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Commandments, the 613

The 1901 Jewish Encyclopedia

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Commandments, the Ten
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That the law of Moses contains 613 commandments is stated by R. Simlai, a Palestinian haggadist, who says (Mak. 23b): "Six hundred and thirteen commandments were revealed to Moses; 365 being prohibitions equal in number to the days of the year, and 248 being mandates corresponding in number to the bones of the human body." The number 613 is found as early as tannaitic times—e.g., in a saying of Simon ben Eleazar (Mek., Yitro, Baḥodesh, 5) and one of Simon ben Azzai (Sifre, Deut. § 76, Friedman's ed., p. 90b)—and is apparently based upon ancient tradition (see Tan., Ki Teẓe, ed. Buber, 2; Ex. R.; Num. R. ,; Yeb. 47b; Shab. 87a; Ned. 25a; Shebu. 29a; comp. Bacher, "Ag. Tan." 1:413, 2:436). The authenticity of the statements attributed to R. Simlai, however, has been questioned by authorities such as Naḥmanides and Abraham ibn Ezra (see M. Bloch, in "Rev. Et. Juives," 1:197,210; 5:27 et seq.; Weiss, "Dor," p. 74, note 50). The first to undertake the task of identifying the commandments was Simeon Kahira, in his "Halakot Gedolot." He begins with the prohibitions, which he classes in the order of the gravity of the punishments incurred by their transgression, while in regard to the mandates he follows the order of the parashiyyot, beginning with the Decalogue.

Kahira was followed by Saadia, Gabirol, and many others, who enumerated the 613 commandments in liturgical poems (see AZHAROT). In order to make up the number 613, Kahira and the poets just mentioned were compelled to incorporate many rabbinical laws. This method was criticized by Maimonides, who published a work entitled "Sefer ha-Miẓwot," laying down fourteen guiding principles for the identification of the commandments, which he enumerates accordingly. Some of these principles were attacked by Naḥmanides and others, who showed that Maimonides himself had not always been consistent. New identifications were therefore proposed by Moses ben Jacob of Coucy, author of the "Sefer Miẓwot ha-Gadol" (SeMaG), and Isaac ben Joseph of Corbeil, author of the "Sefer Miẓwot ha-Ḳaton" (SeMaḲ). The following is a list of the 613 commandments of Maimonides:

