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The 1901 Jewish Encyclopedia
After the early victories of the Mohammedans and the consequent spread of Arabic civilization, the Jews of the Eastern countries became familiar with and adopted to a large extent the Arabic language; so much so that rabbis and scholars, if they desired to be understood by the masses, were compelled to write their works in that language. After the center of Jewish learning shifted from the Orient to Spain and southern France, some of these works, especially those dealing with the Halakah and Hebrew grammar, were translated from Arabic into Hebrew. In the lists of translations in this article the title of the translation is, as a rule, given in parentheses, with the date and place of publication of the first edition.
The oldest Hebrew translations from Arabic date from the eleventh century. In 1078 Isaac ben Reuben Albargeloni rendered into Hebrew, under the title "Ha-Miá¸³á¸³aá¸¥ weha-Mimkar," Hai Gaon's treatise on purchase (Venice, 1602), also Ibn Janaá¸¥'s lexicon "Kitab al-Uá¹£ul" ("Sefer ha-Shorashim"). About the same time, perhaps a little earlier, some Karaite writings were translated into Hebrew by Moses ben Tobia. At the beginning of the twelfth century Moses ben Samuel ha-Kohen ibn Gikatilla translated the two principal works of á¸¤ayyuj, the treatises on "Verbs Containing Weak Letters" and "Verbs Containing Double Letters" (edited with an English translation by John W. Nutt, London andBerlin, 1870). From the first half of the twelfth century there are a translation, or rather a paraphrase, of Saadia's" Emunot we-De'ot," and a translation of his commentary on the "Sefer Yeáºirah," both by Moses ben Joseph of Lucena. Toward the middle of the same century Ibn Ezra translated á¸¤ayyuj's grammatical works, two works on the astrology of Mashallah ("She'elot" and "Kadrut"), and a treatise on geomancy ("Sefer ha-Goralot"). About the same time Judah ben Isaac ibn Ghayyat translated a casuistical dissertation on a part of Shebu'ot.
All these translations are said by Judah ibn Tibbon, in the introduction to the "á¸¤obot ha-Lebabot," to be defective in character, their imperfections being due either to a less than thorough knowledge of Arabic or Hebrew on the part of the translators, or to the fact that the latter give their own opinions instead of those of the authors. A similar view is expressed by Judah ben Barzillai, in his commentary on the "Sefer Yeáºirah," with regard to Moses ben Joseph's translation of Saadia's commentary on that work, the Hebrew of which he declares to be unintelligible.
The Ibn Tibbons.
A new era in regard to methods of translation began with Judah see IBN TIBBON, "the father of translators." At the request of Meshullam ben Jacob and his son Asher, Judah translated, in 1161, the first treatise of Baá¸¥ya ben Joseph ibn Paá¸³uda's ethical work "Kitab al-Hidayah ila Fara'iá¸ al-á¸²ulub." After its completion Joseph á¸²imá¸¥i translated the remaining nine treatises and then the first one also. However, at the request of Abraham ben David of PosquiÃ¨res, Judah completed, under the title "á¸¤obot ha-Lebabot" (Naples, 1489), the translation of the whole work, his version gradually superseding that by á¸²imá¸¥i, of which only a small fragment has been preserved (published by Jellinek in Benjacob's edition of the "á¸¤obot ha-Lebabot," Leipsic, 1846). The translation of Baá¸¥ya's work was followed by translations of Ibn Gabirol's "Kitab Iá¹£laá¸¥al-Akhlaá¸³" ("Tiá¸³á¸³un Middot ha-Nefesh, "Constantinople, 1550), Judah ha-Levi's "Kitab al-á¸¤ujjah" ("Sefer ha-Kuzari," Fano, 1506), Ibn Janaá¸¥'s "Kitab al-Luma'" ("Sefer ha-Riá¸³mah," ed. B. Goldberg, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1856) and "Kitab al-Uá¹£ul" ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," ed. W. Bacher, Berlin, 1896), and Saadia's "Kitab al-Amanat wal-I'tiá¸³adat" ("Sefer ha-Emunot weha-De'ot," Constantinople, 1562). To Judah ibn Tibbon is attributed also, although on very slight grounds, the translation of the collection of maxims "Mibá¸¥ar ha-Peninim," usually ascribed to Ibn Gabirol, and of Aristotle's "Posterior Analytics." In all these translations Judah endeavored to render faithfully the very words of the authorsâby no means an easy task, considering the richness of the Arabic vocabulary and the poverty of the Hebrew.
Literal Method of Translation.
In order to reproduce the abstract ideas found in the philosophical writings new word-forms and technical terms had to be established. These word-forms and technical terms were naturally modeled after those of the Arabic, which, in their turn, were literal translations from the Greek. It is not surprising, therefore, that in the Hebrew versions of the philosophical writings there are many expressions which are unintelligible to those unacquainted with the Arabic terminology; but this can not be imputed as a fault to the translator, who could not find in Hebrew words adequate to the expression of abstract ideas, Hebrew being essentially the language of a people of concrete ideas. Judah's work is nevertheless far from being above criticism; it contains many faults which are due either to the translator's limited knowledge of Hebrew or to his misunderstanding of the original. Desiring to be faithful to the latter, Judah, like all the translators who took him as their guide, invariably rendered each Arabic word into an equivalent in Hebrew, without considering that a literal translation is not always possible and that some sentences must necessarily be recast in order to make them intelligible to a reader who is a stranger to Arabic constructions.
Another grave defect in Judah's method of translation, and one which gave rise to many errors and misunderstandings, was that he always used the same Hebrew word as an equivalent for a given Arabic word, regardless of the variations of meaning attached to the latter. Thus, for instance, he always uses the Hebrew verb ("to stand") for the Arabic , although, according to the preposition by which the latter is followed, it may also mean "to read," "to study," etc. Yet, notwithstanding numerous faults, Judah's translations were recognized as standards and accepted as models by all the Hebrew translators of Arabic in the Middle Ages. Thus his version of the "Cuzari" superseded that made a little later by Judah ibn Cardinal, as his rendering of the "Kitab al-Uá¹£ul" superseded those made by Isaac ha-Levi and Isaac ben Judah Albargeloni.
Translation of Maimonides.
The thirteenth century was especially rich in Hebrew translations from the Arabic, and those of Samuel IBN TIBBON, the son of Judah, were prominent among them. An enthusiastic admirer of Maimonides, Samuel began by translating several of his works, the most important among which was the "Dalalat al-á¸¤a'irin," which he finished in 1190 under the title "Moreh Nebukim." Samuel clung more tenaciously than his father to the letter of the Arabic text; he even introduced Arabic words into his translations, and, by analogy with the Arabic, gave to certain Hebrew words meanings different from the accepted ones. This system of translation could but impair the intelligibility of a text difficult in itself; and thus the "Moreh" abounds in passages which are enigmatic to those who do not possess a profound knowledge of Arabic. Samuel's translation was, indeed, approved by Maimonides himself, to whom it had been sent for revision; but in such a case Maimonides was the person least qualified to judge, since, as the author of the original and an expert in Arabic, he naturally had no difficulty in reading the Hebrew version. This at least must have been the opinion of the poet Judah al-á¸¤arizi, who, at the beginning of the thirteenth century, made a new translation of Maimonides' work and accused Samuel ibn Tibbonof having intentionally obscured the text. Al-á¸¤arizi was not successful in his attempt to supersede Samuel's translation with his own, for the former was found by some critics to be more faithful to the original. Thus Shem-á¹¬ob ibn Falaquera, passing judgment upon both translations, says: "In Ibn Tibbon's translation the errors are few, and if the learned translator had had time he certainly would have corrected them; but in Al-á¸¤arizi's, mistakes are numerous and words are often given wrong meanings."
In addition to the "Moreh," Samuel translated the following works of Maimonides: a treatise on resurrection ("Iggeret," or "Ma'amar Teá¸¥iyyat ha-Metim"); the Mishnah commentary on Pirá¸³e Abot, with the psychological introduction ("Shemonah Peraá¸³m"); the "Thirteen Articles of Faith" ("Shelosh 'Esreh 'Iá¸³á¸³arim"); a letter addressed to Joseph ibn 'Aknin. Samuel did not confine his activity to Jewish writings, but translated works written by Arabs and bearing on philosophy and medicine. Among these were: Yaá¸¥ya ibn Baá¹riá¸³'s Arabic translation of Aristotle's "Meteora" ("Otot ha-Shamayim," or "Otot 'Elyonot"), three small treatises of Averroes ("Sheloshah Ma'amarim"), and Ali ibn Riá¸wan's commentary on the "Ars Parva" of Galen.
No less prominent in the field of translation was the above-mentioned poet Judah al-á¸¤arizi. In addition to the "Dalalat al-á¸¤a'irin," he translated Maimonides' treatise on resurrection (already rendered into Hebrew by Samuel ibn Tibbon) and his Mishnah commentary on Zera'im, á¸¤ariri of Busrah's " Maá¸³amat" ("Maá¸¥berot Itiel"), Ali ibn Riá¸wan's ethical epistle, Galen's essay against hasty interment, a treatise on the soul ("Sefer ha-Nefesh") also attributed to Galen, an originally Greek work on the "Dicta of the Philosophers" ("Mussare ha-Filosofim"), and an anonymous treatise on geomancy ("Sefer ha-Goralot").
A prolific translator, whose style, although less poetic, was more clear than that of his contemporary Al-á¸¤arizi, was Abraham ben Samuel á¸¤asdai. Among his translations are the following: the pseudo-Aristotelian "Kitab al-Tuffaá¸¥ah" ("Sefer ha-Tappuaá¸¥," Venice, 1519; frequently reprinted); Ghazali's ethical work "Mizan al-'Amal" ("Mozene áºedeá¸³," in which the translator replaced the quotations from the Koran and the Sunnah with their equivalents from Bible and Talmud; ed. Goldenthal, Leipsic, 1839); Isaac Israeli's "Kitab al-Istiá¸³at" ("Sefer ha-Yesodot"); Maimonides' "Sefer ha-Miáºwot," with his letter to the Yemenite Jews("Iggeret Teman"); and a romance presenting incidents in the life of Buddha ("Ben ha-Melek weha-Nazir," Constantinople, 1518). About the same time as the last-named work a famous book of fables was translated, under the title "Sefer Kalilah wa-Dimnah," by the grammarian Jacob ben Eleazar.
From about 1230 to 1300 the most important Arabic works on philosophy, medicine, astronomy, mathematics, and other branches of learning were translated. The leading translators of that period were Jacob Anatolio (son-in-law of Samuel ibn Tibbon), Moses IBN TIBBON, Jacob ben Machir IBN TIBBON, the Italian physician Nathan ha-Me'ati, and Zerahiah ben Isaac ben Shealtiel GRACIAN. Anatolio translated the "Almagest" of Ptolemy ("á¸¤ibbur ha-Gadol ha-Niá¸³ra al-Majesti"), the "Elements of Astronomy" by Al-Fargani, a treatise on syllogisms by Al-Farabi ("Sefer Heá¸³á¸³esh ha-á¸²aáºer"), and the first five books of Averroes' Middle Commentary on Aristotle's "Logic," consisting of the Introduction of Porphyry and the four books of Aristotle on the "Categories," "Interpretation," "Syllogisms," and "Demonstration."
