτω, P Oxy III. 533.9 (ii/iii A.D.) ἐν ἀσφαλεῖ [ἤ ]τω, P Lond 948 verso.8 (A.D. 257) (= III. p. 210) ἤτω οὖν ὁ Σύρος πρ [ὸ ]ς τοὺς ποιμένας, BGU II. 419.13 (A.D. 276–7) ζημίωμα [π ]ρὸς σὲ ἤτω, and P Lond 46.325 (iv/A.D.) (= I. p. 75) ὑποτεταγμένος δέ μοι ἤτω. None of these exx., it will be noticed, carries us back to i/A.D., and the inscriptional evidence is also late (Schweizer Gr. p. 177, Meisterhans Gr. p. 191). For ἔστωσαν, which is found in Attic inscrr. from B.C. 200 onwards (Meisterhans, ut s.) and occurs twice in the NT (Luke 12:35, 1 Timothy 3:12), we may cite P Petr III. 2.22 (B.C. 237) ἔστωσαν ἐλεύθεροι, CPR I. 1.22 (A.D. 83–4) αἱ γεγονυῖαι διὰ τῶν καταλοχισμῶν οἰκονομίαι κυρίαι ἔστωσαν ἐπὶ τὸν ἅπαντα χρόνον, and for ἤτωσαν P Leid Wiii. 40 (ii/iii A.D.) ἤτωσαν δὲ οἱ λύχνοι τεταρτημόριοι.
The periphrastic use of εἰμί with the participle (the so-called σχῆμα Χαλκιδικόν), which is common both in the LXX and the NT (see a useful list of exx. in Conybeare and Stock Selections, p. 68 ff.) may be illustrated in somewhat fuller detail : —(a) present : BGU I. 183.25 (A.D. 85) ἐφ᾽ ὃν χρόνον ζῶσα ᾗ Σαταβούς : cf. P Giss I. 19.3 (ii/A.D.) μεγάλως ἀγωνιῶσα περί σου διὰ τὰ ὄν [τα τ ]οῦ καιροῦ φημιζόμενα. (b) perfect : P Petr II. 13 (3).3 (B.C. 258–3) τεῖχος. . πεπτωκός ἐστιν, and often in such a phrase as ἵν᾽ ὦ εὐεργετημένη, e.g. P Oxy III. 486.16 (A.D. 131) : cf. John 16:24; John 17:19; John 17:23. See also Radermacher Gr. p. 83 for exx. from Vett. Valens, Diodorus, Herodas, and others. (c) future perfect : PSI IV. 424.8 (iii/B.C.) ἔσει ἐμέ τε σεσωικώς, P Par 35.38 (B.C. 163) ἔσομαι τετευχώς, P Tebt I. 56.16 (c. B.C. 130–121) τοῦτο δὲ ποήσας ἔσηι μοι κεχαρισμένος εἰς τὸν ἅπαντα χρόν [ον ], BGU II. 596.12 (A.D. 84) (= Selections, p. 64) ἔσῃ μοι μεγάλην χάριταν κατατ ̣ε ̣θειμ [έ ]νο (ς), P Leid Wi. 35 (ii/iii A.D.) καὶ ἔσῃ τελεσμένος (l. τετελ –) αὐτός : other exx. in Mayser Gr. p. 377. Three papyri of iii/A.D. have an aor. part. with εἰμί in a future perfect sense—P Tebt II. 333.18 (A.D. 216) ἐὰν ἦσάν τι παθόντες ἀνθρώπ [ι ]νον, ib. 423.18 (early iii/A.D.) ἐὰν οὖν μὴ ̣ ἦς λαβὼν τὰ πρόβατα πρὸς κοιτασμός (l. –όν) (";folding";), P Lond 948 verso.3 (A.D. 257) (= III. p. 210) ἀνερχέστω ἐὰν ἦν π ̣αυσάμεν ̣ος τοῦ ἀχύρου. The wholly exceptional Luke 23:19 B ἦν. . βληθείς may be compared, but there the sense is aoristic : cf. Robertson Gr. p. 860. (d) imperfect : P Oxy I. 115.5 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 96) ὅσα ἦν καθήκοντα ἐποίησα, Syll 929.81 ὅπερ οὐκ ἦν ἐνδεχόμενον : cf. also ib. 927.22 (ii/B.C.) ὡς ἁρμ ]όζον ἦν, and Pelagia-Legenden, p. 18.7 ἦν. . . ἀκούσασα. (e) plu-perfect : P Par 8.7 (B.C. 129) ὧν ἤμην δι᾽ αὐτῶν [π ]αραμε [μετ ]ρηκ [υῖα, P Oxy II. 285.10 (c. A.D. 50) ἀφήρπασεν ὃν ἤμην ἐνδεδυμένο (l. –ος) χιτῶνα λ ̣ε ̣ι ̣νοῦν. On how far all these periphrastic constructions are due to Semitic influence, see Proleg. p. 226 f.
For οὐκ ἔστι = ";it is impossible,"; as in 1 Corinthians 11:20, Hebrews 9:5, cf. P Par 47.23 (c. B.C. 153) (= Selections, p. 23) οὐκ ἔστι ἀνακύψα <ι με > πόποτε ἐν τῇ Τρικομίαι ὑπὸ τῆς αἰσχύνης, ";it is impossible ever to show my face in Tricomia for very shame";; for πρέπον ἐστί, as in Matthew 3:15, cf. P Oxy I. 120.24 (iv/A.D.) τὰ κατὰ σὲ διοίκησον ὡς πρέπον ἐστίν, ";see that matters are properly conducted on your own part"; (Edd.), and for δέον ἐστί, as in Acts 19:36, cf. P Oxy IV. 727.19 f. (A.D. 154) ἃ ἐὰν [δ ]έον ἦν followed by πρὸς οὓς ἐὰν δέῃ, and the exx. cited s.v. δέον. In P Oxy VI. 899.40 (A.D. 200) δ ̣ε ̣ον οὖν τὴν μεταδιαταγὴν ἑτέροις γενέσθαι κατὰ τὰ γραφέντα ὑπο ̣̣ σ ̣οῦ, ";the change in appointment of other cultivators ought accordingly to take place in conformity with your letter"; (Edd.), ἐστί is omitted as in 1 Peter 1:6 א*B.