Mandatory Commandments.
  1. To know that the Lord God exists. Exodus 20:2.
  2. To acknowledge His unity. Deuteronomy 6:4.
  3. 3-4. To love and fear Him. Deuteronomy 6:5,13.
  4. To pray to Him. Exodus 23:25.
  5. To cleave to Him. Deuteronomy 10:20.
  6. To swear by His name. Deuteronomy 6:13, 10:20.
  7. To resemble Him in His ways. Deuteronomy 28:9.
  8. To sanctify His name. Leviticus 22:32.
  9. To read the Shema' each morning and evening. Deuteronomy 6:7.
  10. To learn and to teach others the Law. Deuteronomy 6:7.
  11. 12-13. To bind tefillin on the forehead and arm. Deuteronomy 6:8.
  12. To make ẓiẓit. Numbers 15:38.
  13. To fix a Mezuzah. Deuteronomy 6:9.
  14. To assemble the people to hear the Law every seventh year. Deuteronomy 31:12.
  15. To write a copy of the Law for oneself. Deuteronomy 31:19.
  16. That the king write a special copy of the Law for himself. Deuteronomy 17:18.
  17. To bless God after eating. Deuteronomy 8:10.
  18. To build the Temple. Exodus 25:8.
  19. To reverence the sanctuary. Leviticus 19:30.
  20. To watch the sanctuary perpetually. Numbers 18:2.
  21. That Levites shall serve in the sanctuary. Numbers 18:23.
  22. That at services the priests wash their hands and feet. Exodus 30:19.
  23. That the priests kindle the lights in the sanctuary. Exodus 30:19.
  24. That the priests bless Israel. Numbers 6:23.
  25. To set showbread and incense before the Lord on Sabbath. Exodus 25:30.
  26. To burn incense twice each day. Exodus 30:7.
  27. To keep fire continually upon the altar. Leviticus 6:13.
  28. To remove the ashes daily from the altar. Leviticus 6:10.
  29. To put the impure out of the holy place. Numbers 5:2.
  30. That the Aaronites have the place of honor. Leviticus 21:8.
  31. To clothe the Aaronites with priestly garments. Exodus 28:2.
  32. That the Kehathites carry the Ark upon their shoulders. Numbers 7:9.
  33. To anoint high priests and kings with oil. Exodus 30:31.
  34. That the priests officiate by turns. Deuteronomy 18:6,8.
  35. That the priests pay due honors to the dead. Leviticus 21:3.
  36. That the high priest take a virgin to wife. Leviticus 21:13.
  37. To sacrifice twice a day. Numbers 28:3.
  38. That the chief priest offer an oblation daily. Leviticus 6:20.
  39. 41-3. To offer an additional oblation every Sabbath, on the first of every month, and on the Feast of Passover. Numbers 28:9, 28:11; Leviticus 23:36.
  40. To offer a sheaf of the first barley on the second day of Passover. Leviticus 23:10.
  41. To add an oblation on the day of the Feast of Shebu'ot. Numbers 28:26.
  42. To offer two loaves of bread on Shebu'ot. Leviticus 23:17.
  43. To add an offering on the first of Tishri. Numbers 29:1.
  44. To add an offering on the Day of Atonement. Numbers 29:7.
  45. To observe the service on the Day of Atonement. Leviticus 16:3.
  46. To add an offering on the Feast of Sukkot. Numbers 29:13.
  47. To offer a special sacrifice on the eighth day of Sukkot. Numbers 29:35.
  48. To keep the festival at the three seasons of the year. Exodus 23:14.
  49. That every male appear at the feast. Deuteronomy 16:16.
  50. To rejoice at the feasts. Deuteronomy 16:14.
  51. 55-6. To slay the paschal lamb and eat the flesh roasted, on the fifteenth night of Nisan. Exodus 12:6, 12:8.
  52. 57-8. To observe the second Passover and eat the paschal lamb with maẓẓah and maror. Numbers 9:11,13; 9:11.
  53. To blow the trumpets over the sacrifices, and in time of tribulation. Numbers 10:10.
  54. That cattle, when sacrificed, be eight days old or more. Leviticus 22:27.
  55. That all cattle sacrificed be perfect. Leviticus 22:21.
  56. That all offerings be salted. Leviticus 2:13.
  57. To bring a burnt offering. Leviticus 1:3.
  58. 64-7. To bring a sacrifice for sin, for trespass, a peace-offering, and a meat-offering. Leviticus 2:1, 6:25, 7:1,11.
  59. That the Sanhedrin bring a sin-offering if they have erred in doctrine. Leviticus 4:13.
  60. That one who has by error transgressed a Karet prohibition bring a sin-offering. Leviticus 4:27, 5:1.
  61. That one in doubt whether he has transgressed a prohibition bring a sin-offering. Leviticus 5:17,18.
  62. That a trespass-offering be brought for having sworn falsely and the like. Leviticus 5:15,21; 19:20.
  63. To offer a sacrifice according to one's means. Leviticus 5:7,11.
  64. That confession of sins be made before the Lord. Numbers 5:7.
  65. 74-5. That a man or woman having an issue offer a sacrifice. Leviticus 15:13,28.
  66. That a leper after being cleansed bring an offering. Leviticus 14:10.
  67. That a woman offer a sacrifice after childbirth. Leviticus 12:6.
  68. To tithe the cattle. Leviticus 27:32.
  69. To sacrifice the first-born of clean cattle. Deuteronomy 15:19.
  70. To redeem the first-born of man. Numbers 18:15.
  71. 81-2. To redeem the firstling of an ass, and to break its neck if the animal be not redeemed. Exodus 13:13.
  72. To bring all offerings to Jerusalem. Deuteronomy 12:5,6.
  73. To offer all sacrifices in the Temple. Deuteronomy 12:14.
  74. To bring to the Temple also the offerings from beyond the land of Israel. Deuteronomy 12:26.
  75. To redeem holy animals that have blemishes. Deuteronomy 12:15.
  76. That a beast exchanged for an offering is holy. Leviticus 27:10.
  77. That the remainder of the meat-offerings be eaten. Leviticus 6:16.
  78. That the flesh of sin-and trespass-offerings be eaten. Exodus 29:33.
  79. 90-1. To burn consecrated flesh that has become unclean; also the remainder of the consecrated flesh not eaten. Leviticus 7:17,19.
  80. 92-3. That the Nazarite suffer his hair to grow during his separation, and shave it at the close of his Nazariteship. Numbers 6:5,9.
  81. That a man keep his vow. Deuteronomy 23:23.
  82. That the judge act according to the Law in annulling vows. Numbers 30:3.
  83. That all who touch a carcass are unclean. Leviticus 11:34.
  84. That eight species of animals contaminate. Leviticus 11:39.
  85. That food is contaminated by contact with unclean things. Leviticus 11:34.
  86. That a menstruous woman contaminates. Leviticus 15:19.
  87. That a lying-in woman is unclean. Leviticus 12:2.
  88. That a leper is unclean and contaminates others. Leviticus 13:3.
  89. 102-3. That a leprous garment and a leprous house contaminate. Leviticus 13:47, 14:35.
  90. 104-6. That a man or woman having a running issue contaminates, as does the seed of copulation. Leviticus 15:2,16,28.
  91. That a corpse contaminates. Numbers 19:14.
  92. That the water of separation contaminates the clean, cleansing only the unclean from the pollution of the dead. Numbers 19:26.
  93. To cleanse from uncleanness by washing in running water. Leviticus 15:16.
  94. 110-12. That leprosy be cleansed with cedar-wood, etc.; that the leper shave all his hair, rend his raiment, and bare his head. Leviticus 13:45; 14:2,9.
  95. To burn a red heifer and preserve its ashes. Numbers 19:9.
  96. To pay the equivalent of a "singular" vow. Leviticus 27:2.
  97. 115-7. That one who vows an unclean beast, or his house, or his field, shall pay the appointed sum, or as the priest shall direct. Leviticus 27:11,14,16.
  98. That he shall make restitution who trespasses through ignorance in things holy. Leviticus 5:16.
  99. That plantations in their fourth year shall be holy. Leviticus 19:24.
  100. 120-4. To leave to the poor the corners of the field unreaped, the gleanings of the harvest, the forgotten sheaf, the gleanings in the vineyard, and the residue of the grapes. Leviticus 19:9,10; Deuteronomy 24:19.
  101. To bring the first-fruits into the sanctuary. Exodus 23:19.
  102. To give the great heave-offering to the priest. Deuteronomy 18:4.
  103. To separate the tithe of corn for the Levites. Numbers 18:24; Leviticus 27:30.
  104. To separate a second tithe and eat it in Jerusalem. Deuteronomy 14:22.
  105. That the Levites shall give a tithe of the tithe to the priest. Numbers 18:26.
  106. To separate the tithe for the poor in the third and sixth years instead of in the second. Deuteronomy 14:28.
  107. 131-2. To recite the chapter on the tithe and read it over the first-fruit. Deuteronomy 26:5,13.
  108. To separate for the priest a cake of the first of the dough. Numbers 15:20.
