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Bible Commentaries
Mark 12

Bengel's Gnomon of the New TestamentBengel's Gnomon

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Verse 2

Mark 12:2 . Τῷ καιρῷ , at the season) Of fruits , Matthew 21:34 [“the time of the fruit”]. ἀπὸ , [a portion of ) A portion of the fruits was allowed to the husbandmen. This particle is appropriate to the first-sent servants, who were expected to bring a specimen of the fruits.

Verse 4

Mark 12:4 . Ἐκεφαλαίωσαν , wounded him in the head ) So γναθοῦν , γυιοῦν , similarly constructed forms of verb, occur in Hesychius.

Verse 6

Mark 12:6 . Ἔτι , as yet ) Construe with having . ἕνα ἀγαπητὸν , one His well-beloved ) These two words do not altogether signify the same thing.

Verse 10

Mark 12:10 . Οὐδὲ , Have ye not even ) The adverb gives Epitasis. [See Append., Increase of force.]

Verse 12

Mark 12:12 . [ Ἔγνωσαν γὰρ , for they knew ) Their conscience supplying the testimony to its being so. V. g.] πρὸς , [Engl. Ver., against ] in reference to ) So πρὸς is used, Hebrews 1:7 ; Hebrews 11:18 .

Verse 14

Mark 12:14 . Ἀλλʼ , but ) The truth is not consistent with having respect to persons.

Verse 15

Mark 12:15 . Ἵνα ἴδω , that I may see ) The Saviour seems [judging by the ἵνα ἴδω , as if He had not looked at one before] then for the first time to have handled and looked at a denarius [penny].

Verse 17

[17. Τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ , the things that are God’s ) All things are GOD’S, heaven and earth, all men, and therefore Cæsar himself. Yet nevertheless He hath made a wise distribution as regards His goods. On that account the less ought He to be defrauded of those things which He hath peculiarly reserved to Himself. V. g.]

Verse 19

Mark 12:19 . Ἔγραψεν , wrote ) The Sadducees, though sceptics, acknowledged Moses to be the writer of the law. ὅτι ἵνα ) A rare phraseology; comp. ch. Mark 5:23 .

Verse 22

Mark 12:22 . Ἑπτὰ , seven ) The fact of there being no seed left, even by the seventh, increases the plausibility of the question.

Verse 23

Mark 12:23 . Ὅταν ἀναστῶσι , when they shall rise again ) viz. the brothers and the wife.

Verse 24

Mark 12:24 . Διὰ τοῦτο , on this account ) The particle strengthens the refutation: your very words betray your error, Lat. atqui . Psalms 66:0 (65):19.

Verse 25

Mark 12:25 . Ἐκ νεκρῶν , out from the dead ) The ἐκ , out from among , implies the new condition of the saints when they rise again out of the state of the dead, at the same time that it does not set aside the universality of the resurrection.

Verse 26

Mar 12:26 Βίβλῳ , the book ) The volume of Moses is mentioned in this passage; that of Isaiah in Luke 3:4 ; that of the Prophets, Acts 7:42 ; that of the Psalms, Acts 1:20 . Μωσέως , of Moses ) concerning whom you have spoken, Mark 12:19 . ἐπὶ τοῦ βάτου , in the bush ) A formula of quoting a section or division of Scripture, frequent with the Rabbins [Comp. Michaëlis in der Einleitung , etc., T. i. p. m. 87. E. B.] So Pliny, “Molybdænam in plumbo dicendam,” i.e. in the chapter concerning lead [plumbus]. Furthermore, ὁ βάτος is the measure, bath ; ὁ or ἡ βάτος (as ὁ or ἡ θάμνος ) not an unproductive bramble, but a valuable shrubbery [place of bushes], at least in Exodus. A noble image is derived from this, Deuteronomy 33:16 [the good-will of Him, that dwelt in the bush ].

Verse 27

Mark 12:27 . Οὐκ ἔστιν ὁ Θεὸς νεκρῶν , ἀλλὰ ζώντων ) This is a reading midway between the extremes. [2] Starting from it, some have repeated Θεὸς before νεκρῶν , others after ἀλλὰ . [ ὑμεῖς οὖν , ye therefore ) viz. ye Sadducees, the doctrine of the resurrection is the primary one. V. g.] πολὺ greatly ) An antithesis to this follows at Mark 12:34 , not far [from the kingdom of God].

