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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #4589 - Σήθ
Seth = "compensation"
- the third son of Adam and the father of Enos
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Σήθ , ὁ
Seth (Genesis 4:25): Luke 3:38.†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
";pour out an offering of wine,"; ";make a libation"; to a god : cf. P Hal I. 1.215 (mid. iii/B.C.) κ [αθ᾽ ἱερ ]ῶν σπέν [δων, P Par 22.3 (B.C. 165) (= UPZ i. p. 192) where the Twins in the Serapeum are described as τῶι Ὀσοράπει (cf. Archiv iii. p. 250) χοὰς σπενδουσῶν ὑπέρ τε ὑμῶν καὶ τῶν ὑμετέρων τέκνων, P Tebt II. 600.5 (iii/A.D.) οἴνου σπενδο [μέ ]νου ἐν τῷ [ἱερῷ, and Syll 653 (= .3 736).2 (B.C. 92) ἱεροὺς. . . αἷμα καὶ οἶνον σπένδοντας.
The verb is similarly used in the libelli, or certificates of pagan worship, by which those who ";poured out libations"; to the gods obtained immunity : cf. BGU I. 287.11 (A.D. 250) (= Selections, p. 116) ἔθυσα [κα ]ὶ ἔσ [πεισα ] [κ ]αὶ τῶν ἱ [ε ]ρείων [ἐγευ ]σάμην, and similarly P Oxy IV. 658.7, .11, ib. XII. 1464.5, .7, P Ryl I. 12.6 (all of date A.D. 250). Curtius (St. Paul in Athens, Exp VII. iv. p. 447) has drawn attention to the fact that this, the simplest form of old Pagan worship, is the only one which Paul takes over and applies directly to himself : see Philippians 2:17, 2 Timothy 4:6.
For the subst. σπονδή of a ";libation"; to a deified Emperor, cf. BGU IV. 1200.12 (i/B.C.) εἰς τὰς ] ὑπὲρ τοῦ θε ̣[οῦ ] καὶ κυρίου Αὐτοκράτορος Κ ̣α ̣[ίσαρος καθηκούσας ] θυσίας καὶ σπονδάς, and similarly P Oxy VIII. 1143.4 (temple account—c. A.D. 1). Σπονδεῖον, the cup from which the libation is poured, occurs in BGU II. 388 ii. 22 (ii/iii A.D.) φιάλη ἀργυρῆ καὶ σπον [δ ]ε ̣ῖ [ο ]ν καὶ θυμιατήριον, and ib. 590.9 (A.D. 177–8).
It may be added that σπονδή came to be used of an additional impost, particularly on vine-land, levied nominally for a libation to Dionysus : cf. P Oxy VI. 917.3 (ii/iii A.D.) σπ (ονδῆς) Διον (ύσου ?) (δραχμαὶ) η ̄ (τετρώβολον) χ (αλκοῦς) α ̄, with the editors’ note. From this the transition was easy to any ";additional payment"; or ";gratification,"; e.g. P Oxy IV. 730.13 (A.D. 130) σπονδῆς τῶν ὅλων παιδαρίοις δραχμὰς τέσσαρας, ";4 drachmae for the slaves for a libation on account of all the land"; (Edd.), ib. I. 101.19 (A.D. 142), and ib. IX. 1207.10 (A.D. 175–6 ?). In P Lond 948.12 (A.D. 236) (= III. p. 220) a ship-master receives in addition to his pay a jar of wine ὑπὲρ σπονδῆς, as a pourboire : cf. P Oxy III. 610 (ii/A.D.) τὴν δὲ σπονδὴ (ν) χάρισαι and the similar use of the diminutive in ib. 525.7 (early ii/A.D.) ἐὰν δέῃ τῷ ἀδελφῶι τῆς μητρὸ [ς ] τῶν υἱῶν Ἀχιλλᾶ δοθῆναι σπο [ν ]δάριον καλῶς ποιήσεις δοὺς λ ̣ω ̣[το ]ῦ, ";if a gratuity must be given to the brother of the mother of Achillas’ sons, please get some lotus (?)"; (Edd.).
A figurative usage of the verb appears in the sepulchral inscr. Preisigke 4313.15 (i/ii A.D.) ἄφθονον ἐνθάδε δάκρυ σπείσας ἐκ βλεφάρων κλαῖε. . .
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