Arabic Philosophy and Science.
Moses ibn Tibbon, like his father, began his career as a translator with several works of Maimonides, including the treatise on hygiene ("Miktab," or "Ma'amar be-Hanhagat ha-Beri'ut "), a mishnaic commentary (probably on Zera'im), the "Book of Precepts" ("Sefer ha-Miáºwot," Constantinople, c. 1516), the treatise on logic ("Millot ha-Higgayon," Venice, 1552), the treatise on poisons ("Ha-Ma'amar ha-Nikbad," or "Ha-Ma'amar be-á¹¬eri'ak"), and the commentary on Hippocrates' "Aphorisms." Moses' other translations are: Averroes' commentaries on Aristotle's "Physica Auscultatio" ("Kiáºáºure ibn Roshd 'al-Shema' á¹¬ib'i," Riva di Trento, 1559); "De CÅlo et Mundo" ("Kelale ha-Shamayim weha-'Olam"); "De Generatione et Corruptione" ("Sefer ha-Hawayah weha-Hefsed"); "Meteora" ("Sefer Otot ha-'Elyonot"); "De Anima" ("Kelale Sefer ha-Nefesh"); the Middle Commentary on the last-named work ("Bi'ur Sefer ha-Nefesh"); "Parva Naturalia" ("Ha-á¸¤ush weha-Muá¸¥ash"); "Metaphysica" ("Mah she-Aá¸¥ar ha-á¹¬eba'"); a commentary on Avicenna's "Arjuzah" ("Bi'ur Arguza"); Avicenna's "Small Canon" ("Ha-Seder ha-á¸²aá¹an"); Batalyusi's "Al-á¸¤ada'iá¸³" ("Ha-'Agullot ha-Ra'yoniyyot," ed. Kaufmann, Leipsic, 1880); Al-á¸¤aá¹£á¹£ar's treatise on arithmetic ("Sefer ha-á¸¤eshbon"); Euclid's "Elements" ("Shorashim," or "Yesodot"); Al-Farabi's "Book of the Principles" ("Hatá¸¥alot ha-Nimáºa'ot ha-á¹¬ib'iyyim," ed. Filipowski, Leipsic, 1849); Geminus' introduction to the "Almagest" ("âokmat ha-Kokabim," or "á¸¤okmat ha-Tekunah"); Ibn al-Yazzar's "Viaticum" ("áºedat ha-Derakim"); á¸¤unain's introduction to medical science ("Mabo el-Meleket ha-Refu'ah"); Razi's works on the division of maladies ("Ha-Hilluá¸³ weha-á¸¤illuf") and on the antidotes; á¸¤unain's translation of Themistius' commentary on the treatise "Lamda" ("Perush Ma'amar ha-Nirsham be-Ot Lamed") and of the Aristotelian physical questions ("She'elot á¹¬ib'iyyot"); Kosta ben Luka's translation of the "SphÃ¦rica" of Theodosius Tripolitanus ("Sefer Teodosiyus be-Kadur"); and Ibn Aflaá¸¥'s astronomical work "Kitab Ilahiyah."
Jacob ben Machir ibn Tibbon translated: the "Elements" of Euclid; the treatise of Kosta ben Luka on the armillary sphere; the "Data" of Euclid ("Sefer ha-Mattanot") according to the Arabic translation of Isá¸¥aá¸³ ben á¸¤unain; the treatise of Autolycus on the sphere in movement ("Ma'amar á¹¬alá¸³us"); three treatises on the sphere by Menelaus of Alexandria; Abu 'Ali ibn á¸¤asan ibn al-á¸¤aitham's astronomical work ("Ma'amar bi-Tekunah," or "Sefer 'al Tekunah"); Abu al-á¸²asim Aá¸¥mad ibn al-á¹¢affar's treatise on the use of the astrolabe; AbuMohammed Jabar ibn Aflaá¸¥'s compendium of the "Almagest"; Abu Isá¸¥aá¸³ ben al-Zará¸³alah's astronomical work ("Iggeret ha-Ma'aseh be-Luaá¸¥ ha-Niá¸³ra Sofiá¸¥ah"); the preface to Abraham bar á¸¤iyya's astronomical work; an extract from the "Almagest" on the arc of a circle; Averroes' compendium of the "Organon" ("á¸²iáºáºur mi-Kol Meleket Higgayon," Riva di Trento, 1559); Averroes' paraphrase of books - of Aristotle's history of animals; Ghazali's "Mizan al-'Uyun," in which are refuted the philosophical ideas antagonistic to religion ("Mozene ha-'Iyyunim").
Nathan ha-Me'ati, called the "Prince of Translators" and the "Italian Tibbonide," translated the following medical works: 'Ammar ben 'Ali al-Mauá¹£uli's "Al-Muntaá¸¥ib fi 'Ilaj al-'Ain," on the treatment of the eye; the "Canon" of Avicenna; the aphorisms of Hippocrates, with Galen's commentary; the aphorisms of Maimonides, and a selection from various authors, chiefly from Galen ("Pirá¸³e Moá¹£heh," Lemberg, 1804). Many anonymous translations are attributed to Nathan ha-Me'ati: Razi's treatise on bleeding ("Ma'amar be-Haá¸³á¸³azah"); Zahrawi's "Kitab al-Taá¹£rif" (Hebrew title, "áºeruf"); Ibn Zuhr's "Kitab al-Aghdhiyah" ("Sefer ha-Mezonot"); an anonymous work on the causes of eclipses ("Ma'amar 'al Libbot Liá¸³á¸³ut ha-Me'orot"). A translation of Galen's commentary on Hippocrates' work "On Airs, Waters, and Places," begun by Nathan, was completed in 1299 by his son Solomon, whose son Samuel in turn concluded the translation of an extract from Galen's commentary on Hippocrates' work "On Regimen in Acute Diseases," and the translation of a medical work by Ibn Zuhr.
Zerahiah ben Isaac ben Shealtiel. Gracian translated: Aristotle's "Physics" ("Sefer ha-á¹¬eba'"), "Metaphysics" ("Mah she-Aá¸¥ar ha-á¹¬eba'"), "De CÅlo et Mundo" ("Ha-Shamayim weha-'Olam"), "De Anima" ("Sefer ha-Nefesh"), and "De Causis" ("Ha-Bi'ur ha-á¹¬ob ha-Gamur"); Averroes' Middle Commentaries on Aristotle's "Physics," "Metaphysics," and "De CÅlo et Mundo," with the commentary of Themistius on the last-named work; the first two books of Avicenna's "Canon"; Al-Farabi's "Risalah fi Mahiyyat al-Nafs" ("Ma'amar be-Mahut ha-Nefesh"); a medical work of Galen from the Arabic of á¸¤unain ibn Isá¸¥aá¸³ ("Sefer ha-á¸¤ola'im weha-Miá¸³rim"); three chapters of Galen's ÎÎ±ÏÎ±Î³ÎµÎ½Î®, with the same title in Hebrew characters; Maimonides' treatise on sexual intercourse; the "Aphorisms" of Maimonides.
The other translations of the second half of the thirteenth century were by:
- Albalag, Isaac: Ghazali's "Maá¸³aá¹£id al-Falasifah": Elijah Cohen's "Maá¸³amah" (similar to the "Assemblies" of á¸¤ariri), under the title "Megillat ha-'Ofer."
- Almoli, Nethaneel: Maimonides' commentary on á¸²odashim.
- á¸¤ayyim ibn Vives: Farewell letter of Ibn Sa'igh to 'Ali ben 'Abd al-'Aziz ibn al-Imam, of Granada.
- Jacob ben Moses ibn 'Abbasi: Maimonides' commentary on Nashim.
- Joseph al-Fawwal: Maimonides' Mishnah commentary on Mo'ed.
- Ma'arabi, Nahum: Maimonides' "Iggeret Teman" ("Petaá¸¥. Tiá¸³wah"); Isaac Israeli's, or Jacob ben Nissim's, commentary on the "Sefer Yeáºirah"; Joseph ibn áºaddiá¸³'s "Microcosmos" ("Ha-'Olam ha-á¸²aá¹an"); Saadia's commentary on the thirteen hermeneutic rules of R. Ishmael ("Shelosh-'Esreh Middot").
- Shem-á¹¬ob ibn Falaquera: Ibn Gabirol's "Meá¸³or á¸¤ayyim."
- Shem-á¹¬ob ben Isaac: Averroes' Middle Commentary on "De Anima"; Razi's "Al-Maná¹£uri"; Zahrawi's "Al-Taá¹£rif."
- Solomon ibn Ayyub: Averroes' "De CÅlo et Mundo"; Avicenna's "Arjuza"; Ibn Janaá¸¥'s "Kitab al-Taswiyah"; Maimonides' "Kitab al-Fara'iá¸."
- Solomon ibn Ya'aá¸³ub: Maimonides' commentary on Neziá¸³in.
A great number of Arabic works on mathematics, medicine, astronomy, and philosophy, especially by Averroes, were translated during the fourteenth century. The leading translator in the first twenty years of that century was KALONYMUS BEN KALONYMUS BEN MEÃR (Maestro Calo), who rendered the following Arabic works into Hebrew:
- Al-Farabi's treatise on the intellect ("Ma'amar be-Sekel weha-Muskal").
- Al-Farabi's division of the sciences ("Ma'amar be-Mispar ha-á¸¤okmot").
- Al-Farabi's treatise on the method of studying philosophy ("Iggeret be-Siddur á¸²eri'at ha-á¸¤okmot").
- Al-Kindi's treatises on nativities ("Iggeret be-á¸²iáºáºur ha-Ma'amar be-Moladot") and on the influence of the heavenly bodies on rain ("Iggeret be 'Illot").
- Al-Kindi's treatise on humidity and rain ("Iggeret be-Laá¸¥it ube-Maá¹ar").
- 'Ali Ibn Riá¸wan's "Kitab al-'Imad fi Uá¹£ul al-á¹¬ibb" ("Ha-'Ammad be-Shoroshe ha-Refu'ah").
- Archimedes' treatise on the sphere and the cylinder, from the version of Kosta ben Luka.
- Averroes' commentaries on the "Topics" ("Bi'ur Sefer á¹¬obiá¸³i") and on "Sophisms" ("Bi'ur Sufisá¹iá¸³a").
- Averroes' Great Commentary on the "Second Analytics " ("Bi'ur Sefer ha-Mofet").
Translations of Averroes.
- Averroes' Middle Commentaries on "Physics"; on "De Generatione et Corruptione" ("Sefer ha-Hawayah weha-Hefsed"); on "Meteora" ("Otot ha-Shamayim").
- Averroes' Middle Commentary on the "Metaphysics" ("Sefer Mah she-Aá¸¥ar ha-á¹¬eba'").
- Averroes' dissertations on the first book of the "First Analytics."