[2] The margin of Exodus 2:0 supports this reading, as also the Germ. Vers. , although the larger Ed . does not approve of it. E. B.

BDL Δ omit the ὁ before Θεος . A supports it, as does the Rec. Text. Orig. in different passages gives it differently. ABCD abc Vulg. Orig. 3, 829; 4, 69; 341 omit the θεὸς , inserted in Rec. Text before ζὼντων without any adequate authority. ED. and TRANSL.

Verse 28

Mark 12:28 . Καλῶς , well ) Admirably. The admirable character of Christ’s teaching is often conspicuous, even to those who do not comprehend it wholly [in all its parts]. To this we are to refer Mark 12:32 , καλῶς , well .

Verse 29

Mark 12:29 . Πρώτη πασῶν ἐντολή ) This is a reading midway between extremes, and answers to Mark 12:28 . The editions read πρώτη πασῶν τῶν ἐντολῶν , and so the Syr [3] Vers., as also Greek MSS.: however, for πασῶν , Al. Byz. Gehl. Mosc. Wo . 1, 2, and many others, have πάντων , though some of them retain πασῶν at Mark 12:28 . πάντων has originated by an alliteration to [an assimilation of letters to those of] πρώτη , and ἐντολὴ , as in the same Al . ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν ἐντολῶν in Leviticus 4:13 ; Leviticus 4:27 [instead of the genuine reading, πασῶν ]. Furthermore ἐντολὴ , not τῶν ἐντολῶν , is the reading of Al. Gehl. , along with many MSS., and the same Nomin. case is defended by the Goth . and Lat . versions. [4] [ ἌΚΟΥΕ , hear ) Even this word is a portion belonging to the first commandment. V. g.] Κύριος , the Lord ) This is the foundation of the first commandment, nay, rather of all the commandments. The Subject of the proposition is, THE LORD our God: the Lord, I say (the God of all); the Predicate, = “is One (God)” [not as Engl. Vers., “The Lord our God is one Lord”]; comp. Mark 12:32 , in order that the proper name employed twice [ Κυριος Κύριος ] may signify the two great revelations of Jehovah, of which the one embraced the Jewish people, the other the Gentiles also; comp. Psalms 72:18 , where the proper name is put once, the appellative twice, “Jehovah God, the God of Israel” [Engl. Vers., The Lord God, the God of Israel ], the position of the accents being the same as occurs also in 1 Chronicles 12:18 , Peace, peace he unto thee! From this unity of God it flows as a consequence, that we owe the whole of our love to Him alone.

[3] yr. the Peschito Syriac Version: second cent.: publ. and corrected by Cureton, from MS. of fifth cent.

[4] Tisch. omits παντ . or πας . τῶν ἐντολῶν , and reads only ὅτι πρώτη ἐστίν , with BL Δ Memph. Lachm., ὅτι πρώτη πάντων [ ἐντολὴ ἐστίν ] with AC c Vulg. (save that c omits πάντων ; A omits ἐστίν ; C reads ἔστιν ἀυτὴ . Therefore he brackets ἐντολὴ ἐστίν ). D abc omit ὅτι , which is supported by AB Vulg. D ab also read πάντων πρώτη . ED. and TRANSL.

Verse 30

Mark 12:30 . Καρδίας , with all thy heart ) Which lives and loves. ψυχῆς , with all thy soul ) which enjoys and relishes. διανοίας , with all thy mind ) which is that ever-continuing power which engages itself in thoughts. σύνεσις is employed in Mark 12:33 ; in Luke 10:27 , ἰσχύος διανοίας . [5] ἰσχύος , with all thy strength ) the ability which carries into effect the volition throughout the whole body.

[5] Tisch. omits διανοίας here in Mark, as perhaps interpolated by harmonies from Luke, with D c , Cypr. 199, 213, 264. But AB Vulg. support it. ED. and TRANSL.

