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Bible Commentaries

Living By Faith: Commentary on Romans & 1st Corinthians

Romans

- Romans

by Brad Price

The author of this book was Paul (Romans 1:1). Paul wanted to visit the Christians who lived in Rome because, in the first century, Rome was the center of the earth’s power and government. Making a trip to Rome would have also given him a base of operations to take the gospel further west in the ancient world (15:24). Since Paul had previously been unable to come to Rome, he sent this letter (1:10-13).

This epistle (letter) was written from Corinth while Paul was on his third missionary journey (Acts 18:23 f). His third journey took him to Ephesus for two years and three months (Acts 19:1; Acts 19:8-9). He left Ephesus and entered into Macedonia (Acts 20:1). Then, he visited Greece (the same as Achaia, Acts 20:2). The city of Corinth was located in Achaia. Paul remained at Corinth for three months (Acts 20:3), and during this time he wrote this letter. We know this because of the information in Romans 16:23. Gaius was Paul’s host when this letter was written, and since Gaius lived in Corinth (1 Corinthians 1:14), this letter was written from Corinth. Since this letter was written for people in Rome someone had to take it to them. This messenger may have been Phoebe, a woman mentioned in Romans 16:1. She lived in Cenchrea (a seaport of Corinth).

This letter, contrary to a common belief, was not written to the “Romans.” One could have been a Roman but not a Christian. It was also possible to have been a Christian but not a Roman. There were even those who lived in Rome but were not of a Roman background. This letter was written to Christians who were living in Rome (1:6-7), and both Jews and Gentiles made up this church (Romans 11:13; 17-32; 15:4 f). These Christians lived in a wicked and violent culture.

At least three reasons may be given for the material in this epistle. First, God has always used a system of faith and not law to justify man (Romans 3:20; Romans 3:28). Second, this book refutes the idea that sin glorifies God. There were Christians who believed that if they continued to sin and God continued to forgive them, this “extra forgiveness” would further demonstrate God’s greatness. Third, this book shows how God could send a savior to the Jewish people and yet allow the unbelieving Jews to be unblessed, condemned, and severed from the Messianic blessings (Romans 11:22). Key words in this book include law, righteousness, faith, sin, works, sanctification, and Israel (Jew).

SOURCES

LANGUAGE WORKS:

Balz, Horst and Schneider, Gerhard (1993), Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans), 3 Volumes.

Barclay, William (1964), New Testament Words (Philadelphia: Westminster Press).

Brown, Colin, Ed. (1971), Dictionary of New Testament Theology (Grand Rapids: Zondervan), 4 Volumes.

Earle, Ralph (1982), Word Meanings in the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Baker).

Gilbrant, Thoralf., International Editor (1994), The Complete Biblical Library (CBL), (Springfield, MO: Complete Biblical Library), 22 volumes on the Old Testament.

Gilbrant, Thoralf., International Ed (1991), The Complete Biblical Library (CBL), (Springfield, MO: Complete Biblical Library), 17 volumes on the New Testament.

Gingrich, F.W. and Danker, Frederick (1979), A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

Jackson, Wayne (2002), Bible Words and Theological Terms Made Easy - A Practical Handbook (Stockton, Ca: Courier Publications).

Kittle, Gerhard Ed. Translated by Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (reprinted 1991), Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (Grand Rapids: WM. B. Eerdmans), 10 Volumes.

Moulton, James and Milligan, George (reprinted 1985), The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament, (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans).

Nicoll, Robertson Ed. (reprinted 1983), The Expositor’s Greek Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans), 5 volumes.

Rienecker, Fritz and Rogers, Cleon (1976), Linguistic Key to the Greek New Testament (Grand Rapids: Zondervan).

Robertson, A.T. (1930), Word Pictures in the New Testament (Nashville: Broadman press), 5 volumes.

Spicq, Ceslas (1994), Theological Lexicon of the New Testament (Massachusetts: Hendrickson), 3 volumes.

Thayer, J.H. (1958), A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (Edinburgh: T.&T. Clark).

Turner, Nigel (1980), Christian Words (Edinburgh: T & T Clark).