- Commentary on the ÎÎ±ÏÏÏÏ of Ptolemy, from the Arabic version of Abu Ja'far Aá¸¥mad ben Yusuf ben Ibrahim ("Sefer ha-Peri ha-Niá¸³ra Me'ah Dibburim").
- Galen's treatise on clysters and colic, from the version of á¸¤unain ibn Isá¸¥aá¸³ ("Sefer Galyanus be-á¸¤aá¸³na ube-Kulga").
- Galen's essay on bleeding ("Sefer Galyanus be-Haá¸³á¸³azah").
- NichomÃ¦us of Gerasa's treatise on arithmetic, with a commentary of Abu Sulaiman Rabiya ibn Yaá¸¥ya.
- Ptolemy's treatise on the planets ("Be-'Inyane ha-Kokabim ha-Nebukim").
- Thabet ibn Kurrah's work on geometry, "Fi al-Shakl al-á¸²uá¹á¹a" ("Sefer ha-Temunah ha-á¸¤ittukit").
- Treatise on the triangle by Abu Sa'adan.
- Treatise on mathematical propositions ("Sefer Meshalim be-Tishboret").
- Treatise on Euclid's five geometrical bodies in relation to the theory of Apollonius, and the commentary of Simplicius.
- Treatise on cylinders and cones ("Ma'amar be-Iáºá¹awwonot ube-á¸¤iddudim").
- Treatise on plants, attributed to Aristotle, with Averroes' commentary ("Sefer ha-áºemaá¸¥im").
- Treatise on animals ("Iggeret Ba'ale á¸¤ayyim"), from the twenty-first treatise of the encyclopedia of the Brethren of Sincerity (Mantua, 1557).
Another important translator from the Arabic, and of the same period, was Samuel ben Judah (Bonjudas) Males. His translations include:
- Abu Abdallah Mohammed ibn Mu'ad of Seville on the eclipse of the sun, July 3,1097, and on the dawn ("Iggeret be-'Ammud ha-Shaá¸¥ar").
- Abu Isá¸¥aá¸³ al-Zará¸³alah on the movement of the fixed stars ("Ma'amar be-Tenu'at ha-Kokabim ha-á¸²ayyamim").
- Abu Mohammed Jabbar ibn Aflaá¸¥'s compendium of the "Almagest."
- Alexander of Aphrodisias on the intellect ("Ma'amar Aleksander al-Firduzi").
- Averroes' Middle Commentary on Aristotle's "Nichomachean Ethics."
- Averroes' commentary on Plato's "Republic."
- Averroes' Short Commentary on the "Organon"; on geometrical bodies (books and of Euclid), a supplement to the translation of Kalonymus ben Kalonymus; commentary on the "Almagest," -
- Dissertations on some obscure passages of Averroes' commentary on the "Organon," by Abu al-á¸²asim ibn Idris, Abu al-á¸¤ajjaj ibn á¹¬almus, Abu al-'Abbas Aá¸¥mad ben á¸²asim, and 'Abd al-Raá¸¥man ben Tahir.
Other Arabic works were translated in the fourteenth century by:
- Ibn Vives al-Lorqui: Various books of the "Short Canon" of Avicenna.
- Isaac ben Joseph ibn Pulgar: Ghazali's "Maá¸³aá¹£id al-Falasifah" ("Kawwanot ha-Filosuflm").
- Isaac ben Nathan of Cordova: Maimonides' "Maá¸³alah fi al-Tauá¸¥id" ("Ma'amar ha-Yiá¸¥ud"), Tabrizi's commentary on Maimonides' twenty-five premises, and probably Joseph ibn 'Aknin's metaphysical essay.
- Joseph ben Abraham ibn Waá¸³á¸³ar: A medical work ("Sefer Refu'ot") and Zahrawi's "Kitab al-Taá¹£rif."
- Moses ben Samuel ben Asher: Averroes' commentary on "Logic."
- Moses ben Solomon of Beaucaire: Averroes' Great Commentary on the "Metaphysics."
- Nathan Judah ben Solomon: Ibn Abi á¹¢alt Umayya's medical work ("Kelal á¸²aáºer weha-Sammim ha-Nifradim") and Ghazali's "Maá¸³aá¹£id" ("Kawwanot ha-Filosuflm").
- Nethaneel ben Meshullam (or Menahem ben Nethaneel): Judah ibn Balaam's treatise on the Hebrew accents ("Horayyat ha-á¸²ore").
- Samuel Motot: Abraham ibn Daud's "Al-'Aá¸³idah al-Rafl'ah" ("Emunah Ramah"; the same work was translated, under the title "Emunah Nisa'ah," by Solomon Labi). Samuel Motot translated also passages from pseudo-Ibn Ezra ("Sefer ha-'Aáºamim").
- Shem-á¹¬ob Ardotial: Isaac Israeli's ritual work ("Miáºwot Zemaniyyot").
- Samson ben Solomon: The compendium of Galen's writings by the Alexandrians ("Ha-á¸²ibbuáºim le-Aleksandriyim").
- Solomon Dapiera: Moses ben Tobi's commentary on the didactic poem "Al-Saba'niyyah" ("Batte ha-Nefesh").
- Solomon ibn Patir: Ibn Haitham's astronomical work "á¸²aul fi á¸¤i'at al-'Alam."
- Todros Todrosi: Averroes' Middle Commentaries on the "Poetics" and "Rhetoric," the three essays against Avicenna, the treatise on the intellect, Avicenna's "Naja," and Al-Farabi's philosophical questions, "'Uyun al Masa'il" ("'En Mishpaá¹ ha-Derushim").
- âAverroes' treatise against Ghazali's "Tahafut al-Falasifah" ("Happalat ha-Happalah").
- âGhazali's answers to philosophical questions ("Ma'amar bi-Teshubot She'elot Nish'al Mehem").
- âPseudo-Ibn Ezra's "Sefer ha-'Aáºamim," and Joseph ibn Waá¸³á¸³ar's and Solomon ibn Ya'ish's supercommentaries on Ibn Ezra's commentary on the Pentateuch.
With the fourteenth century the era of translations from the Arabic was practically closed, only a few works being translated during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. These were:
- á¸¤ayyim ibn Musa: A medical work of Al-Jazzar.
- Isaac ben Joseph Alfasi: Ghazali's "Mishkat al-Anwar" ("Mashkit ha-Orot we-Pardes ha-Niáºanim").
- Maáºliaá¸¥ of Galilee and Solomon Ma'arabi: Isaac Alfasi's rules relating to the treatise Ketubot.
- Moses Galina: An astronomical treatise of Omar ibn Mohammed Meá¹£uman ("Sefer Mezuá¸³á¸³aá¸³"). Moses Galina translated also a work on astrology ("Mishpaá¹ ha-Mabbaá¹im") and one on geomancy ("Sefer ha-Goralot").
- Moses ben Joseph Aruvas: The pseudepigraphic work known as the Aristotelian "Theology."
- Saadia ben David al-Adeni: Ghazali's "Zakat al-Nufus." (Saadia declared this to be his own work.)
- Taná¸¥um Moses of Beaucaire: Hippocrates' "Prognostics" ("Panim le-Panim").
- Zerahiah ha-Levi Saladin: Ghazali's "Tahafut al-Falasifah" ("Mappalat ha-Pilusuflm").
Several translations from the Arabic were made in the second half of the nineteenth century: Reckendorf translated the Koran (Leipsic, 1857); Joseph Derenbourg translated Maimonides' commentary on Seder á¹¬ohorot (Berlin, 1887-89); fragments of Saadia's commentaries on Proverbs, Isaiah, and Job were translated by Derenbourg, Meyer Lambert, and Wilhelm Bacher; Isaac BroydÃ© translated Bahya's "Ma'ani al-Nafs" ("Torot ha-Nefesh," Paris, 1896).
The following are among the numerous works translated anonymously by Jewish authors:
- Sahl ibn Bishr, astrological work, under the title "Kelalim";
- works attributed to Isaac Israeli: (1) "Kitab al-Adwiyat al-Mufridah wal-Aghdhiyah," on diet ("Sefer Meá¸¥ubbar mi-Ma'amar ha-Rishonim be-á¹¬eba ha-Mezonot we-Koá¸¥atam"); (2) "Kitab al-Bul" ("Sefer Meá¸¥ubbar mi-Ma'amar ha-Rishonim be-Yedi'at ha-Sheten"); (3) "Kitab, al-á¸¤ummayat"; (4) "Aphorisms" ("Musar ha-Rofe'im");
- Saadia's "Emunot";
- Hai Gaon's treatise on oaths ("Mishpeá¹e Shebu'ot");
- Responsa of the Geonim (Naá¹ronai, Saadia, Sherira, Hai);
- Japheth ben Ali's commentary on the Pentateuch;
- Joshua's "Teshubot ha-'Iá¸³á¸³arim" and Bereshit Rabbah;
- Judah ibn Baalam's works on homonyms ("Kitab al-Tajnis"), on the particle ("Otot ha-'Inyanim"), and on Verba Denominativa," "Al-Af'al al-Mushtaá¸³á¸³ah min al-Asma" ("Ha-Po'alim Shehem me-Gizrot ha-Shemot");
- Moses ibn Ezra's "Kitab al-á¸¤ada'iá¸³ fi Ma'ani al-Mujaz wal-á¸¤aá¸³iá¸³ah" ("'Arugat ha-Bosem");
- Joseph ibn áºaddiá¸³'s "Microcosm" ("'Olam á¸²aá¹an");
- Maimonides' treatises on the calendar ("Sefer ha-'Ibbur"), on happiness, "Maá¸³alah fl al-Sa'adah" ("Pirá¸³e ha-Haáºlaá¸¥ah"), and on forced conversions ("Iggeret ha-Shemad"), responsa on hemorrhoids, "Fi al-Bawasir" ("Ha-Ma'amar be-Refu'at ha-á¹¬eá¸¥arim"), on sexual intercourse, "Fi al-Jama'ah" ("Ma'amar ha-Mishgal"), and on poisons, "Al-Sumum wal-Mutaá¸¥arriz min al-Adwiyah al-á¸²italah," and the commentary on Hippocrates' "Aphorisms";
- Joseph ibn 'Aá¸³nin's" Maá¸³alah fl á¹¬ibb al-Nafs" ("Marpe le-Nefesh");
- Abraham Maimonides' "Kifayah";
- Moses Abulafla's theological work "Ma'amar Elohi";
- Joseph ibn Naá¸¥mias' astronomical work "Nur al-'Alam" ("Or 'Olam");
- Joseph ibn Waá¸³á¸³ar's work on the Seflrot.
