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The 1901 Jewish Encyclopedia
- An assembly convoked for a certain time and purpose ( = á¼ÎºÎºÎ»Î·ÏÎ¯Î±, 1 Kings 8:65; Joel 2:16; Ps. 10. For and in Psalms 26:12, 68:26, "assemblies" would be more correct than "congregations" [A.V.]; and in Psalms 74:4 should be rendered " synagogues," not "congregations," as in A. V.).
- A single community ( = ÏÏ Î½Î±Î³ÏÎ³Î®, Numbers 35:23 et seq.).
- The whole body of Israel, called ("the congregation of the Lord," Deuteronomy 23:1 et seq.; R. V. "assembly is incorrect); Numbers 27:17; "the congregation of Israel," Exodus 12:3; "the congregation of the children of Israel, Exodus 16:1; "the assembly of the congregation of Israel," Exodus 12:6 and Numbers 14:5; or simply and used indifferently, Leviticus 4:13 et seq.; Proverbs 5:14, where is preferably translated by LXX. ÏÏ Î½Î±Î³ÏÎ³Î®, and á¼ÎºÎºÎ»Î·ÏÎ¯Î±. To this must be added "the congregation of Jacob," Deuteronomy 33:4 (R. V. "assembly"; LXX. ÏÏ Î½Î±Î³ÏÎ³Î±á½·Ï, plural; so also Ecclus. [Sirach] 24:23).From the Apocryphal and other Hellenistic writings (see Ecclus. 24:2, 44:15,1. 13 et seq.; I Macc. 2:56, 3:13, etc.), and the inscriptions in Schurer ("Gesch. des JÃ¼dischen Volkes," 2:432 et seq., 3:40-46), it appears that "synagogue" = ÏÏ Î½Î±Î³ÏÎ³Î® was the name, corresponding to , Aramean , given to the Jewish congregation as a community, as well as to the place of worship; while the name á¼ÎºÎºÎ»Î·ÏÎ¯Î± (ÏÎ¿á¿¦ Î©ÎµÎ¿á¿¦, or ÎÏ ÏÎ¯Î¿Ï = "assembly of the Lord"; hence ÎºÏ ÏÎ¹Î±ÎºÎ® [Î¿á¼°ÎºÎ¯Î±] "church") was chosen to designate the assembly of worshipers.It was owing to the influence of Paul that á¼ÎºÎºÎ»Î·ÏÎ¯Î± (= "church") became the distinctive name of the Christian communities, while "synagogue" became that of the Jewish congregation, and for some time, also, of the JudÃ¦o-Christian congregations (compare SchÃ¼rer, c.). See Community, Organization of; Minyan; Synagogue.
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Singer, Isidore, Ph.D, Projector and Managing Editor. Entry for 'Congregation'. 1901 The Jewish Encyclopedia. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/tje/c/congregation.html. 1901.
the Third Week after Epiphany