Verse 32

Mark 12:32 . Κακῶς , excellently [well]) Construe with. Thou hast said : for His “saying well” is made to rest on the truth , ἐπʼ ἀληθείας , as in Luke 4:25 [ ἐπʼ ἀληθείας λέγω , I say, resting on the truth , “I say of a truth”], εἷς ἐστι καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ἄλλος πλὴν αὐτοῦ , there is One, and there is none other but He) There is One [or rather He is One ], an absolute phraseology, is repeated from Mark 12:29 , that is, from Moses’ writings; comp. Zechariah 14:9 . The subject, Θεὸς , God , is left to be supplied, by a striking εὐλάβεια of language [reverent caution is needlessly repeating God’s name], although many have inserted this very word, Θεὸς , after ἐστί . See App. Crit. Ed. ii. on this passage. [6]

[6] AB Vulg. omit Θεὸς . D abc and Rec. Text (which prefixes ὁ ) insert Θεὸς . ED. and TRANSL.

Verse 33

Mark 12:33 . Ὁλοκαυτωμάτων , whole burnt-offerings ) The most noble species of sacrifices. θυσιῶν , victims in sacrifice ) of which very many commandments treat.

Verse 34

Mark 12:34 . Οὐ μακρὰν εἶ , thou art not far ) They therefore axe far from the kingdom who have not νοῦς , intelligent perception . [7] [ Such, for instance, were they who were still clinging to sacrifices. V. g.] Seeing that thou art not far from it, enter into the kingdom: otherwise it would have been better for thee to have been far off.

[7] Referring to νουνεκως , having intelligence , Th. νοῦν ἔκειν , to have intelligence . ED. and TRANSL.

Verse 36

Mark 12:36 . Ἀυτὸς ,) Himself .

Verse 37

Mark 12:37 . Πολὺς ) The people, who were many [But Engl. Vers., “The common people.”]

Verse 38

Mark 12:38 . Αὐτοῖς , unto them ) Especially to the disciples, Luke 20:45 . [ βλέπετε , beware ) lest ye incur the same condemnation, Mark 12:40 . V. g.] γραμματέων , the Scribes ) An open accusation. θελόντων , who wish ) The wish or intention often make an act, which is in itself indifferent [neither good nor bad], a bad one: but the verb θέλω , I will , or wish , often includes the act in it, whether good, Matthew 20:14 , or bad, Galatians 4:9 . And it is a characteristic, even in the present day, of false theologians, to be captivated with splendour of robes, with sustaining the leading parts as to celebrity, with a display of offices and honours, as also of their intercessory prayers before others.

Verse 40

Mark 12:40 . Οἱ κατεσθίοντες , who devour ) Construe with the following words.

Verse 41

Mark 12:41 . Ἐθεώρει , beheld ) Christ, in our worship at even the present day, beholds all. πολλοὶ , πλούσιοι , many rich men ) The state was then flourishing.

Verse 42

Mark 12:42 . Ἐλθοῦσα , having come ) Jesus had His eye chiefly on her. δύο , two ) one of which the widow might have retained. [ This had been enacted by no commandment: but the intention in her mind, by which she was moved was good . V. g.]

Verse 43

Mark 12:43 . Προσκαλεσάμενος , having called unto Him ) As being about to speak of a momentous subject. He thus gives us a specimen of the judgment which He will hereafter exercise, according to the state of hearts. τοὺς μαθητὰς , the disciples ) who had not estimated the widow’s gift so highly. [ It is for this reason the καρδιογνώστης , Knower of hearts, prefaces His words with Amen, verily . V. g.] πλεῖον , more ) not in mere geometrical proportion, but in mind [intention, motive], to which the Lord had regard. If any rich man had contributed all his resources, the act, viewed extrinsically, would have been greater, in so far as two pieces of money are more readily acquired again, than many: but yet he would not thereby have surpassed the mind [influencing motive] of this poor woman. [ That praise, wherewith Jesus honoured the poor widow, altogether exceeds (to what an amazing degree!) all the acclamations of the world . V. g.]

Bibliographical Information
Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Mark 12". Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://studylight.org/commentaries/eng/jab/mark-12.html. 1897.
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