  109. 134-5. To let the field rest fallow every seventh year, and to cease from tilling the ground. Exodus 23:11, 34:21.
  110. 136-8. To hallow the year of jubilee by resting, to sound the trumpet in the year of jubilee, and to grant a redemption for the land in that year. Leviticus 25:9,10,24.
  111. To allow a house sold in a walled city to be redeemed within the year. Leviticus 25:29.
  112. To number the years of jubilee yearly and septennially. Leviticus 25:8.
  113. To release all debts in the seventh year. Deuteronomy 15:2.
  114. To exact the debt of a foreigner. Deuteronomy 15:3.
  115. To give to the priest his share of the cattle sacrifices. Deuteronomy 18:3.
  116. To give the first of the fleece to the priest. Deuteronomy 18:4.
  117. To discriminate between what belongs to the Lord and what to the priest. Leviticus 27:21,28.
  118. To perform the right mode of slaughtering beasts. Deuteronomy 12:23.
  119. To cover the blood of wild beast and bird. Leviticus 17:13.
  120. To set free the parent bird when taking a nest. Deuteronomy 22:7.
  121. 149-52. To search diligently for the marks in clean beasts, fowl, locusts, and fish. Leviticus 11:2; Deuteronomy 14:11; Leviticus 11:9.
  122. That the Sanhedrin sanctify the new moon and reckon the years and months. Exodus 12:2.
  123. 154-5. To rest on and hallow the Sabbath. Exodus 20:8 and 23:12.
  124. To remove the leaven. Exodus 12:15.
  125. 157-8. To relate the story of the Exodus and to eat unleavened bread on Passover night. Exodus 12:18, 13:8.
  126. 159-60. To rest on the first and seventh days of Passover. Exodus 12:16.
  127. To reckon forty-nine days from the time of the cutting of the first sheaf. Leviticus 23:15.
  128. 162-3. To rest on Shebu'ot and on the first day of Tishri. Leviticus 23:24.
  129. 164-5. To fast and rest on the Day of Atonement. Leviticus 16:29, 23:32.
  130. 166-7. To rest on the first and eighth days of Sukkot. Leviticus 23:35,36.
  131. To dwell in booths seven days. Leviticus 23:42.
  132. To take the four kinds of branches of trees. Leviticus 23:40.
  133. To hear the sound of the trumpet on the first of Tishri. Numbers 29:1.
  134. To give half a shekel each year as ransom. Exodus 30:13.
  135. To obey the prophet of each generation if he neither adds nor takes away from the statutes. Deuteronomy 18:15.
  136. To appoint a king. Deuteronomy 18:15.
  137. To obey the authority of the Sanhedrin. Deuteronomy 17:11.
  138. To yield to the majority in case of division. Exodus 23:2.
  139. To appoint judges in every town. Deuteronomy 16:18.
  140. To administer judgment impartially. Leviticus 19:15.
  141. That whoever possesses evidence shall testify in court. Leviticus 5:1.
  142. To examine witnesses diligently. Deuteronomy 13:14.
  143. To do unto false witnesses as they themselves designed to do unto others. Deuteronomy 19:19.
  144. To decapitate the heifer as commanded. Deuteronomy 21:4.
  145. To establish six cities of refuge. Deuteronomy 19:3.
  146. To give cities to the Levites for habitations. Numbers 35:2.
  147. To make battlements on the housetops. Deuteronomy 22:8.
  148. 185-6. To destroy idolaters and to burn their city. Deuteronomy 12:2, 13:16.
  149. To destroy the seven Canaanite nations. Deuteronomy 20:17.
  150. 188-9. To blot out the remembrance of Amalek. Deuteronomy 25:17,19.
  151. To observe a certain procedure in voluntary battle. Deuteronomy 20:10.
  152. To anoint the priest for war. Deuteronomy 20:2.
  153. 192-3. To keep the camp pure and in a sanitary condition. Deuteronomy 23:12,13.
  154. To restore plunder. Leviticus 6:4.
  155. To give alms. Deuteronomy 15:8,11.
  156. To give liberal gifts to a freed Hebrew servant. Deuteronomy 15:14.
  157. To lend to the poor. Deuteronomy 15:8.
  158. To lend on usury to idolaters. Deuteronomy 23:21.
  159. To restore a pledge to its owner. Deuteronomy 24:13.
  160. 200-1. To pay a hireling his hire when due, and to permit him to eat during work. Deuteronomy 24:15,24,25.
  161. 202-3. To help a neighbor's beast. Exodus 23:5; and Deuteronomy 22:4.
  162. To restore lost property. Deuteronomy 20:1.
  163. To rebuke the sinner. Leviticus 19:17.
  164. To love the children of the covenant. Leviticus 19:18.
  165. To love the stranger. Deuteronomy 10:19.
  166. To have just balances and weights. Leviticus 19:36.
  167. To honor the wise. Leviticus 19:32.
  168. To honor parents. Exodus 20:12.
  169. To fear parents. Leviticus 19:3.
  170. To perpetuate the human species by marriage. Genesis 1:28.
  171. To lead a pure married life. Deuteronomy 24:5.
  172. That the bridegroom rejoice for a year with his wife. Deuteronomy 24:1.
  173. To circumcise the males. Genesis 17:10; Leviticus 12:3.
  174. 216-7. To marry the wife of a deceased brother, and give ḤALIZAH in case of declining to do so. Deuteronomy 25:5,9.
  175. 218-9. That the violator of a virgin shall marry her, and he may not put her away all his days. Deuteronomy 22:29.
  176. That the seducer pay a penalty. Exodus 22:16.
  177. That beautiful female captives must not be sold, etc. Deuteronomy 21:11.
  178. To divorce by a written contract. Deuteronomy 24:1.
  179. That the suspected adulteress be subjected to trial of jealousy. Numbers 5:30.
  180. To beat the wicked. Deuteronomy 25:2.
  181. To exile the homicide through ignorance. Numbers 35:25.
  182. 226-30. That executions be effected by means of the sword, strangling, fire, stoning, and hanging. Exodus 21:20; Leviticus 20:14; Deuteronomy 21:22, 22:24.
  183. To bury on the same day one put to death. Deuteronomy 21:23.
  184. To deal with a Hebrew servant according to the Law. Exodus 21:2.
  185. 233-4. To redeem a betrothed Hebrew maid servant. Exodus 21:8.
  186. To make the non-Hebrew slave serve for ever. Leviticus 25:46.
  187. That he who wounds another pay a fine. Exodus 21:18.
  188. 237-8. To judge of injuries to a beast by a pitfall. Exodus 21:33.
  189. To punish the thief with death or to compel him to make restitution. Exodus 21:16, 22:1.
  190. 240-2. To give judgment in cases of trespass by cattle, of injuries by fire, or of robbery of money or goods left in charge of an unpaid keeper. Exodus 22:5-7.
  191. 243-4. To judge as to the injuries caused by the hireling or by the borrower. Exodus 22:10,14.
  192. 245-6. To judge in disputes between buyer and seller or between plaintiff and defendant. Leviticus 25:14; Exodus 22:9.
  193. To rescue the persecuted, even at the cost of the life of the oppressor. Deuteronomy 25:12.
  194. To judge in disputes concerning inheritances. Numbers 27:8.
Prohibitive Commandments.
  1. Belief in the existence of any but the one God. Exodus 20:3.
  2. 2-4. The making of images. Exodus 20:3,4; 34:17.
  3. 5-6. The worship of stars and planets. Exodus 20:5.
  4. The sacrifice of children to Moloch. Leviticus 18:21.
  5. 8-9. Necromancy and familiar spirits. Leviticus 19:31.
  6. Showing regard for the service of the stars and planets. Leviticus 19:4.
  7. The erection of pillars. Leviticus 26:1.
  8. The erection of pillars of stone. Leviticus 26:1.
  9. Planting of trees in the sanctuary. Deuteronomy 16:21.
  10. 14-16. Swearing by idols, or leading any Israelite toward idolatry. Exodus 23:13; Deuteronomy 13:11.
  11. 17-19. To show mercy to the seducer. Deuteronomy 13:8.
  12. 20-21. Defense or concealment of the seducer by the seduced. Deuteronomy 13:8.
  13. The use of ornaments of idols. Deuteronomy 7:25.
  14. 23-4. To rebuild a city destroyed on account of its idolatry or to use its wealth. Deuteronomy 13:16,17.
  15. The use of things belonging to idols or idolaters, or of the provisions and libations offered to idols. Deuteronomy 7:26.
  16. Prophesying in the name of idols. Deuteronomy 18:20.
  17. False prophecies. Deuteronomy 18:20.
  18. Listening to prophecies in the name of idols. Deuteronomy 13:3.
  19. Fear of a false prophet or hindering any one from killing him. Deuteronomy 18:22.
  20. Walking in the manner of the idolaters, and practising their rites. Leviticus 20:23.
  21. 31-8. Enchantment, augury, and consultation of familiar spirits, etc. Leviticus 19:26; Deuteronomy 18:10,11.
  22. 39-40. The use of male attire by women, and vice versa. Deuteronomy 22:5.
  23. Tattooing the body after the manner of idolaters. Leviticus 19:28.