The oldest known Hebrew translation from the Latin belongs to the thirteenth century. About 1250 Solomon ben Moses Melgueiri translated the treatise known as "De Somno et Vigilia" and attributed to Aristotle ("Ha-Shanah weha-Yeá¸³iáºah"); Averroes' commentary on the third book of Aristotle's "Metaphysics"; Avicenna's "De CÅlo et Mundo"; and MatthÃ¦us Platearius' "De Simplici Medicina." About the same time Berechiah ben Naá¹ronai Krespia ha-Naá¸³dan gave a Hebrew version of Adelard of Bath's "QuÃ¦stiones Naturales," and of a "Lapidary" containing a description of sixty-three kinds of stones. Toward the end of the same century Samuel ben Jacob of Capua rendered into Hebrew, under the general title "Meha-'Eáºah weha-á¹¬eba'im," the Latin version "De Medicamentarum Purgationum Delectio," or "Castigatione," of a work of Mesue the Elder. About the same time Hillel ben Samuel translated the Latin version of Hippocrates' "Aphorisms" by Constantinus Africanus, and "Chirurgia Burni."
From the Latin.
The fourteenth century, an age of translations from the Arabic, was equally fertile in translations from the Latin. About 1305 Estori Fará¸¥i translated, under the title "Targum Sefer Refu'ot," Armengaud Blaise's "De Remediis," and, under the title "Sefer ha-Kibbusim," an anonymous work on purgatives that had been rendered into Latin from the Arabic by Elijah ben Judah. In 1320 Hezekiah ben á¸¤alafta gave a Hebrew version of Petrus Hispanus' treatise on logic ("Higgayon"). About the sametime Samuel ben Benveniste translated, under the title "Menaá¸¥em Meshib Nafshi," Boethius' "De Consolatione PhilosophiÃ¦." In 1327 Israel Caslari translated, under the title "Ma'amar be-Hanhagat ha-Beri'ut," Arnaud de Villeneuve's "Regimen Sanitatis."
More important than the above translations from the Latin were those made by Leone Romano, who, toward the middle of the same century, rendered into Hebrew the following works: Ãgidius, "De Esse et Essentia" ("Ma'amar ha-Nimáºa weha-Meáºi'ut"); his treatises on the faculties of the soul("Ma'amar Hebdale Koá¸¥ot ha-Nefesh we-á¸¤illuá¸³ehem"), and on syllogisms ("Ma'amar ha-Hawayah ha-Heá¸³á¸³eshiyyah"); his commentary on the third book of Aristotle's "De Anima"; and extracts from the commentary on Aristotle's "De Demonstratione"; Albertus Magnus' commentary on the third book of Aristotle's "De Anima," and various extracts from Albertus Magnus' works; Alexander the Minarite's glosses to Aristotle's "Metaphysics"; extracts from Angelo de Camerino's works; the "Liber de Causis" ascribed to Aristotle; Thomas Aquinas' "Treatise on Ideas," and extracts from his "Contra Gentiles" ("Neged ha-Ummot"); Averroes' "De Substantia Orbis" ("'Eáºem ha-Shamayim"); Boethius' "De Unitate et Uno" ("Ma'amar ha-Eá¸¥ad weha-Aá¸¥adut"). Other translations from the Latin were as follows: Johannes Paulinus' treatise on the medical virtues of the skin of the serpent ("Ma'amar bi-Segullot 'Or ha-Naá¸¥ash"), by David ibn Bilia; Francesco dei Cenneli's, Gentile da Foligno's, and John of Burgundy's "Consilia" ("'Eáºah"), by Joshua of Bologna; Arnaud de Villeneuve's treatise "De Vinis" ("Ha-Dibbur be-Yenot"), and Bernard of Gordon's and Gilbert's treatises on fevers, both translated by Judah Nathan ("En Bongodas" and "Bonjues"); Bernard de Gordon's "Lilium MedicinÃ¦" ("Peraá¸¥ ha-Refu'ot"), by Moses ben Samuel of Roccambra (John of Avignon) and by Jekuthiel ben Solomon of Narbonne ("Shoshan ha-Refu'ah"); Leon's "Historia de PrÅliis" ("Toledot Aleksander"), by Immanuel ben Jacob Bonfils; Bernard Alberti's "Materia Medica" ("Mebo ha-Melek"), Arnaud de Villeneuve's "Medicationis ParabolÃ¦" and his work on digestion and purgatives, the commentary of Gerard de Solo on the ninth book of Razi's "Al-Manáºuri," and Petrus Hispanus' treatise on logic, all by Abraham Abigdor (Bonet) ben Meshullam ben Solomon; Gerard de Solo's commentary on the ninth book ("Pathology") of Razi and his manual of medicine ("Meyashsher ha-Matá¸¥ilim"), a chapter on the relation between astronomy and medicine attributed to Hippocrates, and Bernard de Gordon's "Lilium MedicinÃ¦" and "Prognostic," all by Leon Joseph of Carcassonne; Arnold de Villeneuve's "Digestiva," by Todros ben Moses Yom-á¹¬ob; Arnold de Villeneuve's "De Judiciis AstronomiÃ¦" ("Panim la-Mishpaá¹") and Sacrobosco's "SphÃ¦ra Mundi" ("Moreh ha-Ofannim"), by Solomon ben Abraham Abigdor (the first work was translated by him at the age of fifteen); Arnold de Villeneuve's "Tabula Super Vita Brevis," by Bonenfante of Milhaud; Ibn Rijal's astronomical work from the Latin version of Ãgidius or of Petro de Regio ("Mishpaá¹e ha-Kokabim,"), by Solomon ben David Davin.
The fifteenth century was for the Hebrew translations from the Latin what the fourteenth was for those from the Arabic; it was the richer in literary productions, but with it the era of translations closed. The most important of the translated works in that century were:
- Abraham ben Joseph ben Naá¸¥mias: Thomas Aquinas' commentary on Aristotle's "Metaphysics."
- Abraham Solomon Catalan: Albertus Magnus' "Philosophica Pauperum" ("á¸²iáºáºur ha-Filosofla ha-á¹¬ib'it"), and Marsilius' "Questions" on the "Isagoge" of Porphyry, on the Categories," and on hermeneutics.
- Abu al-Khair: Albubather's "Liber de Nativitatibus" ("Sefer ha-Moladot") and Rajil's astronomical work "Completus."
- Asher ben Moses Valabrega: Guy de Chauliac's "Chirurgia Parva."
Medieval Science and Philosophy.
- Azariah ben Joseph ben Abba Mari: Boethius' "De Consolatione PhilosophiÃ¦," the twenty-eighth book of Zahrawi's "Liber PracticÃ¦" (after the Latin of Simon of Genoa), the second book of the "Simplicia" of Dioscorides, and Gerard de Sabbionetta's astronomical work "Theorica."
- Baruch ben Isaac ibn Ya'ish: Aristotle's "Metaphysics" and the tales, "Gesta Romanorum" ("Sefer á¸¤anok"), of Petrus Alfonsis.
- Benjamin ben Isaac of Carcassonne: Juan de Burgundia's treatise on the spread of the plague ("Be-'Ippush ha-Awwir weha-Deber," or "'Ezer Eloah").
- David ben Jacob MeÃ¯r: John of GmÃ¼nd's astronomical work.
- David ibn Shoshan ben Samuel of Avignon: Thomas Bicot's "Textus Abbreviatus Aristotelis, Super VIII. Libros PhysicÃ¦ et Tota Naturalis Philosophia" ("Toledot Adam").
- Elijah ben Joseph á¸¤abillo: Thomas Aquinas' "QuÃ¦stiones DisputatÃ¦," "QuÃ¦stio de Anima," "De Anima Facultatibus" ("Ma'amar be-Koá¸¥ot ha-Nefesh," published by Jellinek in "Philosophie und Kabbalah," Leipsic, 1854), and "De Universalibus"; Questions on Thomas Aquinas' treatise on "Being and Quality" ("She'elot Ma'amar be-Nimáºa ube-Mahut"); Occam's "Summa Totius Logices" and "QuÃ¦stiones PhilosophiÃ¦"; Aristotle's "De Causa"; and Vincenz de Beauvais's "De Universalibus."
- Ephraim Mizraá¸¥i: Georg Purbach's astronomical work "Theorica" ("á¹¬e'oriá¸³a ha-Niá¸³ra Mahaiak ha-Kokabim").
- Isaac Cabret (or Cabrit): John Sancto Amanelo's "Expositio in Antidotarium Nicolai."
- Joseph ben Benveniste: Joshua ben Joseph ibn Vives al-Lorqui's treatise on the effects of nourishment, and on the simple and compound medicaments ("Gerem ha-Ma'alot").
- Judah Shalom (Astruc) ben Samuel: Petrus Hispanus' "Parva Logica" and his commentary on Hippocrates' "Aphorisms."
- MeÃ¯r Alguadez: Aristotle's "Ethics" and "Economics."
- Mordecai Finzi: The Alfonsine Tables.
- Moses ben Abraham of NÃ®mes: The Alfonsine Tables.
- Moses ben Maáºliaá¸¥: Serapion's "Simplicia," from the Latin of Gerard de Cremona.
- Phinehas ben áºebi ben Nethaneel: Raimundus Lullus' "Ars Brevis."
- Solomon ben Moses Shalom: Antonius Guainerius' "De Febribis" ("Kelal meha-á¸²addaá¸¥ut") and Bartolomeo Montagnana's "Consilium" ("Meha-'Eáºah").
- Thaddeus: Treatise on fevers ("Kelal á¸²aáºer 'al Minhag ha-á¸²addaá¸¥ut").
After the sixteenth century Hebrew translations from the Latin became very scarce. The few works translated included: a treatise on eclipses of the sun and moon ("Ma'amar Nikbad be-Liá¸³á¸³uyot Shamshiyyot we-Yeraá¸¥iyyot"), by Moses ben Abraham Sahlun; Albertus' (Magnus?) "Questions and Answers on the Six Natural Things Required by the Body According to the Science of Medicine," by Moses ibn á¸¤abib; an ethical work ("áºemaá¸¥ áºaddiá¸³," Venice, 1600), by Leon de Modena; Thomas Aquinas' "Summa TheologiÃ¦ Contra Gentiles," by Joseph áºahalon; the letters of Seneca, by Judah Leon ben Eliezer Brieli (published in "Kerem á¸¤emed," 2:119 et seq.); Spinoza's "Ethics," by Solomon Rubin ("á¸¤eá¸³er Eloah"); the thirteenth chapter of Tacitus' history, by Solomon Mandelkern.
During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries very few works of any kind were translated into Hebrew; but with the Haskalah movement in Russia and Galicia the works of prominent European writers began to be rendered into that language. The following is a list of them, given under the heading of the language from which the translations were made:English.
- Aguilar, Grace: "Vale of Cedars" ("'Emeá¸³ ha-Arazim," by Abraham Shalom Friedberg, Warsaw, 1875).
- Bunyan: "Pilgrim's Progress" (transl. by S. Hoga, London, 1845).
- Byron: "Hebrew Melodies" ("Shire Yeshurun," by Solomon Mandelkern, Leipsic, 1890).
- Cumberland, Richard: "The Jew" ("Ish Yehudi," by Joseph Brill, Wilna, 1878).
- Defoe, Daniel: "Robinson Crusoe" ("Kur 'Oni," by Isaac Moses Rumseh, Wilna, 1861).
