the Week of Proper 21 / Ordinary 26
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words
originally any "natural impulse, or desire, or disposition," came to signify "anger," as the strongest of all passions. It is used of the wrath of man, Ephesians 4:31; Colossians 3:8; 1 Timothy 2:8; James 1:19,20; the displeasure of human governments, Romans 13:4,5; the sufferings of the Jews at the hands of the Gentiles, Luke 21:23; the terrors of the Law, Romans 4:15; "the anger" of the Lord Jesus, Mark 3:5; God's "anger" with Israel in the wilderness, in a quotation from the OT, Hebrews 3:11; 4:3; God's present "anger" with the Jews nationally, Romans 9:22; 1 Thessalonians 2:16; His present "anger" with those who disobey the Lord Jesus in His Gospel, John 3:36; God's purposes in judgment, Matthew 3:7; Luke 3:7; Romans 1:18; 2:5,8; 3:5; 5:9; 12:19; Ephesians 2:3; 5:6; Colossians 3:6; 1 Thessalonians 1:10; 5:9 . See INDIGNATION , VENGEANCE , WRATH.Notes: (1) Thumos, "wrath" (not translated "anger"), is to be distinguished from orge, in this respect, that thumos indicates a more agitated condition of the feelings, an outburst of wrath from inward indignation, while orge suggests a more settled or abiding condition of mind, frequently with a view to taking revenge. Orge is less sudden in its rise than thumos, but more lasting in its nature. Thumos expresses more the inward feeling, orge the more active emotion. Thumos may issue in revenge, though it does not necessarily include it. It is characteristic that it quickly blazes up and quickly subsides, though that is not necessarily implied in each case. (2) Parorgismos, a strengthened form of orge, and used in Ephesians 4:26 , RV margin, "provocation," points especially to that which provokes the wrath, and suggests a less continued state than No. (1). "The first keenness of the sense of provocation must not be cherished, though righteous resentment may remain" (Westcott). The preceding verb, orgizo, in this verse implies a just occasion for the feeling. This is confirmed by the fact that it is a quotation from Psalm 4:4 (Sept.), where the Hebrew word signifies to quiver with strong emotion. Thumos is found eighteen times in the NT, ten of which are in the Apocalypse, in seven of which the reference is to the wrath of God; so in Romans 2:8 , RV, "wrath (thumos) and indignation" (orge); the order in the AV is inaccurate. Everywhere else the word thumos is used in a bad sense. In Galatians 5:20 , it follows the word "jealousies," which when smoldering in the heart break out in wrath. Thumos and orge are coupled in two places in the Apocalypse, Revelation 16:19 , "the fierceness (thumos) of His wrath" (orge); and Revelation 19:15 , "the fierceness of the wrath of Almighty God." See WROTH (be). (3) Aganaktesis originally signified "physical pain or irritation" (probably from agan, "very much," and achomai, "to grieve"), hence. "annoyance, vexation," and is used in 2 Corinthians 7:11 , "indignation."
"to provoke, to arouse to anger," is used in the Middle Voice in the eight places where it is found, and signifies "to be angry, wroth." It is said of individuals, in Matthew 5:22; 18:34; 22:7; Luke 14:21; 15:28 , and Ephesians 4:26 (where a possible meaning is "be ye angry with yourselves"); of nations, Revelation 11:18; of Satan as the Dragon, Revelation 12:17 . See WRATH.
is "to arouse to wrath, provoke" (para, used intensively, and No. 1); Romans 10:19 , "will I anger;" Ephesians 6:4 , "provoke to wrath." See PROVOKE.
connected with chole, "gall, bile," which became used metaphorically to signify bitter anger, means "to be enraged," John 7:23 , "wroth," RV, in the Lord's remonstrance with the Jews on account of their indignation at His having made a man whole on the Sabbath Day.Notes: (1) Thumomacheo (from thumos, "wrath," machomai, "to fight") originally denoted to fight with great animosity, and hence came to mean "to be very angry, to be exasperated," Acts 12:20 , of the anger of Herod, "was highly displeased." (2) Thumoo, the corresponding verb, signifies "to provoke to anger," but in the Passive Voice "to be wroth," as in Matthew 2:16 , of the wrath of Herod, "was exceeding wroth." (3) Aganakteo, see A, Note (3), is rendered in various ways in the seven places where it is used; "moved with indignation," Matthew 20:24; 21:15 , RV (AV, "sore displeased"); "had indignation," Matthew 26:8; Mark 14:4 . In Mark 10:14 the RV has "was moved with indignation" (AV, "was much displeased"), said of the Lord Jesus. The same renderings are given in Mark 10:41 . In Luke 13:14 (AV, "with indignation"), the RV rightly puts "being moved with indignation." These words more particularly point to the cause of the vexation. See DISPLEASE, INDIGNATION. (4) In Colossians 3:21 , erethizo signifies "to provoke." The RV correctly omits "to anger."
"angry, prone to anger, irascible" (see B, Nos. 1,2), is rendered "soon angry" in Titus 1:7 .
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Vines, W. E., M. A. Entry for 'Anger, Angry'. Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words. https://www.studylight.org/​dictionaries/​eng/​ved/​a/anger-angry.html. 1940.