  24. The use of garments made of both linen and wool. "Sha-'aṭnez," Deuteronomy 22:11.
  25. 43-4. Rounding "the corners of the head" or of the beard. Leviticus 19:27.
  26. Lacerating oneself for the dead. Deuteronomy 14:1.
  27. To return to Egypt to dwell permanently there. Deuteronomy 17:16.
  28. Indulgence in impure thoughts and sights. Numbers 15:39.
  29. 48-9. Covenanting with, and preservation of, the seven nations. Exodus 23:32.
  30. 50-2. To show mercy to or to intermarry with idolaters or to allow them to dwell in the land. Exodus 23:33; and Deuteronomy 7:2,3.
  31. The marriage of a daughter of Israel with an Ammonite or Moabite. Deuteronomy 23:3.
  32. 54-5. To refuse admission to the congregation to a descendant of Esau or to an Egyptian after the third generation. Deuteronomy 23:7.
  33. To offer peace to the Ammonites and Moabites in time of war. Deuteronomy 23:6.
  34. The destruction of fruit-trees in time of war. Deuteronomy 20:19.
  35. Fear of the enemy by warriors. Deuteronomy 3:22, 7:21, 20:3.
  36. To forget the evil wrought by Amalek. Deuteronomy 25:19.
  37. Blasphemy of the Holy Name. Exodus 22:28.
  38. To violate an oath, however rash. Leviticus 19:12.
  39. Taking the name of the Lord in vain. Exodus 20:7.
  40. Profaning the name of the Holy One. Leviticus 22:32.
  41. To tempt the Lord. Deuteronomy 6:16.
  42. Destruction of the sanctuary, synagogues, or schools, and erasure of the Holy Name and Holy Writings. Deuteronomy 12:2,4.
  43. To suffer the body of one hanged to remain on the tree. Dent. 21:23.
  44. To cease watching the sanctuary. Numbers 18:5.
  45. 68-71. The entrance of the priests into the sanctuary at certain times; priests with a blemish may not go beyond the altar nor serve in the sanctuary. Leviticus 16:2,23; 21:17,21.
  46. The ministry of Levites in the service of priests, and vice versa. Numbers 18:3.
  47. The entrance of intoxicated persons into the sanctuary, and the teaching of the Law by the same. Leviticus 10:9.
  48. 74-6. Service in the sanctuary by strangers or by unclean priests, etc. Leviticus 22:2; Numbers 18:4.
  49. 77-8. Entrance into the court or the camp of the Levites by unclean priests. Numbers 5:3; Deuteronomy 23:10.
  50. The erection of an altar of hewn stone. Exodus 20:25.
  51. Ascension by steps to the altar. Exodus 20:26.
  52. To burn incense, or to offer it on the golden altar. Exodus 30:9.
  53. To extinguish the fire on the altar. Leviticus 6:13.
  54. 83-5. Misuse of the holy oil, the anointing oil, or the holy incense. Exodus 30:32,37.
  55. Removal of the staves from the ark. Exodus 25:15.
  56. 87-8. To loosen the breastplate from the ephod or to tear the upper garment. Exodus 28:32.
  57. 89-90. The killing and offering of sacrifices without the Temple. Deuteronomy 12:13; Leviticus 17:3,4.
  58. 91-5. The sanctification and use of blemished things for sacrifice. Leviticus 22:22,24; Deuteronomy 17:1.
  59. The offering of blemished animals from Gentiles. Leviticus 22:25.
  60. The offering of imperfect animals in sacrifice. Leviticus 22:21.
  61. 98-100. To offer in sacrifice leaven or honey, an unsalted oblation, the hire of a harlot, or the price of a dog. Leviticus 2:11,13; Deuteronomy 23:18.
  62. To kill an animal and its young on the same day. Leviticus 22:28.
  63. 102-5. The use of olive-oil or frankincense in the sin-offering or the jealousy-offering. Leviticus 5:11; Numbers 5:15.
  64. 106-7. To exchange sacrifices. Leviticus 17:26, 27:10.
  65. The redemption of the first-born of clean cattle. Numbers 18:17.
  66. The sale of the tithe of the herd. Leviticus 27:33.
  67. 110-11. The sale or redemption of a dedicated field. Leviticus 27:28.
  68. The division of the head of the bird in a sin-offering. Leviticus 5:3.
  69. 113-4. Working with or shearing the first-born. Deuteronomy 15:19.
  70. 115-7. To kill the paschal lamb while there is leaven, or leave its fat or any part of its flesh over night. Exodus 12:10, 23:18.
  71. To leave any of the festal offering until the third day. Deuteronomy 16:4.
  72. To leave part of the second Passover lamb until the morning. Numbers 9:12.
  73. The preservation of any part of the thank-offering until the morning. Exodus 12:10.
  74. 121-2. To break a bone of the paschal lamb or of the second Passover lamb. Exodus 12:46; Numbers 9:12.
  75. To carry of the flesh of Passover out of the house. Exodus 12:46.
  76. To allow the remnants of the meat-offering to become leavened. Leviticus 6:17.
  77. 125-8. To eat the paschal lamb raw or sodden, or to allow it to be eaten by a foreigner, by one uncircumcised, or by an apostate Israelite. Exodus 12:9,43,45,48.
  78. 129-32. An unclean person may not eat of holy things, nor of holy things polluted; nor of that which is left of sacrifices; nor of sacrifices which are polluted. Leviticus 7:18,19,20; 19:8.
  79. 133-6. A stranger may not eat of the heave-offering, nor a sojourner with the priest, nor an hired servant, nor an uncircumcised person, nor an unclean priest. Leviticus 22:4,10.
  80. A priest's daughter married to a stranger may not eat of the holy things. Leviticus 22:12.
  81. 138-40. To eat the meat-offering of the priest, or the flesh of the sin-offering, or holy things which have been defiled. Leviticus 6:23,30; Deuteronomy 14:3.
  82. 141-4. To eat the second tithe of corn, or of the vintage, or of the oil, or the pure firstling without Jerusalem. Deuteronomy 12:17.
  83. 145-7. The consumption by the priest outside the courts of the sinor trespass-offering, of the flesh of the burnt offering, or of lighter sacrifices before the blood has been sprinkled. Deuteronomy 12:17.
  84. A stranger may not eat of the flesh of the most holy things. Exodus 29:33.
  85. The priest may not eat of the first-fruits before they are brought into the court. Deuteronomy 12:17.
  86. 150-1. To eat the second tithe in mourning or in impurity, even in Jerusalem, until it be redeemed. Deuteronomy 26:14.
  87. Use of the money of the second tithe except for eating or drinking. Deuteronomy 26:14.
  88. Eating the corn before the heave-offerings and tithes have been separated. Leviticus 22:15.
  89. Changing the order regarding the wave-offering, the first-fruits, and the first and second tithes. Exodus 22:29.
  90. The delay of vows and free-will offerings. Deuteronomy 23:21.
  91. Attendance at the feast without an offering. Exodus 23:15.
  92. The violation of vows. Numbers 30:2.
  93. 158-60. The marriage of a priest with a harlot, a "profane" woman ("ḥalalah"), or a divorcee. Leviticus 21:7.
  94. 161-2. The marriage of a high priest with a widow, nor may he take her as his concubine. Leviticus 21:14.
  95. 163-4. Priests may not enter the sanctuary with uncovered head or with torn garments. Leviticus 10:6.
  96. Priests may not leave the court during service. Leviticus 10:7.
  97. 166-8. The pollution of priests and of the high priest. Leviticus 21:1,11.
  98. 169-70. The participation of the tribe of Levi in the holy land and in the spoils. Deuteronomy 18:1.
  99. To make oneself bald for the dead. Deuteronomy 14:1.
  100. 172-9. The eating of unclean cattle, unclean fish, unclean fowl, creeping things that fly, things that creep upon the earth, or reptiles ("remesh"), etc. Leviticus 11:4,13,42-44; Deuteronomy 14:19.
  101. 180-2. The eating of beasts in a dying condition, or torn animals ("ṭerefah"), or a member of a living animal. Exodus 22:31; Deuteronomy 12:21,23.
  102. 183-5. The eating of the sinew which shrank, of blood, or of fat. Genesis 32:32; Leviticus 7:23,26.
  103. 186-7. The boiling of flesh in milk and the eating of flesh with milk. Exodus 23:19, 34:26; Deuteronomy 14:21.
  104. The eating of the flesh of an ox that has been stoned. Exodus 21:28.
  105. 189-91. The eating of bread made of the new corn, or roasted grain, or green ears of the new corn, before the Passover offering has been brought. Leviticus 23:14.
  106. The use of the fruit of a young tree before the fourth year. Leviticus 19:23.
  107. The eating of mixed seeds of the vineyard. Deuteronomy 22:9.
  108. The use of libations to idols. Deuteronomy 32:38.
  109. Gluttony and drunkenness. Deuteronomy 21:20; Leviticus 19:26.
  110. Eating on the Day of Atonement. Leviticus 23:29.