- Disraeli, Benjamin: "David Alroy" ("á¸¤oá¹er mi-Geáºa' Yishai," by Abraham Abel Rekowski, Warsaw, 1880); "Tancred" ("Nes la-Goyim," by Judah LÃ¶b Levin, ib. 1883).
- Eliot, George: "Daniel Deronda " (transl. by David Frischman, Warsaw, 1894).
- Longfellow: "Excelsior" (transl. by Henry Gersoni, New York, 1871).
- Milton: "Paradise Lost" ("Wa-Yegaresh ha-Adam," by Isaac Edward Salkinson; also under the title "Toledot Adam we-á¸¤awwah," by Samuel Raffalowich, Jerusalem, 1892).
- Mocatta, F. D.: "The Jews in Spain" ("Ha-Yehudim bi-Sefarad," by Israel Be'er Franklin, Jerusalem, 1876); "The Jews in Spain and Portugal, and the Inquisition" (transl. by Isaac Hirsch Barth, Cracow, 1888).
- Shakespeare: "Othello" and "Romeo and Juliet" ("Itiel" and "Rom we-Ya'el," by Isaac Edward Salkinson, Vienna, 1874 and 1878).
- Spencer, Herbert: "Education, Intellectual, Moral, and Physical" ("Sefer ha-á¸¤innuk," by Judah LÃ¶b Davidovich, Warsaw, 1894).
- Zangwill, Israel: "Ghetto Tragedies" ("Maá¸¥azot ha-Geá¹á¹o," by S. L. Gordon, Warsaw, 1896).
- Bernardin de Saint Pierre: "Harmonie de la Nature" ("Sulam ha-á¹¬eba'," by Joseph Herzberg, Wilna, 1850).
- Carnot, Hippolyte: "Histoire de la ReÃ©volution FranÃ§aise" ("Ha-Mahpekah ha-áºarfatit," by Ludvipol, Warsaw, 1898).
- Daudet, Alphonse: A short novel transl. by Abraham Shalom Friedberg, in "Me-Sifrut ha-'Ammim."
- Florian, Jean Pierre Claris de: "Numa Pompilius" ("Eli'ezer we-Naftali" [?], by Aaron Margolis, Warsaw, 1864; also by Isaac Troller, Wilna, 1867).
- HalÃ©vy, Ludovic: A short novel transl. by Abraham Shalom Friedberg, in "Me-Sifrut ha-'Ammim."
- Hugo, Victor: "L'Ane" ("Ha-á¸¤amor weha-Filosof," by Wolfgang Gronich, Vienna, 1881); "La Guerre Civile" ("Milá¸¥emet ben Aá¸¥im," by J. Lewner, Warsaw, 1896); "Le Dernier Jour de la Vie d'un Condamne" (transl. by Safran, ib. 1898).
- Kahn, Zadoc: "L'Esclavage Selon la Bible et le Talmud."
- Maspero: "Histoire des Anciens Peuples de l'Orient" (transl. by Ludvipol and Joseph HalÃ©vy, Warsaw, 1898).
- MassÃ©, Victor: "Histoire d'une Miette" ("Toledot Pas Leá¸¥em," by Abraham Jacob Tiktin, Warsaw, 1882); "Une Episode de la RÃ©volution FranÃ§aise" (transl. by Moses Weissberg, ib. 1884).
- Maupassant, Guy de: "Selections" ("Ketabim Nibá¸¥arim," 7 vols., Warsaw, 1904-5, by N. Slouschz).
- Mickiewicz, Adam: "Le Livre de la Nation Polonaise et les Pelerins Polonais" ("Sefer 'Am Polonim we-Gere Polonim," by Moses Ezekiel Ascarelli, Paris, 1881).
- Racine: "Esther" (transl. by Joseph Haltren and Solomon J. Rapoport) and "Athalie" (transl. by MeÃ¯r ha-Levi Letteris, Prague, 1843).
- Scribe: "La Juive" ("Raá¸¥el ha-Yehudiyyah," by SÃ¼smann Marik, Warsaw, 1886).
- Sue, EugÃ¨ne: "Les MystÃ¨res de Paris" ("Mistere Pariz," by Kalman Schulman, Wilna, 1857-76); "Le Juif Errant" ("Ha-áºofeh be-Ereáº Nod," by Simá¸¥ah Posner, Warsaw, 1856-1873); "Les Sept PÃ©chÃ©s Capitana" ("Sheba'á¸¤aá¹á¹a'ot She'ol," by Lasar Schapira, in "Meged Yeraá¸¥im").
- Verne, Jules: "Vingt Mille Lieues sous les Mers" ("Be-Meáºulot Yam," by Isaac Wolf Sperling); "Voyage au Centre de la Terre" ("Be-Beá¹en ha-Adamah," idem).
- Zola: Three short stories translated by S. Sluschtsch Warsaw, 1898.
- Zâski, L.: Novel, published by the "Archives IsraÃ©lites," depicting Jewish life in Russia ("á¸¤atan Damim," by Abraham Jacob Bruck, Lemberg, 1878).
- Andersen: "MÃ¤rchen und ErzÃ¤hlungen" (transl. by D. Frischmann, Warsaw, 1897).
- Bernstein: "Aus dem Reiche der Natur" ("Yedi'at ha-á¹¬eba'," by D. Frischmann, ib. 1882-85); "Brahmanische Weisheit" ("Mishle Brakman," by Schorr, Lemberg, 1867).
- BÃ¶rne, Ludwig: "Briefe aus Paris" (transl. by S. J. E. Triwasch, Warsaw, 1897).
- Campe: "Theophron Musar Haskel," by Baruch SchÃ¶nfeld, Prague, 1831; transl. also by Arnopolsky, Odessa, 1863); on sea-voyages ("Massa'ot ha-Yam," by Elias Levi, Zolkiev, 1818); "SittenbÃ¼chlein" (transl. by David Zamoscz, Breslau, 1818); "Die Entdeckung Amerika's" ("Meáºi'at Ameriá¸³a," by Moses Mendelsohn, Altona, 1807; transl. also by David Zamoscz, Breslau, 1824); "Robinson der JÃ¼ngere" (transl. by David Zamoscz, ib. 1824).
- Cassel, David: "Geschichte und Literatur der Juden" (transl. by D. Radner, Warsaw, 1880).
- Eckhard: German transl. of Philo's "Legatio ad Caium" ("Malakut Filon ha-Yehudi," by Marcus Aaron GÃ¼nzburg, Warsaw, 1837).
- Ellenberger, Henri: "Die Leiden und Verfolgungen der Juden" ("áºal we-Or," by Hermann Horowitz, Presburg, 1882).
- Francolm: "Die Juden und die Kreuzfahrer" ("Ha-Yehudim be-Angliya," by Miriam Mosessohn).
- Goethe: "Faust" ("Ben Abuyah," by MeÃ¯r ha-Levi Letteris, Vienna, 1860); "Hermann und Dorothea" ("Ha-áºedeá¸³," by Marcus Rothenburg, Warsaw, 1857).
- GrÃ¤tz, Heinrich: "Geschichte der Juden" ("Dibre ha-Yamim li-Bene Yisrael," by S. P. Rabbinowitz, Warsaw, 1890).
- GÃ¼demann: "Geschichte des Erziehungswesens" ("Ha-Torah weha-á¸¤ayyim ba-Araáºot ha-Ma'arab li-Yeme ha-Benayim," by Abraham Shalom Friedberg, ib. 1893-95).
- Gustavsohn: "Sammlung von JugenderzÃ¤hlungen" (transl. by N. Pius, Warsaw, 1896-98): "Die Drei BrÃ¼der" ("Shelashot Aá¸¥im"); "Der Hirt und die KÃ¶nigstochter" ("Ha-Ro'eh we-Bat ha-Melek"); "Der Schlaflose KÃ¶nig" (the last three transl. by J. Lewner, Warsaw, 1896-98).
- Heine, Heinrich: "Judah ha-Levi," a poem (transl. by Solomon Luria, Warsaw, 1886).
- Heise, Paul: "Sulamit" (transl. by S. Gordon, ib. 1896).
- Herzberg, Frankel: "Die Vergeltung" ("Ha-Gemul," by P. Slonimsky, Odessa, 1867).
- Herzl, Theodor: "Der Judenstaat" ("Medinat ha-Yehudim," by Michel Berkovitz, Warsaw, 1896); "Das Neue Ghetto" ("Ha-Geá¹á¹o he-á¸¤adash," by Reuben Brainin, ib. 1898).
- Hoffmann, Fr.: "KÃ¶nigssohn" ("Ben ha-Melek," by Moses Samuel Sperling, Warsaw, 1876); Unredliches Gut" ("Naá¸¥alah Mebohelet," by Manus Manassewitz, Wilna, 1887).
- Honigmann: "Die Erbschaft" ("Ha-Yerushshah," by Samuel Joseph Fuenn, Wilna, 1884).
- Jellinek, A.: "Der JÃ¼dische Stamm in NichtjÃ¼dischen SprÃ¤chwÃ¶rtern" (transl. by Elimelech Wechsler, in "Ha-Asif," vol. ).
- Josephus: "JÃ¼dische AlterthÃ¼mer" ("á¸²admoniyyot ha-Yehudim," by Kalman Schulman, Wilna, 1864); "Kriege" ("Milá¸¥amot ha-Yehudim," idem, ib. 1884).
- Kayserling: "Biographische Skizze des Menasseh ben Israel" ("Toledot Manasseh ben Yisrael," by Joseph Lasar Epstein, in "Ha-Karmel," ).
- Klopstock, G.: "Der Tod Adams" ("Mot Adam," by Menahem M. Litinsky, Prague, 1817).
- Kohn, S.: "Der Retter" ("Podeh we-Maáºáºil," by Lasar Isaac Schapira, Warsaw, 1866).
- Kompert, L.: "Zwei TrÃ¼mmer" ("Shete á¸¤arabot," by SÃ¼smann Marik, St. Petersburg, 1880; transl. also by Wolf Jawetz, Warsaw, 1887).
- Kotzebue: "Der Schatz" ("Ha-Oáºer," by David Rosenhand, Warsaw, 1845); "Der Arme Poet" ("Ha-Meshorer ha-'Ani," by Isidor BrÃ¼stiger, Lemberg, 1884).
- Lazarus, M.: "Der Prophet Jeremiah" (transl. by Reuben Brainin, Warsaw, 1896).
- Lehmann, M.: "Der Graf und Jude" (transl. by Joseph LÃ¶b Petuchowsky, in "Ha-Lebanon," 1872; also by Samuel Joseph Fuenn, under the title "Ha-á¸¤illuf," Wilna, 1873); "Das Licht der Diaspora" ("Ma'or ha-Golah," by Joseph LÃ¶b Petuchowsky, ib. 1890); "Bostanai" (transl. by Samuel Joseph Fuenn, ib. 1872).
- Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim: "Nathan der Weise" ("Nathan he-á¸¤akam," by S. Bacher, Vienna, 1866; transl. also by A. B. Gottlober, who rendered the Hebrew in the same meter as the original, ib. 1874); "Philotas" ("Abinadab," by J. Falkovich, Odessa, 1868); "Die Juden" ("Ha-Yehdim," by Jacob Kohn, Warsaw, 1875; also in verse by Hirsh Teller, Vienna, 1881): "Der Freigeist" ("á¸¤onen we-Noten," by D. Kohn); " MissSara Sampson" ("Sarah Bat Shimshon," by Israel Frenkel, Warsaw, 1887); " Fabeln ("Lessing we-Sippuraw," by Moses Reicherson, New York, 1902).
- Lippert, Julius: "Kulturgeschichte" ("Toledot Hashlamat ha-Adam," by David Frischmann, Warsaw, 1894-1901).
- Maier: "Die ZerstÃ¶rung von Betar" ("Harisut Beter," by Kalman Schulman, Wilna, 1858); "Elisha ben Abuyah" (in "Safah Berurah," idem, ib. 1847).
- Manes: "Gesammelte Schriften" (transl. by Joseph Kuttner, Vienna, 1865).
- Meisel: "Die Meiselgasse" (transl. by J. Lewner, Warsaw, 1897).
- Mendelssohn, Moses: "Jerusalem" (transl. by A. B. Gottlober, Jitomir, 1867; also by Vladimir Federow, Vienna, 1876); "Die Sache Gottes" ("Ma'amar 'al ha-Hashgaá¸¥ah," by Samuel Joseph Fuenn, Wilna, 1872); "PhÃ¤don" (transl. by Isaiah Beer-Bing, Berlin, 1786).
- Mosenthal: "Deborah" (transl. by David Radner, Warsaw, 1880).
- Philippson, Ludwig: "Israelitische Religionslehre" ("Yesod ha-Dat ha-Yisraelit," by Isaac Beer Epstein, KÃ¶nigsberg, 1849); "Miriam die HasmonÃ¤erin" ("Miryam ha-á¸¤ashmonit," by Joseph Lasar Epstein, Wilna, 1863); "Spanien und Jerusalem" ("Sefarad we-Yerushalayim," by PhÃ¶bus Dicker," in "Ha-Asif," vol. ); "Die Marranen" ("Nidá¸¥e Yisrael," by Abraham Abel Rakowsky, Warsaw, 1875); "Jacob Tirado" ("Ya'aá¸³ob á¹¬irado," by Samuel Joseph Fuenn, Wilna, 1874); "Der FlÃ¼chtling aus Jerusalem" ("Ha-Palit," by Miriam Mosessohn); "'Ezra ha-Sofer" (epic poem, transl. by Solomon Mandelkern, Vienna, 1886); "Das Martyrerthum" ("á¸²iddush ha-Shem," by Zupnik, Brody, 1867; "Jojachin" (transl. by S. Bacher, Vienna, 1859).
- Reckendorf: "Geheimnisse der Juden" ("Zikronot le-Bet Dawid," by A. S. Friedberg, Warsaw, 1893-95; under the title "Mistere ha-Yehudim," the first volume was translated by Abraham Kaplan).
- Reclam: "GesundheitschlÃ¼ssel" ("Netib á¸¤ayyim," by A. Schapira, Warsaw, 1887).
- Samter: "Rabbi von Liegnitz" ("Rab le-Hoshia'," by Abraham Shalom Friedberg, Warsaw, 1886).
- Samuely: "Aus dem Finsteren" (transl. by A. Mirsky, in "Keneset Yisrael," vol. ).
- Schiller: "Spaziergang Unter den Linden" (transl. by Kalman Schulman, in "Safah Berurah," Wilna, 1847); "Philosophische Briefe" (transl. by Solomon Rubin, Lemberg, 1851); "Die ZerstÃ¶rung Troja's" ("Harisat á¹¬roya," in verse, by Micah Lebensohn, Wilna, 1851); "Die Sendung Moses" ("Dibre Emet," by Elias Levin, ib. 1866); "Die Braut von Messina" ("Medanim ben Aá¸¥im," by Jacob Levin, Brody, 1868); "Die RÃ¤uber" ("Ha-Shodedim," by Moses Schulbaum, Lemberg, 1871); "Wilhelm Tell" (transl. by David Radner, Wilna, 1878); "Don Carlos" (by the same, ib. 1879); "Marie Stuart" (transl. by Solomon Kovner, ib. 1879); "Turandot" ("Tiráºah," by Osias Atlas, Przemysl, 1879); "Fiesco" ("á¸²esher Fiesko," by Samuel Apfel, Drohobicz, 1889); "Resignation" ("Amarti Yesh Tiá¸³wah," by Neumanowitz, Warsaw, 1888). MeÃ¯r ha-Levi Letteris translated a number of pieces in "Ayyelet ha-Shaá¸¥ar," Vienna, 1860.
- Schleiden, M.: "Die Bedeutung der Juden" ("Mif'alot ha-Yehudim," by Arie Geronim Gordon, Wilna, 1882).
- Schumacher, P.: "Berenika" (transl. by David Frischmann, Warsaw, 1895).
- Steinschneider, Moritz: "Die JÃ¼dische Literatur" ("Sifrut Yisrael," by Malter, Warsaw, 1899).
- Tugendhold, W.: "Der Denunciat" ("Ha-Moser," or Aá¸¥arit Resha'," Breslau, 1847).
- Weisel, L.: "Die Goldene Strasse" ("Reá¸¥ob ha-Zahab," by J. Lewner, Warsaw, 1897); "Die Falsche Beschuldigung" ("'Alilot Shaw," by Moses Samuel Sperling, Warsaw, 1878).
- Wertheimer, Ritter von: "JÃ¼dische Lehre und JÃ¼disches Leben" ("Emet we-Mishpaá¹," by Zupnik, Drohobicz, 1883).
- Zschokke: "Das Abenteuer der Neujahrsnacht" ("Lel Shimmurim," by Isidor Margolis, Wilna, 1878).
- Dante: "Divina Commedia" ("Mar'ot Elohim," by Saul Farmiggini, Triest, 1869).
- Luzzatto, Simeon: "Discorso Circa il Stato Degli Hebrei, ch. " (transl. by Isaac Reggio, in "Iggeret Yashar," vol. ).
- Marfei: "Merope," a tragedy (transl. by Samuel Aaron Romanelli, Rome, 1903).
- Metastasio: "Isacco" ("'Aá¸³edat Yiáºá¸¥aá¸³," by Elijah Bardach, Vienna, 1833); a poem ("Teshu'at Yisrael bi-Yede Yehudit," by Franco-Mendez, RÃ¶delheim, 1804).
- Kozlowski: "Estherka," a drama ("Ma'aseh Ester," by Israel Frankel, Warsaw, 1889).
- Orzhesko: "Okanski" and "Mirtala" (transl. by Abraham Abel Rakowsky, Warsaw, 1886 and 1888).
- Paulicki: On popular medicine ("Marpe le-'Am," by Bezaleel Judah Eliasberg, Wilna, 1834, 1842; Jitomir, 1886).
- Rinaldo Rinaldini: novel ("Lahaá¸³at Shodedim," by á¸¤ayyim Goldstein, Warsaw, 1859).
- Bogron: "Poimannik" ("Ha-Nilkad be-Sheá¸¥itot Anshe Resha'," by Isaac Andres, Warsaw, 1877).
- Frug: Poems ("Kol Shire Frug," by Jacob Kaplan, Warsaw, 1898).
- Harkavy: "Judah ha-Levi" (transl. by Abraham Shalom Friedberg, in "Keneset Yisrael," vol. , 1886).
- Hufeland: "Enchiridion Medicon" ("Darke ha-Refu'ot," by Jacob Frohnberg, Jitomir, 1869).
- Krilov: Fables ("Tiá¸³á¸³un Meshalim," by Moses Reicherson, Wilna, 1860).
- Lewanda: "Genev i Milost Magnata" ("'Ir u-Behalot," by Samuel LÃ¶w Citron, in "Keneset Yisrael," 1886); "Abraham Yosefovich" ("Abraham ben Yosef," idem).
- Rabbinovich, Osip: "Shtrafnoi" ("Ben 'Onesh," by Kanelsky, Odessa, 1865).
- Turgenef: Short story transl. by Abraham Shalom Friedberg, in "Me-Sifrut ha-'Ammim."
- Cervantes: "Don Quixote" ("Abino'am ha-Gelili," by I. Fraenkel, Lemberg, 1871).
- Crescas, á¸¤asdai: "Tratado" ("Biá¹á¹ul 'Iá¸³re Dat ha-Noáºarim," by Joseph ibn Shem-á¹¬ob, published by Ephraim Deinard, Kearny, N. J., 1894).
- Escudero, Lorenzo (Abraham Peregrino): "Fortalezza del Judaismo y Confusion del EstraÃ±o" ("áºeriaá¸¥ Bet El," by Marco Luzzatto of Triest [in manuscript]).
- Morteira, Saul: "Tractado de la Verdad de la Ley" ("Torat Mosheh," by Isaac Gomez de Gosa [in manuscript]).
âFrom the Hebrew:
Aside from the Arabic versions of the Bible, the Talmud, and the prayers (with which this article is not concerned), only three Arabic translations from the Hebrew are extant: the travels of Eldad ha-Dani, by an anonymous translator; the Yosippon ("Yusuf ibn Karyun"), by Zechariah ibn Sa'id; and Isaac ibn Crispin's "Sefer ha-Musar" ("Maá¸¥asin al-Adab"), by Joseph ibn á¸¤asan, which is supposed by Steinschneider to have been itself an adaptation from the Arabic. Through the Hebrew versions of the Arabic scientific works the treasures of the East and of ancient Greece were opened to the West. Indeed, with the exception of a small number of Latin translations made directly from the Arabic, mostly with the assistance of Jewish interpreters, all the works from which the Latin world learned mathematics, astronomy, medicine, philosophy, and other sciences were translated from the Hebrew versions made from the Arabic. Although it is possible that some among the Latin translations of the twelfth century were made from the Hebrew, the oldest known dates only from the thirteenth century. About 1260 John of Capua translated, under the title "Directorium VitÃ¦ HumanÃ¦" (published by J. Derenbourg, Paris, 1887), Joel's Hebrew version of the "Kalilah wa-Dimnah." He translated also Maimonides' work on the dietary laws and Ibn Zuhr's medical work "Al-Taisir." Toward the end of the same century Armengaud Blasius translated Jacob ben Machir ibn Tibbon's treatise on the quadrant invented by the latter, under the title "Quadrans Novus" or "Quadrans Judaicus."
