the Week of Proper 20 / Ordinary 25
Urim and Thimmim
Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblical Literature
U´rim and Thum´mim. There are two principal opinions respecting the Urim and Thummim. One is, that these words simply denote the four rows of precious stones in the breastplate of the high-priest, and are so called from their brilliancy and perfection; which stones, in answer to an appeal to God in difficult cases, indicated His mind and will by some supernatural appearance. Thus, as we know that upon each of the stones was to be engraven the name of one of the sons of Jacob, it has been conjectured that the letters forming the divine response became some way or other distinguished from the other letters. It has been conjectured by others that the response was given by an audible voice to the high-priest arrayed in full pontificals, and standing in the holy place with his face turned towards the ark. The other principal opinion is, that the Urim and Thummim were two small oracular images, similar to the Teraphim, personifying revelation and truth, which were placed in the cavity or pouch formed by the folds of the breastplate, and which uttered oracles by a voice. The latter is corroborated by the authority of Philo, and seems to be best supported by external evidence.
Kitto, John, ed. Entry for 'Urim and Thimmim'. "Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblical Literature". https://www.studylight.org/​encyclopedias/​eng/​kbe/​u/urim-and-thimmim.html.