  111. 197-9. The eating of anything leavened on Passover, or of leavened bread after the middle of the fourteenth day. Exodus 12:20; Deuteronomy 13:3, 16:3.
  112. 200-1. The exposure of leaven and leavened bread. Exodus 13:7,19.
  113. 202-6. A Nazarite may not drink wine or any liquor made from grapes, nor may he eat grapes or any part thereof. Numbers 6:3-5.
  114. 207-9. A Nazarite may not pollute himself for the dead, nor enter into the tent of the dead, nor shall he shave his hair. Numbers 6:5-7.
  115. 210-4. To reap the whole of the field, to gather the fallen ears of corn in harvest, to cut off all the clusters of the vineyard, to gather every grape of the vineyard, or to return to take a forgotten handful. Leviticus 19:9-10; Deuteronomy 24:19,20.
  116. 215-6. The sowing of different kinds of seed together, or of corn and herbs in a vineyard. Leviticus 19:19; Deuteronomy 22:9.
  117. The gendering of cattle with those of diverse species. Leviticus 19:19.
  118. The use of two different kinds of cattle together. Deuteronomy 22:10.
  119. The prevention of an animal working in the field from eating. Deuteronomy 25:4.
  120. 220-3. To till the ground, to prune trees, to reap spontaneously grown corn, or to gather the fruit of trees, in the seventh year. Leviticus 25:4-5.
  121. 224-6. To till the earth, to prune trees, to reap what grows spontaneously, or to gather fruit, in the jubilee year. Leviticus 25:11.
  122. The permanent sale of a field in the land of Israel. Leviticus 25:23.
  123. To change the suburbs of the Levites or their fields. Leviticus 25:34.
  124. To leave the Levite without support. Deuteronomy 12:19.
  125. To demand the amount of a debt after the lapse of the seventh year. Deuteronomy 15:2.
  126. To refuse to lend to the poor on account of the release year. Deuteronomy 15:9.
  127. To refuse to lend to the poor the things which he requires. Deuteronomy 15:7.
  128. Sending a Hebrew slave away empty-handed. Deuteronomy 15:13.
  129. Exaction with regard to loans to the poor. Exodus 22:25.
  130. 235-6. Loans to or by an Israelite upon usury. Leviticus 25:37.
  131. Usury, or participation therein either as surety, witness, or writer of contracts. Exodus 22:25; Deuteronomy 23:19.
  132. Delay in the payment of wages. Leviticus 19:13.
  133. 239-42. The exaction of a pledge from a debtor by violence; the retention of a pledge from the poor when he requires it; the receipt of a pledge from a widow, and the exaction of a pledge when it is such that one obtains by it a living. Deuteronomy 24:6,10,17.
  134. To kidnap a man of Israel. Exodus 20:15.
  135. To steal. Leviticus 19:11.
  136. To rob by violence. Leviticus 19:13.
  137. To remove the landmark. Deuteronomy 19:14.
  138. To defraud. Leviticus 19:13.
  139. To defraud one's neighbor. Leviticus 19:11.
  140. To swear falsely with regard to a neighbor's property. Leviticus 19:11.
  141. To injure any one in bargaining. Leviticus 25:14.
  142. 251-3. To oppress or injure any one. Exodus 22:21; Leviticus 25:17.
  143. 254-5. To deliver a fugitive slave to his master, or to vex him. Deuteronomy 23:15,16.
  144. To afflict the widow and orphan. Exodus 22:22.
  145. 257-9. To use a Hebrew servant as a slave, to sell him as a bondman, or to treat him cruelly. Leviticus 25:39,42-43.
  146. To permit a heathen to treat a Hebrew servant cruelly. Leviticus 25:53.
  147. To sell a Hebrew maid servant. Exodus 21:8.
  148. To withhold from a betrothed Hebrew slave food, raiment, or conjugal rights. Exodus 21:10.
  149. To sell as a slave a beautiful captive. Deuteronomy 21:14.
  150. To humble a beautiful woman. Deuteronomy 21:14.
  151. To covet a man's wife. Exodus 20:17.
  152. Covetousness. Deuteronomy 5:21.
  153. 267-8. A hireling may not cut down standing corn during his labor, nor take more fruit than he can eat. Deuteronomy 23:24.
  154. To hide when a thing lost is to be returned to the owner. Deuteronomy 22:3.
  155. To refrain from helping an animal fallen under its burden. Deuteronomy 22:4.
  156. 271-2. Fraud in weights and measures. Leviticus 19:35; Deuteronomy 25:13,14.
  157. Unrighteousness in judgment. Leviticus 19:35.
  158. The acceptance of bribes. Exodus 23:8.
  159. 275-6. Partiality or fear in a judge. Leviticus 19:15; Deuteronomy 1:17.
  160. To pity the poor in judgment. Exodus 23:3.
  161. To pervert the judgment of a sinner. Exodus 23:6.
  162. To spare the offender in matters of fines. Deuteronomy 19:13.
  163. To pervert the judgment of strangers or orphans. Deuteronomy 24:17.
  164. To hear one litigant except in the presence of the other. Exodus 23:1.
  165. To decide by a majority of one in capital cases. Exodus 23:2.
  166. Having first pleaded for a man in a capital case, one may not afterward plead against him. Exodus 23:2.
  167. The appointment as judge of one who is not learned in the Law. Deuteronomy 1:17.
  168. False witness. Exodus 20:16.
  169. The acceptance of testimony from a wicked person. Exodus 23:1.
  170. The testimony of relatives. Deuteronomy 24:16.
  171. To pronounce judgment upon the testimony of only one witness. Deuteronomy 19:15.
  172. To kill the innocent. Exodus 20:13.
  173. To convict on circumstantial evidence only. Exodus 23:7.
  174. To condemn to death on the evidence of only one witness. Numbers 35:30.
  175. To execute before conviction one charged with a crime. Numbers 35:12.
  176. To pity or spare the persecutor. Deuteronomy 25:12.
  177. To punish the victim in a case of rape. Deuteronomy 22:26.
  178. 295-6. The acceptance of ransom for a murderer or for a manslayer. Numbers 35:31,32.
  179. The toleration of bloodshed. Leviticus 19:16.
  180. 298-9. To leave a stumbling-block in the way, or to cause the simple to stumble on the road. Deuteronomy 22:8; Leviticus 19:14.
  181. To exceed the number of stripes assigned to the guilty. Deuteronomy 25:3.
  182. Calumny. Leviticus 19:16.
  183. To bear hatred in one's heart. Leviticus 19:17.
  184. To cause the face of an Israelite to blush. Leviticus 19:17.
  185. 304-5. To bear a grudge. Leviticus 19:18.
  186. To take the dam with the young. Deut. xxii, 6.
  187. 307-8. To shave the hair of the scall, or to pluck out the marks of leprosy. Leviticus 13:33; Deuteronomy 24:8.
  188. To plow or sow in a valley in which a slain body has been found. Deuteronomy 21:4.
  189. To suffer a witch to live. Exodus 22:18.
  190. To force a bridegroom to perform military service. Deuteronomy 24:5.
  191. Rebellion against the Sanhedrin. Deuteronomy 17:11.
  192. 313-4. To add to or detract from the precepts of the Law. Deuteronomy 12:32.
  193. 315-6. To curse the judges, a prince, or a ruler. Exodus 22:28.
  194. To curse any Israelite. Leviticus 19:14.
  195. 318-9. To curse or smite father or mother. Exodus 21:15,17.
  196. 320-1. To work or to go beyond the city limits on the Sabbath. Exodus 20:10.
  197. To punish on the Sabbath. Exodus 35:3.
  198. 323-9. To work on the first or the seventh day of Passover, or on the Feast of Shebu'ot, or on the first day of the seventh month, or on the Day of Atonement, or on the first or the eighth day of the Feast of Tabernacles. Exodus 12:16; Leviticus 23:7,16,20,25,28,35,36.
  199. 330-45. The various marriages constituting incest. Leviticus 18:7-18.
  200. To have intercourse with a menstruous woman. Leviticus 18:19.
  201. 347-53. Adultery, sodomy, etc. Leviticus 18:7,14,20,22,23.
  202. The marriage of a bastard with a daughter of Israel. Deuteronomy 23:2.
  203. Harlotry. Deuteronomy 23:17.
  204. The remarriage of a divorcee with her first husband. Deuteronomy 24:4.
  205. The marriage of a widow with any one but the brother of her deceased husband. Deuteronomy 25:5.
  206. Divorcing of a victim of rape by the offender. Deuteronomy 22:29.
  207. Divorcing of a wife upon whom an evil name has been brought. Deuteronomy 22:9.
  208. The marriage of a eunuch with a daughter of Israel. Deuteronomy 23:1.
  209. The castration of any male whatsoever. Leviticus 22:24.
  210. The election of a stranger as king over Israel. Deuteronomy 17:15.
  211. 363-5. The possession by a king of an excessive number of horses and wives, or of an unduly large quantity of silver and gold. Deuteronomy 17:16,17.