During the fourteenth century only a few works were translated from the Hebrew into Latin. Among these were the anonymous "Sefer ha-á¸¤innuk," on the precepts, and Abner of Burgos' "Iggeret ha-Gezerah." During the fifteenth century Latin literature was enriched with many valuable works from the Hebrew. About 1486 Elijah Delmedigo made the following translations: "QuÃ¦stiones Tres: DePrimo Motore; De Mundi Efficientia; De Esse Essentia et Uno" (Venice, 1501); "Averrois QuÃ¦stio in Libro Priorum" ("Analytics," Venice, 1497); Averroes' commentary on Plato's "Republic" ("De Regimine Civitatis"); "Averrois Commentatio [Summa] in Meteora Aristotelis," with fragments from Averroes' Middle Commentary (ib. 1488); "Averrois Commentatio [Media] in Metaph. Aristotelis," - (ib. 1560); Averroes' proem to the Large Commentary on Aristotle's "Metaphysics,"; Averroes' "De Substantia Orbis"; "Sperma." Delmedigo's protector, Pico de Mirandola, translated at the same time the commentary of Menahem Recanati on the Pentateuch, the "á¸¤okmat ha-Nefesh" ("Scientia AnimÃ¦") of Eleazar of Worms, and the "Sefer ha-Ma'alot" of Shem-á¹¬ob Falaquera. The teacher of Pico de Mirandola, Flavius Mithridates, translated thirty-eight fragments of various cabalistic works, Maimonides' epistle on resurrection, Levi ben Gershon's commentary on Canticles, and Judah's "Ma'amar ha-Hawwayah ha-Heá¸³á¸³eshiyyah" ("Sermo de Generatione Syllogismorum Simplicium et Compositorum in Omni Figura").
Very important contributions to Latin literature from the Jewish mystical writings were made at the end of the fifteenth century and at the beginning of the sixteenth by Cardinal Ãgidius de Viterbo, who translated the Zohar, "Ginnat Egoz," "Sefer Razi'el," "Ma'areket Elahut," "'Eser Sefirot," and other cabalistic works. Among the translations of purely scientific works made in the sixteenth century, the most noteworthy are those of Abraham de Balmes, Kalonymus ben Judah (Maestro Calo), Jacob Mantino, and Moses Alatino. Abraham de Balmes translated Ibn Haitham's astronomical work ("Liber de Mundo") from the Hebrew version of Jacob ben Machir ibn Tibbon, and the "farewell letter" of the Arabic philosopher Ibn Baga or Avempace ("EpistolÃ¦ Expeditionis"). Kalonymus ben Judah translated Zerahiah ha-Levi's Hebrew version of Ghazali's "Tahafut al-Falasifah" ("Destructio," Venice, 1527), Samuel ibn Tibbon's Hebrew version of Averroes' treatise on the intellect ("De Conversione Intellectus," ib.), and Moses ibn Tibbon's Hebrew version of Alpetragius' treatise on astronomy (Venice, 1531). The translations of Jacob Mantino were: "Paraphrasis Averrois de Partibus et Generatione Animalium," with the commentary of Levi ben Gershon; Averroes' compendium of Aristotle's "Metaphysics"; the Middle Commentary on Aristotle's "Isagoge"; books - of "Topics" and "Poetics" (Venice, 1550); a commentary on Plato's "Republic"; proem to the Large Commentary on the third book of Aristotle's treatise on the soul; proem to book of Aristotle's "Metaphysics"; the Middle Commentary on Aristotle's "Physics"; Averroes' medical work "Colliget"; the first book of Avicenna's "Canon"; Maimonides' "Shemonah Peraá¸³im." Moses Alatino translated Moses ibn Tibbon's Hebrew version of Themistius' paraphrase of the four books of Aristotle's "De CÅlo" (Venice, 1574); Avicenna's "Canon"; Nathan ha-Me'ati's Hebrew version of Galen's commentary on a work of Hippocrates ("De AÃ«re, Aquis et Locis"). Among other works translated into Latin in the sixteenth century were: Ezobi's "á¸²a'arat Kesef" (by Reuchlin, TÃ¼bingen, 1512-14, and Jean Mercier, Paris, 1561); Levita's "Tishbi" (by Paul Fagius, 1541, who translated also the "Alfabeta de Ben Sira" and the "Sefer Amanah"); Benjamin of Tudela's travels (by Arias Montanas); the travels of Eldad ha-Dani (by G. Genebrard, Paris, 1584); Levita's grammatical works and Maimonides' treatise on logic (by Sebastian MÃ¼nster, Basel, 1524 et seq., who translated also the Yosippon, 1529-41); and a list of the 613 commandments from "SeMaG" (1533).
Christian Translators into Latin.
With the close of the sixteenth century the era of Latin translations, from the Hebrew, of Arabic scientific works ended, and the Jews ceased to serve as intermediaries between the civilizations of the East and the West. The work dropped by them was taken up by Christians, who had acquired from Jews their knowledge of Hebrew and other Oriental languages, and who made Latin translations of many Jewish writings of the Middle Ages. Foremost among these translators, in the first half of the seventeenth century, were the Buxtorfs; the elder Buxtorf translated the Biblical concordance, "Me'ir Netib," of Isaac Nathan ben Kalonymus and the "Iggeret Shelomim" ("Institutio Epistolaris Hebraica, sive de Conscribendis Epistolis Liber, cum Epistolarum Hebraicarum Centuria," Basel, 1610); the younger Buxtorf, Johannes, translated Maimonides' "Moreh Nebukim" ("Doctor Perplexorum," Basel, 1629) and Judah ha-Levi's "Cuzari" ("Liber Cosri," ib. 1660). Among the other Jewish works translated in the same century the most noteworthy were: Lipman-MÃ¼hlhausen's "Sefer ha-Niáºáºahon" (by John Heinrich Blendinger, Altdorf, 1645); the disputations of R. Jehiel and of Naá¸¥manides; Isaac Troki's "á¸¤izzuá¸³ Emunah"; the "Toledot Yeshu"; the "travels" of R. Pethahiah and the "Megillat Wenz" (by Wagenseil); Cordovero's "Pardes Rimmonim" ("De Sanctissima Trinitate Contra JudÃ¦os," by Joseph Ciantes, Rome, 1664); Leon de Modena's dialogue on the subject of gambling (by August Pfeifer, Wittenberg, 1665; also by Thomas Hyde, Oxford, 1698, who translated Farissol's "Iggeret Orá¸¥ot 'Olam," under the title "Tractatus Itinerum Mundi," ib. 1691); the commentaries of Abravanel and others on Joshua; Moses á¸²imá¸¥i's "Introductio ad Scientiam"; Joseph Yaá¸¥ya's commentary on Daniel; "Itinerarum Benjaminis of Tudela" (by Constantin l'Empereur); the "Alphabet of Ben Sira," "Megillat Antiochus," "Otiot de Rabbi 'Aá¸³iba," a part of Eldad ha-Dani's mythical travels, and Azariah dei Rossi's "Me'or 'Enayim" (all by Bartolocci in his "Bibliotheca Magna Rabbinica"); Abravanel's commentary on Daniel (by HÃ¶ttinger); the "Idra Rabbah," the "Idra Zuá¹a," the "Sifra de-áºeni'uta," the cabalistic essays of Naphtali Herz and Jacob Elhanan, the "Sha'arha-Shamayim" of Abraham Cohen de Herrera, and several of the writings of Isaac Luria (by Knorr von Rosenroth in his "Kabbala Denudata," Sulzbach, 1677-78); Maimonides' hilkot "'Abodat Yom ha-Kippurim," "á¸¤ameáº u-Maáºáºah," "á¸²iddush ha-á¸¤odesh," "Ta'aniyot," "Seder ha-'Abodah," and "Seder ha-á¸²orbonot" (by LudwigCompiegne de Weil, who translated also Abraham Yagel's catechism, "Leá¸³aá¸¥ á¹¬ob"); the first part of Gans's "áºemaá¸¥ á¹¬ob" (by Wilhelm Varot and also by Voisin); Zacuto's "Sefer ha-Yuá¸¥asin," various parts of Maimonides' "Mishneh Torah," and part of the account of the travels of the Karaite Samuel ben David; Maimonides' "Yad," Talmud Torah and Teshubah (by Robertus Claverius).
Among the Latin translations of the eighteenth century the most noteworthy are: part of Maimonides' "Mishneh Torah" and extracts from the rabbinical commentaries on Psalms (by Heinrich Jacob Bashuysen, Hanover, 1705; Hanau, 1712); the "Sefer ha-Tappuaá¸¥" ("Biga Dissertationum," Giessen, 1706); Rashi's commentary on the Bible and the "Yosippon" (by John Frederick Breithaupt, Gotha, 1707, 1710); the Karaite Mordecai ben Nissim's "Dod Mordekai" ("Notitia KarÃ¦orum ex Tractate Mardochai," by Wolf, who translated also various fragments of Jewish writings in his "Bibliotheca HebrÃ¦a"); selections from the commentaries of Rashi, Abravanel, Ibn Ezra, and Isaiah di Trani on Joshua, and Moses Naá¸³dan's "Sha'ar ha-Neginot" ("Porta Accentuum," by John Georg Abicht); a part of Elijah Levita's "Shibre Luá¸¥ot" (by Nagel, Altdorf, 1758-71); portions of the "Taá¸¥kemoni" (by Ure); Jedaiah Bedersi's "Beá¸¥inat 'Olam" (by Uchtmann); the "Seder 'Olam Rabbah" (by Eduard Maier).
The following is a list of the works which have been translated from Hebrew into modern languages:English.
- Aristotle, Pseudo-: "Sefer ha-Tappuaá¸¥," on the immortality of the soul (by Isidor Kalisch, Detroit, 1882).
- Bedersi: "Beá¸¥inat ha-'Olam" (by Tobias Goodman).
- Benjamin of Tudela: "Massa'ot" (by Asher, London, 1840).
- á¸¤ayyuj, Judah: "Two Treatises on Verbs Containing Treble and Double Letters," and the "Treatise on Punctuation" (by John W. Nutt, London and Berlin, 1870).
- Joseph ha-Kohen: "Dibre ha-Yamim" (by Bialloblotzky, London, 1834-36).
- Judah al-á¸¤arizi: Portions of the "Taá¸¥kemoni" (by F. de Sola Mendes, in "Jew. Chron." London, 1873).
- Judah ha-Levi: Poems (by M. Breslau, in "Ginze Oxford," London, 1851; Edward G. King, in "Jew. Quart. Rev." 7:464; Joseph Jacobs, in "Jewish Ideals"; Emma Lazarus, "Songs of a Semite," New York, 1882; Lady Magnus, "Jewish Portraits," London, 1897; A. Lucas, in "Jewish Year Book," London, 1898; Nina Davis, "Songs of an Exile," Philadelphia, 1901).
- Levinsohn: "Efes Damim" (by Loewe, London, 1840).
- Levita, Elijah: "Massoret ha-Massorah" (by Ch. D. Ginsburg, London, 1887).
- Maimonides: "Moreh Nebukim" (by Michael FriedlÃ¤nder, London); parts of the "Mishneh Torah" (by H. Bernard and E. Solowcyczik, ib. 1863).
- Mapu, Abraham: "Ahabat áºiyyon" (by Frank-Jaffe, London, 1887).
- Nieto, David: "Maá¹á¹eh Dan" (by Loewe, London, 1842).
- Pethahiah of Regensburg: "Massa'ot" (by Benisch, London, 1856).
- Romanelli: "Massa' ba-Arab" (by Schiller-Szinessy, Cambridge, 1887).
- Schwarz: "Dibre Yosef," geography of Palestine (by Isaac Leeser, Philadelphia, 1850).
