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1911 Encyclopedia Britannica
"MUSTAPHA KEMAL (1879-1922), Turkish pasha, was born of humble parents at Salonika. By his great energy and the political connexions that he formed as a leader of the Young Turks he rose to military eminence in the Turkish service. In spite of slight physique and a dissolute life, his reckless courage and ambition brought him into prominence in the war against the Italians in Tripoli; he was made aide-de-camp to Wahid-ed-din, afterwards the Sultan Mohammed VI. In Aug. 1915, as commandant of the Turkish detachments, in Anaforta Bay (Gallipoli peninsula), he gave proof of his ability, and enjoyed the especial confidence of the German commander-in-chief, Gen. Liman von Sanders. In 1917 he commanded the III. Caucasian Army. In the winter of that year, after coming into violent conflict with Gen. von Falkenhayn, he resigned. When, however, a little later, Falkenhayn was recalled from Palestine after his complete failure there, Mustapha Kemal held a high command under Liman Pasha, and after the conquest of Palestine Mustapha Kemal took over from Liman Pasha in Adana the remnants of the Turkish forces. Out of these and a number of volunteers he organized the Nationalist army. He put himself at the head of the Nationalist Government, and won through in his strenuous campaign against the legal Government in Constantinople. He afterwards ruled with almost absolute power in Angora, and thence conducted the counter-offensive of the Turkish Nationalists against the Greeks when the latter, in 1921, made their ineffectual forward movement in Asia Minor, which was brought to a standstill in the autumn. On Jan. 14 1922 it was reported that he had been assassinated.
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Chisholm, Hugh, General Editor. Entry for 'Mustapha Kemal'. 1911 Encyclopedia Britanica. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/bri/m/mustapha-kemal.html. 1910.