Of the mandates Naḥmanides rejected Nos. 5, 7, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 85, 89, 95-108 (inclusive), 149, 150, 151, 198, 227, 228, 237, and 299, substituting for them the following:

  1. To eat the first-born of cattle and the second tithe in Jerusalem. Deuteronomy 14:23.
  2. To eat the wave-offering only when it is without blemish. Deuteronomy 15:22.
  3. To eat the fruit of the seventh year, and not to trade with it. Leviticus 25:6.
  4. To possess the land of Israel. Numbers 33:53.
  5. To leave open one side in besieging a town. Numbers 31:7 (see Sifre ad loc.).
  6. To remember what God did to Miriam. Deuteronomy 24:9.
  7. To be perfect with the Lord. Deuteronomy 18:13.
  8. To select the wave-offering from the best. Numbers 18:29.
  9. To bring an offering of cattle only. Leviticus 1:1.
  10. To offer all the sacrifices between the two oblations. Leviticus 6:5.
  11. To eat the paschal lamb in the night only. Exodus 12:8.
  12. That the avenger of blood pursue the murderer. Numbers 35:19.
  13. To avoid the garments of the leprous. Leviticus 13:51.
  14. To recite the blessing over the Torah before reading it. Deuteronomy 32:2.
  15. To sustain the sojourning stranger. Leviticus 25:49.
  16. To return usury taken from an Israelite. Leviticus 25:35.
  17. To renounce profit from the Nazarite's hair. Numbers 6:5.
  18. To make an ark and a mercy-seat. Exodus 25:15.
  19. To keep an oath or vow. Deuteronomy 23:24.
  20. To reckon months and years. Deuteronomy 16:1.
  21. To bring an offering morning and evening. Numbers 28:4.
  22. To offer incense morning and evening. Exodus 30:7,8.
  23. To read the Shema' morning and evening. Deuteronomy 6:17.
  24. To recognize unconditionally the first-born son. Deuteronomy 21:17.
  25. To liberate the slave whose tooth or eye has been knocked out by his master. Exodus 21:27.
  26. To execute him who has incurred capital punishment. Deuteronomy 17:7.
  27. 198, 227, 228. That the priest shall serve in the sanctuary all the sacrifices; to separate the wave-offering, a cake of the dough, and give it to the priest. Numbers 18:7: Deuteronomy 18:7; Numbers 15:21.
  28. To separate the first tithe and give it to the Levite, and give the poor's tithe to the poor. Numbers 18:24.
  29. To consult the Urim and the Thummim for the king. Numbers 27:21.