- Troki, Abraham: "á¸¤izzuá¸³ Emunah" ("Faith Strengthened," by M. Mocatta, London, 1851).
- "Yashar, Sefer ha-" (by Mordecai Noah, New York, 1840).
- "Yeáºirah, Sefer" (by Isidor Kalisch, 1877).
- Yosippon: Parts (by Gaster, in "Jerahmeel," London, 1899).
- Abraham ibn Ezra: "Ma'adanne Melek" ("DÃ©lices Royales, ou le Jeu des Echecs," by Hollaenderski, Paris, 1864).
- Alfonsi, Petrus: "Sefer á¸¤anok," tales (by Picques).
- Bedersi, Jedaiah ben Abraham: "Beá¸¥inat ha-'Olam" (by Philippe Aquinas and Michel Beer).
- Benjamin of Tudela: "Massa'ot" (by Jean Philippe Boratier, Paris, 1734).
- Bilia, David ben Yom-á¹¬ob ibn: "Yesodot ha-Maskil" (by S. Klein, Metz, 1849).
- Caro, Joseph: Shulá¸¥an 'Aruk (extracts from the first and second parts under the title "Rituel du udaÃ¯sme," by Pavly and Neviasky, Orleans, 1896-1901).
- Eldad ha-Dani (transl. by Carmoly, Brussels, 1834).
- Joseph ha-Kohen: "'Emeá¸³ ha-Baka" ("VallÃ©e des Pleurs," by Julian SÃ©e, Paris, 1881).
- Judah al-á¸¤arizi: "Taá¸¥kemoni" (by Carmoly, Brussels, 1843-1844; parts were translated by Sylvestre de Sacy).
- Maimonides: Treatise on poisons ("TraitÃ© de Poisons," by I. M. Rabbinowicz, Paris, 1865); "Moreh Nebukim" ("Guide des ÃgarÃ©s," by S. Munk, Paris, 1856).
- Modena, Leon of: Dialogue on the subject of gambling ("Le Joueur Converti," by Carmoly).
- Pethahiah of Regensburg: "Sibbub Rab Petaá¸¥yah" (by Carmoly, who translated also, under the title "ItinÃ©raires de la Terre Sainte," accounts, by various writers, of travels in Palestine).
- Aboab, Isaac: "Menorat ha-Ma'or" (by Jacob Raphael FÃ¼rstenthal, Breslau, 1844).
- Abraham ibn Daud: "Emunah Ramah" (by S. Weil, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1882).
- Abraham ibn Ezra: "Yesod Mora" (by Michael Creizenach, Mayence, 1840).
- Albo, Joseph: "Sefer ha-'Iá¸³á¸³arim" (by W. Schlessinger, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1844).
- Aristotle, Pseudo-: "Sefer ha-Tappuaá¸¥" (by J. Musen, Lemberg, 1873).
- Baá¸¥ya ben Joseph: "á¸¤obot ha-Lebabot" (by FÃ¼rstenthal, Breslau, 1835, and by Baumgarten and Stern, Vienna, 1854).
- Bedersi, Jedaiah: "Baá¸³á¸³ashat ha-Memim" (by Benjamin Wolf Prerau, BrÃ¼nn, 1799); "Beá¸¥inat 'Olam" (by Isaac Auerbach, Hirsh ben MeÃ¯r, Joel ben Joseph Faust, Simson Hamburger, Auerbach, J. Levy, Joseph Hirshfeld, Stern [in verse], and Judah Kron).
- Benjamin of Tudela: "Massa'ot" (by Mordecai Drucker, Amsterdam, 1691).
- Carmoly: "Maimonides und Seine Zeitgenossen" (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1840).
- Caro, Joseph: Shulá¸¥an 'Aruk (by H. LÃ¶we, Vienna, 1896, and by Fr. Lederer, 1897-1901).
- Crescas, á¸¤asdai: The fifth chapter of the "Or Adonai" (by Philip Bloch, 1879).
- Duran, Proflat: "Al Tehi ka-Aboteka" (by Geiger, in "Wiss. Zeit. JÃ¼d. Theol." ).
- Eldad ha-Dani (Dessau, 1700; Jessnitz, 1723; and in Eisenmenger's" Entdecktes Judenthum," 2:527).
- Ephraim of Bonn: The persecutions by the Crusaders (by S. Baer, Berlin, 1892).
- Francis, Immanuel: "Meteá¸³ Sefatayim" ("Die HebrÃ¤ische Verskunst," by Martin Hartmann, Berlin, 1894).
- á¸¤asdai, Abraham: "Ben ha-Melek weha-Nazir" ("Prinz und Dervisch," by Wolf Alois Meisel, Stettin, 1847).
- Isaac Israeli: "Sefer ha-Yesodot" (by S. Fried, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1900).
- Joseph ha-Kohen: "'Emeá¸³ ha-Baka" (by Wiener, Leipsic, 1858).
- Judah al-á¸¤arizi: "Taá¸¥kemoni" (by KÃ¤mpf, Berlin, 1845); "Mussare ha-Filosufim" (by J. LÃ¶wenthal).
- Judah ha-Levi: "Cuzari" (by D. Cassel and Jelowicz, Leipsic, 1841); poems (by Zunz, Geiger, KÃ¤mpf, Sachs, Steinschneider, Heller, and Sulzbach).
- Kalonymus ben Kalonymus: "Eben Boá¸¥an" (by Moses Eisenstadt, or, according to Zedner, by Katzenellenbogen, Sulzbach, 1705; in condensed prose by W. Meisel, Budapest, 1878).
- Lebensohn, Micah Joseph: "Shire Bat áºiyyon" ("GesÃ¤nge Zion's," by Joshua Steinberg, Wilna, 1869).
- Levinsohn: "Efes Damim" (by Albert Katz, Berlin, 1884).
- Levita, Elijah: "Massoret ha-Massorah" (by Mayer Gottlieb, 1772).
- Maimonides: "Moreh Nebukim" (the first part by FÃ¼rstenthal, Krotoschin, 1839; the second, by M. Stein, Vienna, 1864; the third, by Scheyer, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1838); "Millat ha-Higgayon" (by M. S. Neumann, Vienna, 1822; by Heilberg, Breslau, 1828); Introduction to the Mishnah ("Das JÃ¼dische Traditionswesen" (by FÃ¼rstenthal, Breslau, 1844); treatise on poisons ("Gifte und Ihre Heilungen," by M. Steinschneider, Berlin, 1873); essays on hygiene (by D. Winternitz, 1843).
- Mapu, Abraham: "Ahabat áºiyyon" ("Tamar," by S. Mandelkern, Leipsic, 1885).
- Mendelssohn, Moses: "Sefer ha-Nefesh" (by David FriedlÃ¤nder, Berlin, 1887).
- Modena, Leon of: Dialogue on gambling (by Friedrich Albert Christiani, 1638); the abridged commentary on the Passover Haggadah of Isaac Abravanel, entitled "áºeli Esh" (FÃ¼rth, 1804).
- Rashi: Commentary on the Pentateuch (Prague, 1833-38).
- Rosenfeld: "Tenubot Sadeh," poems and epigrams (by FÃ¼rstenthal, Breslau, 1842).
- Saadia: "Emunot we-De'ot" (by Julius FÃ¼rst, Leipsic, 1845; the introduction and first chapter, by Philip Bloch, 1879).
- Schweitzer: "Mazkeret Ahabah" (metrically translated by FÃ¼rstenthal, Breslau, 1841).
- Verga, Solomon: "Shebeá¹ Yehudah" (by Wiener, Hanover, 1856).
- Wiener: "Gezerat Ostraik" (by Jehiel Michael Moroweyczyk, Cracow, 1852).
- Baá¸¥ya: "Tokaá¸¥ah" (by Deborah Ascarelli, Venice, 1601).
- Bedersi, Jedaiah: "Beá¸¥inat 'Olam" (in "Antologia Israelitica," 1880).
- Judah al-á¸¤arizi: "Mishle á¸¤akamim" ("Motti di Diversi Saggi," by Simon Massarani).
- Judah ha-Levi: "Canzoniere Sacra di Giuda Levita" (by S. de Benedetti, Pisa, 1871).
- Luzzatto, S. D.: "Derek Ereáº" ("Il Falso Progresso," by Pontremoli, Padua, 1879).
- Maimonides: "Moreh Nebukim" (by Jedidiah Moses of Recanati, 1580, and by D. J. Maroni, 1870).
- Mizraá¸¥i, Elijah: Part of the "Sefer ha-Mispar" (by M. Steinschneider, Rome, 1866).
- Modena, Leon of: The abridged commentary of Abravanel on the Passover Haggadah, entitled "áºeli Esh."
- Moses: "Vita e Morte de Mose" (by Benedetti de Salvatore).
- Rieti, Moses: The second part of the "Miá¸³dash Me'aá¹," entitled "Me'on ha-Sho'alim" (by Deborah Ascarelli, Venice, 1601).
- Solomon: "Clavis Solomonis" (by Abraham Colorni).
- Abramovich: "Ha-Abot weha-Banim" ("Otzy i Dyeti," by Leo Bienstok, St. Petersburg, 1867).
- BrandstÃ¤dter: "Mordekai Kizwiz" (in "Yevreiskaya Biblioteka").
- Eichhorn: "Ha-á¸²erab" (by Osip Rabbinovich, 1847).
- Joshua ben David of Samoscz: "áºuá¸³ ha-'Ittim" ("Byedstoiya Vremion," by Moses Berlin).
- Nathan Nata of Hanover: "Yewen Meáºulah" (by S. Mandelkern, St. Petersburg, 1878).
- Rosensohn: "Shelom Aá¸¥im," on the catholicity of the Mosaic religion (transl. Wilna, 1876).
- Abner of Burgos: "Moreh áºedeá¸³" ("El Mostador de Justicia"); "Milá¸¥amot Adonai" ("Las Batallas de Dios").
- Alguadez, MeÃ¯r: Prescriptions for various diseases (by Joseph ha-Kohen).
- Baá¸¥ya ben Joseph ibn Paá¸³uda: "á¸¤obot ha-Lebabot" (by Joseph Pardo, Amsterdam, 1610).
- Elijah de Vidas: Several sections of the "Reshit á¸¤okmah" (by David Cohen Lara, under the title "Tratado del Temur Divino," Amsterdam, 1633).
- "á¸¤innuá¸³, Sefer ha-": Anonymous work on the precepts, of the thirteenth century.
- Jonah Gerondi: Ethical work (by Joseph Shalom Gallego, or Galigo, under the title "Sendroe [Sendero] de Vidas," Amsterdam, 1640).
- Judah ha-Levi: "Cuzari" (by Jacob Abendana).
- Maimonides: ("Tratado de los Articulos de la Ley Divina," by David Cohen de Lara, Amsterdam, 1652); commentary on the Mishnah (by Jacob Abendana).
These files are public domain.
Singer, Isidore, Ph.D, Projector and Managing Editor. Entry for 'Translations'. 1901 The Jewish Encyclopedia. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/tje/t/translations.html. 1901.