With the idiomatic use of ὁ ὤν in Acts 13:1 κατὰ τὴν οὖσαν ἐκκλησίαν, ";in the local church,"; and ib. 14.13 D τοῦ ὄντος Διὸς πρὸ πόλεως where τοῦ ὄντος is almost equivalent to τοῦ ὀνομαζομένου (see Ramsay CRE, p. 52), cf. P Lond 1168.5 (A.D. 18) (= III. p. 136) ἐπὶ ταῖς οὔσαις γειτνίαις, also such phrases as PSI III. 229.11 (ii/A.D.) τοῦ ὄντος μηνὸς ̣ Τῦβι, ";the current month Tubi,"; P Oxy XII. 1583.11 (ii/A.D.) γράψον μοι περὶ τῶν ὄντων ὄντων (omit) καὶ τὰ γενόμενα. With 1 Corinthians 1:28 we may compare P Leid Wvii. 9 (ii/iii A.D.) σὲ μόνον ἐπικαλοῦμαι. . . τὸν ἑαυτὸν (omit) ἀλλάξαντα σεαυτὸν μορφαῖς ἁγίαις καὶ ἐκ μὴ ὄντων εἶναι ποιήσαντα, καὶ ἐξ ὄντων μὴ εἶναι.
For Romans 13:1 see P Par 5.4 (B.C. 114) ἐφ᾽ ἱερέων καὶ ἱερειῶν καὶ κανηφόρου τῶν ὄντων καὶ οὐσῶν, and note P Petr III. 42 F (a).1 (mid. iii/B.C.) ἐφ᾽ ἱερέως τοῦ ὄντος Ἀλεξάνδρου καὶ τῶν θεῶν, ";in the time of the priest who is (priest) of Alexander and the gods,"; the form of expression implying ignorance of the name of the priest of a new year : the editors remark on this very early occurrence of a usage which afterwards became common.
Ἐστὶ δέ is found at the head of lists, as in PSI III. 160.13 (A.D. 149), P Flor III. 321.5 (iii/A.D.), P Grenf II. 77.16 (iii/iv A.D.) (= Selections, p. 121), al. For τουτέστιν, which is always written τοῦτ᾽ ἔστιν by WH in the NT, see P Flor II. 157.4 (iii/A.D.) εἰς [τ ]ὸ ἔργον ἐκεῖνο τὸ τῆς Θεω [ξ ]ένιδος τουτέστιν τὸ τ ̣ῆς ἄμμου, PSI IV. 298.9 (iv/A.D. init.) οὐκ ι ̔ασέν με τὸν τεταγμένον χρόνο (ν) [ἐκεῖσε διαμεῖναι ?,] τ ̣ου ̣τέστιν τοὺς ἓξ μῆνας πληρῶσαι. Cf. also P Meyer 6.21 (A.D. 125) τούτου ὄντος, ";this being the case."; Εἰμί with the gen. of time, as in Mark 5:42, is seen in P Oxy II. 275.9 (A.D. 66) (= Selections, p. 55) οὐδέπω ὄντα τῶν ἐτῶν, ";not yet of age."; The present ἔστι is used in a futuristic sense in P Oxy III. 531.22 (ii/A.D.) ἔστι δὲ τοῦ Τῦβι μηνὸς σοὶ ὃ θέλεις, where a father promises his son that in the forthcoming month Tubi he will receive whatever he wishes.
The use of εἰς with a predicate (as in Acts 8:23, 1 Corinthians 4:3) can hardly be regarded as ";after a Hebrew model"; (Blass Gr. p. 85, cf. Radermacher Gr. p. 16 f.) in view of the vernacular usage of εἰς to denote destination, e.g. P Hib I. 99.10 (B.C. 270) ὁμ [ολο ]γεῖ. . ἔχε [ιν ] . . ἐς τὰ ἐκφόρια. . ἀρτ (άβας) υ ̄, ";agrees that he has received for the rent 400 artabae"; : cf. Proleg. p. 71 f. Deissmann (LAE p. 123) gives a similar instance from an official text of about ii/B.C.—Priene 50.39 τ ]αῦτα δὲ εἶναι εἰς φυλακὴν τῆς πόλεως. Other instances of εἰμί with prepositions are P Petr II. 11 (1).8 (iii/B.C.) (= Selections, p. 8) γράφε. . . ἵνα εἰδῶμεν ἐν οἷς εἶ, P Eleph 1.5 (B.C. 311–10) (= Selections, p. 2) εἶναι δὲ ἡμᾶς κατὰ ταὐτό, P Par 70.11 (Ptol.) καὶ γὰρ ὁ πάτηρ αὐτοῦ ἐστὶν ἐνταῦθα περὶ Πετόνουριν, P Petr II. 42 (b).5 (mid. iii/B.C.) εἰμὶ γὰρ πρὸς τῶι ἀποδημεῖν, BGU I. 87.20 (A.D. 144) καὶ πάντων [τῶν ] δ [ημο ]σίων πρὸ [ς ] αὐτ [ὸ ]ν ὄντων.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.