Of the prohibitions Naḥmanides rejects Nos. 2, 3, 5, 14, 28, 58, 69, 70, 92, 93, 94, 95, 143, 150, 152, 177, 178, 179, 190, 191, 199, 201, 294, 307, 319, 321, 353, substituting for them the following:

  1. 2-3. Forgetfulness of the law of God and of the sojourn on Mount Sinai. Deuteronomy 4:9, 8:11.
  2. Alteration of the order of the vessels in the Temple. Exodus 23:13 (see Mekilta ad loc.).
  3. 14, 28. The offering of sacrifices with the intention of eating them in other than the prescribed time and place, and the eating of sacrifices so offered. Leviticus 7:18; deut. 17:1.
  4. Eating the bird slain for the cleansing from leprosy. Leviticus 14:14.
  5. Selection of the heave-offering by the Levites. Numbers 18:32.
  6. The acceptance of shekels from heathens. Leviticus 22:25.
  7. The condemnation on the testimony of only one witness. Deuteronomy 17:6.
  8. Allowing the faint-hearted to go to war. Deuteronomy 20:8.
  9. To cause the Shekinah to depart from the camp by reason of any impurity. Deuteronomy 23:15.
  10. Depriving the first-born of his birthright. Deuteronomy 21:16.
  11. Clemency to a murderer. Deuteronomy 19:21.
  12. Marriage of the deceased brother's wife after "ḥalizah." Deuteronomy 25:9.
  13. Cohabitation with a wife who has committed adultery. Deuteronomy 24:4.
  14. Regretting the poing of charity and the freeing of a Hebrew slave in the seventh year. Deuteronomy 15:10,18.
  15. Robbery of vessels of the sanctuary. Numbers 4:20.
  16. The Levite may not carry the holy vessels after the fiftieth year. Numbers 8:25.
  17. The divorced wife when married to another may not be taken back. Deuteronomy 24:4.
  18. Disputing the priesthood. Numbers 17:5.
  19. Deriving profit from the beheaded heifer. Numbers 35:34.
  20. To marry a daughter to one who is forbidden to her. Leviticus 19:9.
  21. Profanation of the Holy Land.
  22. Leaving the sanctuary during the service.