Vincent, Marvin R. (1888), Vincent’s Word Studies In The New Testament (McLean, Virginia: MacDonald), 4 Volumes.

Vine, W.E. (1991), Amplified Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words (Iowa Falls: World).

Wuest, Kenneth (1961), Word Studies in the Greek New Testament, (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans), 4 volumes.

DICTIONARIES AND ENCYCLOPAEDIAS:

Bromiley, G.W., Ed. (1982), The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans), four volumes.

Douglas, J.D. organizing ed. (1980), The Illustrated Bible Dictionary (England: IVP), 3 volumes.

Elwell, Walter A. (1988), Baker Encyclopedia Of The Bible (Grand Rapids: Baker), 4 volumes.

McClintock, John and Strong, James (reprinted 1981) Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature, (Grand Rapids: Baker), 12 Volumes.

COMMENTARIES:

Barclay, William (1958), The Daily Study Bible (Philadelphia: Westminster), 17 volumes.

Barnes, Albert, ed. By Robert Frew (reprinted 1987), Notes on the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House), 14 volumes.

Bengel, John Albert (reprinted 1971), Bengel’s New Testament Commentary (Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications), 2 volumes.

Dillow, Joseph C. (1977) Solomon On Sex (Thomas Nelson: Nashville).

Elwell, Walter Editor (1989), Baker Commentary On The Bible (Grand Rapids: Baker).

Falwell, Jerry executive ed. (1978), Liberty Commentary On The New Testament (Lynchburg: Liberty Press).

Gilbrant, Thoralf., International Ed (1991), The Complete Biblical Library (CBL), (Springfield, MO: Complete Biblical Library), 17 volumes on the New Testament.

Howley, G.C.D., Bruce, F.F., Ellison, H.L., editors (1969), A New Testament Commentary (London: Pickering and Inglis).

Lanier, Roy H., Sr. (n.d.), Class Notes on Romans (Denver, CO: Privately Published).

Lenski, R.C.H. (1961), The Interpretation of Series (Minneapolis: Augsburg), 12 volumes.

MacKnight, James (1984 reprint), MacKnight on the Epistles (Grand Rapids: Baker), one volume edition.

McGarvey, J.W. & Pendleton, Philip (n.d.), Commentary on Thessalonians, Corinthians, Galatians, and Romans (Cincinnati: Standard).

McGuiggan, Jim (1982), The Book of Romans (Montex Publishing: Lubbock).

New Testament Commentaries (multiple dates and authors), the Gospel Advocate Series (Nashville: Gospel Advocate), 14 volumes.

Richards, Lawrence (1994), The Victor Bible Background Commentary: New Testament (Wheaton: Victor).

Walvoord, John and Zuck, Roy editors (1983 and 1985), The Bible Knowledge Commentary (Wheaton: Victor), two volumes.

Ward, Ronald A. (1974), Commentary on 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus (World Books: Waco).

Willmington, H. L. (copyrighted 1977), Basic Stages In The Book Of Ages (no publisher listed).

OTHER WORKS:

Comay, Joan and Brownrigg, Ronald (1980), Who’s Who In The Bible (New York: Bonanza Books).

Elwell, Walter A. editor (1996), Baker’s Theological Dictionary of the Bible (Grand Rapids: Baker).

Erickson, Millard J. (1983), Christian Theology (Grand Rapids: Baker).

Halley, Henry H. (1965), Halley’s Bible Handbook (Grand Rapids: Zondervan).

Harrison, Everett F. Editor-in-Chief (1960), Baker’s Dictionary of Theology (Grand Rapids: Baker).

Vine, W.E. (1996), The Collected Writings Of W.E. Vine (Nashville: Thomas Nelson), 5 Volumes.

Waddey, John (1978 and 1987), An Outlined Introduction To The Bible (Winona, MS: J. C. Choate Publications), 2 Volumes.

Wood, Leon J. (1970), A survey of Israel’s History (Grand Rapids: Academie).

Woods, Guy N. (1976), Questions and Answers (Henderson, TN: Freed Hardeman College), Volume 1.