Two prohibitions are contained in each of the following verses, by which the number of the remaining rejected prohibitions is made up: Leviticus 23:4; Leviticus 2:11; Deuteronomy 23:19; Exodus 12:9; Exodus 22:21; Exodus 28:7; Deuteronomy 24:5; Deuteronomy 21:18; Deuteronomy 2:9.

Moses of Coucy rejects Maimonides' mandates Nos. 142, 193, 198, substituting the following:

  1. To justify the decision of the Lord. Deuteronomy 8:5.
  2. To reckon the solstices and constellations. Deuteronomy 4:6.
  3. To keep far from a false matter. Exodus 23:7.

Of the prohibitions he rejects Nos. 14, 26, 67, 70, 78, 95, 140, 150, 152, 165, 177, 178, 199, 266, 278, 283, 291, substituting the following:

  1. Abandonment of the Torah. Deuteronomy 4:9.
  2. The kissing of idols. Exodus 23:24.
  3. The making of idols. Leviticus 26:1.
  4. Pride. 8:14.
  5. Prostitution of a daughter of Israel. Leviticus 19:29.
  6. Cursing oneself. Deuteronomy 4
  7. A priest may not make himself unclean for the dead. Leviticus 21:1.

There are two prohibitions in each of the following verses, by which the number of the remaining rejected prohibitions is made up: Exodus 12:9; Leviticus 2:11; Deuteronomy 23:1,13,18; 24:6.

Joseph of Corbeil has the following mandates not found in the lists of Maimonides, Naḥmanides, and Moses of Coucy:

The prohibitions not included by the other compilers, but found in the Semaḳ, are:

  • M. Bloch, Les 613 Lois, in Rev. Et. Juives, 1:197 et seq., 5:25 et seq.;
  • Michael Creizenach, Thoriag, 1833;
  • M. Brueck, Das Mosaische Judenthum, 1837;
  • D. Rosin, Ein Compendium der Jüdischen Gesetzeskunde, Breslau, 1871;
  • Jellinek, Ḳonteris Taryag, Vienna, 1878;
  • Schechter, Studies in Judaism, 1896, p. 248.
I. Br.
Bibliography Information
Singer, Isidore, Ph.D, Projector and Managing Editor. Entry for 'Commandments, the 613'. 1901 The Jewish Encyclopedia. https://www.studylight.org/​encyclopedias/​eng/​tje/​c/commandments-the-613.html. 1901.
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